Walther von der Vogelweide

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Walther von der Vogelweide ( Great Heidelberg Song Manuscript , around 1300)

Walther von der Vogelweide (* around 1170 , place of birth unknown; † around 1230 , possibly in Würzburg ) is considered the most important German-speaking poet of the Middle Ages . He wrote in Middle High German .

Sources for Walther's Life

The only documentary mention of Walther, 1203

Despite his fame, Walther's name is not found in contemporary records outside of the mentions of fellow poets. The only exception is the occasional mention in the travel expenses of Passau Bishop Wolfger von Erla for November 12, 1203, in Zeiselmauer (between Tulln and Klosterneuburg ): Walthero cantori de Vogelweide pro pellicio v solidos longos ("Walther, the singer from Vogelweide, for a fur coat five shillings ”, literally“ long solidi ”). In these days (beginning of November) clerics from the bishop's vicinity received fur coats of about the same value or just below. This shows that Walther was allowed to dress about as well as the close associates ("officials") of the bishop, and thus illustrates his social position.

In addition, all information about Walther's life comes from his own songs and from mentions by contemporary poets. Walther is positively mentioned by:

Walther is judged negatively by:

In literature, negative criticism is usually not brought up by naming it, but only by alluding to the opponent, which allows an educated audience to recognize who is meant. Today we often do not know enough to clearly identify a personal attack. Therefore it is partly doubted that some attacks by Reinmar von Hagenau and Neidhart von Reuental are directed against Walther. Most researchers consider, however, not only the literary feud between Walther and Reinmar, but also that between himself and Neidhart to be verifiable.

Later mentions are of little value, as in Reinmar von Brennenberg's complaint about the passing of the great old singers ( Wol mich des Tages ). The credibility of Michael de Leone's statements about Walther's grave can not be assessed with certainty .

Walther was called Herr by other poets , but this does not prove that he was of noble descent. In any case, the indication of origin Vogelweide indicates that he did not belong to the higher nobility, who took their names from castles or villages, but at best to the unfree service nobility of the ministerials . Another argument against aristocratic origin is that Walther never appears as a witness on documents, i.e. was apparently not considered capable of being a witness.


500 stanzas in over 110 tones or - grouped according to content - 90 songs ( Minnelieder ) and 150 singing verses have been handed down by Walther ; also a religious corpse (which, depending on which version the interpretation is based on, is a Trinity or a Mary corpse ). Along with the Neidharts and Frauenlobs, Walther's work is the most extensive of the German Middle Ages.

As early as the 13th century he was one of the very first models, later one of the twelve old masters of the Mastersingers . The first modern edition of his works comes from Karl Lachmann (1827). References to Walther's poems are always made on the page and line of this edition; more recent editions refer to it.

By far the most extensive collection of Walther's poems is in the so-called “ Große Heidelberger Liederhandschrift ”, a splendid manuscript that was made around 1300 (some dated somewhat later); possibly for the citizen of Zurich and councilor Rüdiger Manesse . In the critical editions it is always referred to with the sigle C.

Other important manuscripts that contain Walther's stanzas are:

