In the court
|In the court|
|Place in Vienna|
The Am Hof square with the Marian column and the former civil armory
|Confluent streets||Heidenschuß, Färbergasse , Drahtgasse , school yard, Bognergasse , Irisgasse|
|Buildings||Church at the court , Collaltopalais , Marian column , central fire station|
|User groups||Pedestrian traffic , bicycle traffic , car traffic|
|Space design||partly one-way|
At the court is one of the most historically important places of Vienna's city center . It is located between Bognergasse , Naglergasse, Heidenschuß, Färbergasse , Judenplatz and the school yard in the oldest core of the city in the immediate vicinity of the medieval ghettos .
The Am Hof square was already part of the Roman army camp Vindobona and was uninhabited in the early Middle Ages .
Between 1155 and around 1275, when the new castle was completed on the site of today's Swiss wing of the Hofburg , the Babenbergs ' court was located here , which Heinrich Jasomirgott built for himself in 1155/56 after he had moved his residence from Klosterneuburg to Vienna. This residence was a complex of houses around an open space, i.e. a courtyard, with the Duke's house as the center. Towards the north-west and south-west, the “courtyard” leaned against the wall of the Roman fort; inwardly into the city, it was separated from the bourgeois old town and the Jewish town by gates . Heinrich Jasomirgott and his wife Theodora received Emperor Friedrich Barbarossa here in 1165 .
Under Henry's son Leopold V of the tournament and later Market 1177-1194 venue was brilliant events where singers and poets like Reinmar of Hagenau and his student Walther von der Vogelweide in minstrelsy occurred -Wettstreiten.
With the relocation of the sovereigns to the Swiss wing of the then much smaller Hofburg around 1275, the “Babenberger Pfalz” (Am Hof) came to the sovereign mint towards the end of the 13th century . Houses No. 10 and No. 12 were incorporated into the neighboring ghetto around Judenplatz . From 1340 markets were held at Am Hof. In 1365 the Carmelites were temporarily housed in the mint, and in 1386 they were officially donated by Albrecht III. , whereby the place was first called "Am Hof". The Carmelites erected a three-aisled Gothic monastery church instead of the Romanesque mint chapel, which they completed around 1420. The Gothic choir can still be seen from the alley behind it. The Carmelites had already owned the house of the Jew Muschal, they received other houses, including that of Albrecht III. bought house of the poet Peter Suchewirt .
The square was originally separated from the nearby Freyung by houses that left only a narrow connecting alley open and were demolished in 1846. It was used as a market as early as the 14th century, and later also as a place of execution . In 1463 the mayor Wolfgang Holzer was here on the orders of Albrecht VI. executed. In 1515 the Habsburg- Jagiellonian double wedding under Emperor Maximilian I took place here. In the 16th and 17th centuries, the square was also known as the cancer market, as sea fish and crabs were sold here. In the 18th century only vegetables and fruit were sold on the market.
After the church and monastery were handed over to the Jesuits in 1554, the place was called “With the upper Jesuits” and was the scene of the spiritual games of the Jesuits in front of their church. After the Jesuit order was abolished in 1773, the square was again called "Am Hof". The Jesuit monastery building was the seat of the Court War Council and the War Ministry from 1783–1913 .
In 1782 Pius VI donated . from the terrace of the church the blessing Urbi et Orbi . On December 7th, 1804, from the balcony of the church, the acceptance of the title of "a hereditary emperor of Austria " by Emperor Franz II./I. (in addition to the Roman-German imperial title ). The widespread assumption that the laying down of the Roman-German imperial crown and the de facto extinction of the Holy Roman Empire on August 6, 1806 was proclaimed from the same place is not verifiable and is probably based on confusion.
On March 14, 1848, in the course of the revolution, the arsenal was stormed; on October 6, the Minister of War Theodor Graf Baillet was dragged out of the building by Latour , killed and hung on a lantern by the crowd in the center of the square. The square was called “People's Square” for a short time.
In 1842–1918 and 1939–1942, the Am Hof Christmas market was very popular. The Viennese flea market was established here in 1973 , which was relocated to the Naschmarkt in 1977 for reasons of space . Today there is an annual Christmas market.
In 1892 the equestrian statue of Field Marshal Radetzky by Caspar von Zumbusch was unveiled in front of the building of the kk Hofkriegsraths building (the war ministry) , which was transferred in 1912 in front of the newly built building of the war ministry on the Stubenring . In 1915, the headquarters of the Länderbank took the place of the Hofkriegsrat building .
In addition, the main guard, the nunciature and the lower chamber office were located at the court .
In Carol Reed's film “ The Third Man ” (shot in 1948) the square at the courtyard is a prominent feature, on it is the advertising pillar through which one can get into the underworld of the Viennese sewer system .
In 1962/63, in the course of excavations for an underground car park under the Am Hof square, remains of the Roman settlement were found. In the basement of today's fire brigade headquarters, a section of the main camp canal can be viewed in its original location, which received the sewage from the southern camp and led it into the Tiefen Graben to the Ottakringerbach.