  • The Kleine Heidelberger Liederhandschrift , Sigle A, contains around 180 stanzas by Walther (some of them under the names of other authors). It dates back to the 13th century.
  • The Weingartner Liederhandschrift , B. It was written around 1300 in Constance, contains 112 stanzas by Walther and is closest to C in text and images.
  • Another manuscript, like C, stored in Heidelberg, contains only 12 proverbs and 6 song verses by Walther, but is old (late 13th century; perhaps a little older than A) and above all carefully copied from a first-class source.
  • It was not until the middle of the 14th century, but extensive and with some stanzas that are missing in the older manuscripts, that E, the second part of Michael de Leone's house book (212 stanzas of Walther, called Würzburger Liederhandschrift ) has survived; however, it is defective : in the middle of the 'elegy' begins a larger gap that extends beyond the end of Walther's oeuvre).
  • The manuscript of Carmina Burana , M, which contains only three stanzas by Walther , dates back to around 1230, probably shortly after Walther's death . Nevertheless, it is instructive: Although it is close to Walther in terms of time, its text is no better than that of A or C. It is similar with the opening verses of Walther's price song, with which Ulrich von Liechtenstein claims to have been greeted by his messenger in 1227 (This is how he wrote in “ Frauendienst ” , written in 1255 ). There is only one word in it ( ir ask me in the 4th line instead of nû ask me in the Walther tradition of the song manuscripts) that is not in any of the song manuscripts. Because of his proximity to the Austrian court (he was the Duke's ministerial), Ulrich is such a good witness and the handwriting of the women's service is so careful that the value of his quotation outweighs the Walther tradition, but the success of the comparison is insignificant. The collectors of the time around 1300 had good old models; most errors seem to have arisen between the 'originals' and the first careful collections. We do not know whether Walther himself had his songs written down or even monitored them. The tradition at the time of origin was largely oral and therefore necessarily imprecise.
Representation from the Weingartner song manuscript

The large Heidelberg song manuscript C contains poems by over 100 authors from the 12th and 13th centuries; several writers have worked on it. It also contains the famous picture of Walther, which is based on the 'first imperial saying ': Walther sitting ( sad or melancholy) ûf eime stones (a similar, but not so carefully executed picture can be found in B). It contains 440 stanzas of Walther and the corpse. C used several smaller, now lost, older written collections of songs for Walther; including both those who also used A and one who also used B and one who also used E, as well as some from scattered individual traditions. In places, C has left space for additions to individual stanzas or songs that one hoped to receive; some additions were actually made, some gaps remained empty. Apparently C wanted to collect everything that Walther's works were still known around 1300.

Despite this collecting zeal, C is not entirely reliable: 'insignificant' words that seem not to be essential to the sense are often replaced by others. A 'now' or 'there' more or less in one line or a 'beautiful' instead of 'good' or vice versa could not be kept constant in the oral performance of the songs by singers even in Walther's time, and well-known stanzas often appear in the collective manuscripts not to have come as the respective writer had it in front of him on the written template, but as he had it in his memory.

Variant of the Weingartner figure

life and work

Most things are known about Walther from his works. Questions about his biography are especially important if they help to understand the poems. This does not include discussions about where Walther was born or where he is buried. Local patriots are still interested in it, so that Walther might be able to settle in their homeland.

The “I” of a poem is very often not identical with the poet. In poetry, this “I” is usually referred to as the “ lyrical me ” when it comes to mood poetry , for example love poetry . It tells the audience about a love experience. If a narrative (short epic) attitude prevails, one speaks of the singer . In any case, it is a fictional literary figure, not an autobiographical statement by the poet.

In political poetry and arguments with literary and other enemies of the author, the 'I' has large autobiographical parts, but is nevertheless stylized in literary terms. For today's readers it is even more difficult to recognize than for the contemporaries where the boundaries between autobiographical parts and fiction lie. Since there are no sources about Walther apart from the poems mentioned above and his own, the Walther picture inevitably has unhistorical parts. Nevertheless, this “poetic” Walther picture has some value because it traces the modern understanding of his poetry.

In particular, the chronology of the works is only on safe ground where political events are clearly addressed (for example the coronation or death of a certain prince; identifiable diets). Songs that reflect the mood of an old man are usually classified under Walther's age poetry, although a younger poet could slip into the "mask" of an old man, etc. Such a statement is a - valuable - statement about the mood that this Song awakens the audience to understand; it is hardly an aid to absolute dating. However, Walther's political age poetry that can be dated shows some stylistic traits that also appear in songs that cannot be dated, which one would like to assign to his poetry of old age, so that much of the temporal structure chosen below, including the Minne lyric, is unprovable and controversial in detail, but not nonsensical.

Walther's life according to his poems

Statements in Walther's poems, from which conclusions can be drawn about his biography, are: In his youth he expresses himself in old age with: ze Ôsterrîche I learn to sing and saye . Until the death of the Babenberger Duke Friedrich I of Austria (spring 1198) he worked at his court in Vienna. It seems to have been a happy period in my life.

He then received an honorable engagement at the court of the Staufer throne candidate Philip of Swabia and made effective propaganda for him and against the Guelph opponent Otto (who later became Otto IV ). Around the time of Philip's coronation (September 1198 in Mainz ), sayings were written that refer to the coronation, as well as probably two of his three imperial sayings (Lachmann 8.4 ff.), The first of which ( I saz ûf eime steine ) as a model for the Walther picture of Weingartner and Manessesches Liederhandschrift served. Walther also celebrated Christmas, which Philipp celebrated in Magdeburg in 1199 . Already in Spießbraten saying (Lachmann 17,11) responsive to events in Greece from (probably) in May 1204 ( Kingdom of Thessalonica during the Fourth Crusade takes) reference, but criticism becomes tangible to Philip, giving him that, after a remark tungsten in Willehalm to close, apparently resented.

Even before that, Walther had not always been in Philip's entourage. In 1200 he wrote on the occasion of Duke Leopold VI's sword leadership. , the successor of Frederick I , a homage poem. So he had (at least for a short time) returned to Vienna. In his award song , which could have been written around this time, he indicates that he has already toured large parts of Europe. So he seems to have received mostly short-term engagements at various courts.

Most of what we know about the course of his stay at the court of Landgrave Hermann I of Thuringia . This stay is reflected not only in Walther's sayings, but also in Wolfram von Eschenbach's ironic remarks about Walther, both in Parzival and in Willehalm: Wolfram wrote large parts of his two novels for Hermann von Thuringia and therefore got to know Walther personally. Walther seems to have encountered difficulties in Thuringia and was unable to integrate into the Thuringian court society. He complains about the noise of drunken knights who are not interested in the performance of poetry.

In addition, despite an appeal to the Landgrave, he lost a legal battle against a Gerhard Atze from Eisenach , who had shot a horse by Walther, perhaps in the mistaken opinion that it was the horse that had bitten off a finger. The exact course of events is not known, however, because the representation in Walther's Atze sayings - “Atze claims that my horse was related to the horse who bit his finger off; I swear the two horses didn't even know each other ”- is satirical. Walther demanded financial compensation for the horse, but did not receive it.

Furthermore, Walther's own statements testify to ties to the following princes:

It is believed that there were also relationships with Duke Ludwig I of Bavaria and a Count von Bogen . In all of these cases, they are individuals. An exception is the Court of Vienna, which is also referred to collectively as the wünneclîche hof ze Wiene ( the delightful court of Vienna ) as a court society (and not only in the person of the Duke).

At the latest after the assassination of King Philip (1208), Walther seems to have joined the Guelph Otto IV, who in 1209 was given by Pope Innocent III. was crowned emperor. The most important poetic testimony to the connection with Otto are the three "Herr Kaiser" sayings in Ottenton on the occasion of the Frankfurt Reichstag of 1212. Walther criticized Otto's greed; this ended the relationship. This marks the transition from Walther to his opponent, the Staufer Friedrich II. Although Friedrich was also elected German King on December 9, 1212 at the instigation of the Pope in Mainz, Walther seems to turn away from Otto and turn to Friedrich II only later to have. Nevertheless, Friedrich showed his appreciation for Walther's propaganda efforts.

Memorial stone for the fiefdom in Herlheim

First from Friedrich, but before his coronation as emperor (1220), Walther was given a fiefdom that freed him from the compulsion to look for temporary engagements and to lead the life of a traveling singer (Lachmann 28:31; “now I no longer fear February on the toes ”). Walther does not say where the fiefdom was, and whether it was actually a question of the granting of land or perhaps a so-called 'interest loan' that was not connected with land ownership.

It is believed that the fiefdom could have been in or around Würzburg, because Michael de Leone from Würzburg , the author of the so-called house book of Michael de Leone , reported around 1350 that Walther's grave was in Würzburg in the Neumünster Church , and one Tomb inscription that he claims to have seen there. Whether this news is trustworthy, or whether Michael de Leone in his local patriotism only deduced from the occurrence of a Vogelweidhof in Würzburg that Walther must have lived here and invented the rest, including the grave inscription, is controversial.