Pope John Paul II gave a speech to domestic and foreign workers in front of the Am Hof church on September 12, 1983.
Since 1990, every year on New Year's Eve on December 31, Am Hof has hosted a music event by radio station Ö3 as part of the New Year's Eve Trail .
On September 7, 2007, Pope Benedict XVI celebrated With around 7,000 people in the pouring rain, the first major item on the program of his trip to Austria was a station service. After only six minutes, the Pope's microphone and the video wall failed, which is why Benedict XVI's speech. had to be canceled.
In 2014 the luxury hotel Park Hyatt Vienna was opened in the former headquarters of the Länderbank, which was the headquarters of Bank Austria until 2012 .
Church at the court
→ Main article: Church at the court
The most remarkable building is the church at the court , to the nine choirs of angels , a Gothic church with a baroque facade, from whose balcony important events, such as the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire , were announced again and again . The church fell into disrepair during the Reformation. King Ferdinand I handed the church over to the combative Jesuit order in 1554 , which had been brought to Vienna three years earlier ( Old Jesuit Church ).
In 1607 the church burned down. During the renovation, the Gothic building was given a baroque shell. 1662 was commissioned by Eleonora Magdalena , the widow of Emperor Ferdinand III. , erected the monumental west facade, which with its protruding entrance hall, the side wings and the wide spanning balcony ( loggia ) in the building suggests a palace rather than a church.
The church is now home to the Croatian Catholic denomination in Vienna.
→ Main article: Marian column (Vienna) → Main article: Marian column (Wernstein am Inn)
At the end of the Thirty Years War (1618–1648), the Marian column accentuated the center of the square, whereby the sandstone original was replaced in 1667 by the current bronze one. The bronze figures came from Balthasar Herold , the designs for the monument itself came from Ludovico Ottavio Burnacini . The base and pedestal were started by Carlo Martino Carlone and completed by Carlo Canevale . The bronze figure of Maria Immaculata rises above a square base, at the ends of which four armed putti fight victoriously against the dragon (hunger), the lion (war), the snake (disbelief) and the basilisk (plague).
→ Main article: Civil armory
The Bürgerliche Zeughaus (No. 10) was built by the City of Vienna on the area of the former Jewish butcher's yard in order to store a municipal weapon supply for the defense of Vienna and was used from 1562. Around 1676 a neighboring house was added.
In 1731/1732 the main facade was redesigned by Anton Ospel with a triangular gable with coats of arms and trophies and a high attic above it, following Spanish and French models. Mattielli created allegories of perseverance and strength that carry a globe.
In 1809 the French plundered the weapons stores and in 1848 the National Guard had their headquarters here. The building complex is now available to the Viennese professional fire brigade . In 1947 the memorial for the firefighters murdered by fascism was attached to the building. It was designed by the sculptor Mario Petrucci , shows a decapitated firefighter with his head in his right arm and is dedicated to the resistance fighters Georg Weissel , Ludwig Ebhart , Josef Schwaiger , Rudolf Haider , Hermann Plackholm and Johann Zak .
On June 21, 2007, as a result of a strong storm, a crane set up for renovation damaged the roof and several historical figures of the main fire station. The crane operator died.
→ Main article: Collaltopalais
The Collaltopalais (No. 13) was built around 1671, the main facade was renewed between 1715 and 1725, whereby the triangular gable of the facade was removed. The palace was built from several small houses and was connected to the arbor of the church next to it, creating a passage from the Am Hof square to the schoolyard. Before the construction of the small houses, there was the Judengarten , which was specially laid out for use by the Jews of the ghetto on the neighboring Judenplatz , and later the house of Dr. Schrans, which Ferdinand I bought for the purposes of the aristocratic landscape school, the direction of which was transferred to the Jesuit order in 1560 . In 1611 the estates bought the house and donated it to the then Palatine of Hungary, Count Thurzo; In 1671 it was given to Count Collalto (d. 1696). In October 1762, the then six-year-old Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart appeared before the public for the first time, and there has been a memorial plaque on the house since 1956.
- The Park Hyatt Vienna (no. 2) was originally a headquarters of the Bank Austria-Creditanstalt , in front of the country Bank and previously served as the headquarters for the Lower Austrian Escompte Society . It is one of the first classically clad reinforced concrete buildings in Vienna, erected in place of the building of the Imperial War Council, which was heavily mourned by the preservationists of the time (and Adolf Loos ) . The bank building, built by Ernst Gotthilf and Alexander Neumann in 1913–1915 , had a remarkable cash desk and management floor and is a listed building . On the facade there are reliefs by Gutenberg , Columbus , Alessandro Volta and Josef Ressel as well as a memorial plaque for Henry Dunant . In 1995/97 the building was adapted by Hermann Czech . In summer 2008 it was sold and converted into a luxury hotel. As part of the construction work, a major fire occurred on November 18, 2011, in which the historic ballroom on the first floor was completely destroyed and the ground floor cashier was severely damaged. In 2014 the luxury hotel Park Hyatt Vienna , developed by Signa Holding , opened.
- The Austrian Control Bank (No. 3–4) was built between 1912 and 1915 by Otto Wagner students Otto Schönthal , Emil Hoppe and Marcel Kammerer . In the corporate state , this was the seat of the Fatherland Front , which was stormed by the NSDAP on March 11, 1938 under the leadership of the later mayor of Vienna Hanns Blaschke , in 1938 it was the seat of the Gauleiter of Vienna for a short time , and since 1946 it has been the seat of the control bank. The Apostolic Nunciature (see Palais der Apostolic Nunciature ) was located here from 1630 to 1913 , where Antonio Pignatelli, who later became Pope Innocent XII, worked from 1668 to 1671 .
- The house "Zum Hahnenbeiss" (No. 5) is a late Classicist house that was built in 1818–1820 in place of the "Käsehaus", which housed the first cheese shop in Vienna from 1683 and which also serves as the dispensing point for oil for the evenings introduced in 1637 Street lights located.
- Verbund AG office building (No. 6a), built between 1952 and 1954 by Carl Appel . The side facades were designed in 1982 according to plans by Sepp Stein and the entrance area in 2005/2006 according to a design by Christian Knechtl. On October 9, 2008, the installation "Yellow Fog", projected by the Danish-Icelandic artist Olafur Eliasson , was put into operation, which wraps the building's facade in yellow fog for 20 minutes after dark.
- The Märkleinsche Haus (No. 7) is a high baroque town house that was built from 1727–1730 based on a design by Johann Lucas von Hildebrandt . The house belongs to the Viennese professional fire brigade and houses the Vienna Fire Brigade Museum. In the house that previously stood at this point, the mayor of Vienna, Liebenberg , died in 1683 during the second Turkish siege , as a relief on the facade reminds of.
- Narrow House (No. 8) Important Renaissance town house, built before 1566, where Mayor Jakob Daniel Tepser died .
- Vienna fire brigade (No. 9). The Vienna fire brigade was founded here in 1686 , one of the oldest professional fire brigades in the world. The former lower chamber office building, which was converted by Anton Ospel in 1732, stood here until 1945, in its place previously the water barn where the water supplies for fire extinguishing were stored. Under the house there are Roman excavations of the settlement of Vindobona . After limited bomb damage at the end of the Second World War, a new building with additional floor space was erected here in the 1950s, but with a facade and roof shape reminiscent of the style of the previous building
- The late historic house (No. 11) has a gold-plated Turkish ball from the second Turkish siege on the portal and was built in 1882/83, the facade redesigned in 1933 by Otto Schönthal and Emil Hoppe . Around 2010 a roof extension was carried out based on the historical proportions that were lost in the chaos of war.
This is where the “House of the Golden Ball” was located, which housed a well-known inn and later a popular market place. Next to it was the Ledererhof, which had emerged from the house "To the five crowns" and four smaller neighboring houses and was named after the Lederer Guild , which, like the dyers, built their guild house near the Tiefen Graben, as their profession was bound to the proximity of the water.
- The Urbanihaus (No. 12) was built in 1630/39 on a plot of land that was part of the Jewish ghetto until 1421 . With a late medieval cellar and remains of the foundations of the previous buildings, it is one of the most remarkable buildings in the ensemble of Platz Am Hof. Inside there is a romanticizing tavern from 1906 with animal figures designed by Fritz von Herzmanovsky-Orlando .
- Markt Am Hof - history of the Viennese markets
- At the courtyard as an interactive 360 ° × 180 ° panorama photo (requires Adobe Flash )
- ^ Official report in the Wiener Zeitung of December 8, 1804, No. 98, p. 4483 .
- ↑ It may go back to Karl Otmar von Aretin : Holy Roman Empire 1776–1806. Imperial constitution and state sovereignty. Wiesbaden 1967, p. 506.
- ^ Anton Karl Mally: What happened on Aug. 6, 1806 on the Wiener Platz Am Hof? Apparently nothing! Austria in History and Literature 43 (1999) p. 203; Eric-Oliver Mader: The last "priests of justice". Berlin 2005. pp. 150-154.
- ^ Report on visits by popes to the Am Hof square at papstbesuch.at
- ↑ Park Hyatt luxury hotel opened
- ↑ Three dead in severe storms. In: oesterreich.orf.at. June 22, 2007, accessed December 1, 2017 .
- ↑ cf. News , August 11, 2008. The building was designed by investor René Benko acquired
- ^ Die Presse, November 18, 2011
- ↑ Park Hyatt luxury hotel opened
- ^ Gerhard A. Stadler, Manfred Wehdorn: Architektur im Verbund, p. 430 f, Vienna 2007 ISBN 978-3-211-75827-4
- ↑ Yellow Fog ( Memento of the original from October 13, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , ORF OE1 from October 9, 2008
- ↑ cf. Dieter Klein , Martin Kupf , Robert Schediwy : Vienna - loss of the cityscape after 1945 , Vienna 2001, p. 98.
- ^ Bauforum.at: New interpretation ; Retrieved June 29, 2015
Coordinates: 48 ° 12 ′ 40 ″ N , 16 ° 22 ′ 4 ″ E