The fief finally gave Walther the home and the permanent position that he had wished for all his life. He complained, however, that it was of little value; however, not in the form of a reproach against Friedrich, but as a defense against the demands of priests to pay dues to the clergy (Lachmann 27.7). It is doubtful that Frederick showed him even more benevolence by making him the teacher of his son (later King Henry VII ), since this assumption is based on a poem that can also be interpreted differently.

In between, Walther was back in Vienna on various occasions; one stanza refers to the return of Leopold VI. of a "holy" campaign; that could have been the Albigensian Crusade in southwest France (1212) or, more likely, the Damiette Crusade from 1217 to 1219. At a Nuremberg Reichstag (perhaps that of 1224) Walther seems to have been in Leopold's entourage. In 1225 he mourned the murder of Archbishop Engelbert of Cologne.

Walther's last dated song, the so-called Elegie , contains an appeal to the knighthood to take part in Frederick II's crusade of 1228/29, which must have been in the autumn of 1227. Walther will therefore have died soon afterwards (probably no later than 1230, because otherwise he would have composed a song about the successes of this crusade) and, if we trust Michael de Leone's information, was buried in Würzburg.

Central themes of Walther's political poetry

A main theme of Walther's political poetry is imperial politics, which has been characterized by disputes between the respective emperor and pope since the settlement of the investiture dispute by the Worms Concordat . It is noticeable that in all disputes, from the dispute between Philip and Otto over the crown from 1198 to the crusade roll call in autumn 1227, he was mostly on the other side than the respective pope. He initially made sharp statements against the Pope against Innocent III. (1198–1216) in the 2nd Reich Decree (probably referring to events of 1201 during the fight between Philipp and Otto).

Under Otto, in a tone of displeasure, he polemicized against the collection of funds by Innocent III: These were not intended for a crusade, as stated, but would be used contrary to the regulations for the expansion of the Lateran (in preparation for the Lateran Synod of 1215). In the crusade roll call of the autumn of 1227, Walther emphasized that the crusade was a matter for the knights and that the emperor was the leader of the crusade. This refers to the fact that Frederick II set the date of departure anew on his own initiative, because an epidemic had decimated the crusader army during the first attempt at departure and Frederick himself was seriously ill, while Pope Gregory IX. (1227–1241) wanted to enforce the suzerainty of the pope over the emperor and Friedrich therefore banned it: Gregor demanded that the crusade be carried out by the emperor on behalf of the pope and that the date of departure must therefore also be determined by the pope.

Until the end of his days, Walther remained a bitter opponent of the popes' demand that the emperor submit to the pope. In his religious poems the attitude, which is also common among the German poets of this time, shows that the judicial function of the king and the warlike performance of chivalry are decisive for the well-being of Christianity, and that they are therefore not subordinate to the Pope in these matters be. The opinion that among the estates of the Church the laity is not subordinate to the clergy and that the clergy have no special privileges is also clearly expressed in the works of Wolfram von Eschenbach.

Another recurring theme is the scolding of stingy patrons who did not reward Walther according to his value. His ridicule verses against Margrave Dietrich von Meißen, Emperor Otto IV and Duke Bernhard of Carinthia were particularly sharp. It cannot be determined whether in all of these cases the insufficient fee was really the cause of the break or, in some cases, was only representative of a politically motivated break.

Central themes of Walther's Minnesang

Wilhelm von Kaulbach: "Under the Linden"

Unlike political poetry, it is impossible to arrange Walther's minnesong according to time, because these songs do not allude to historical events. With some songs, however, one suspects that they come from Walther's youth because they do not yet show full mastery and are based on other minstrels. Among them, songs of the " Hohen Minne " in the style of Reinmar von Hagenau predominate .

One of Reinmar's songs, Reinmar's only localizable song, was verifiably composed in 1195 for the Viennese court; many therefore suspect that Reinmar could have been engaged as court poet at the time of Walther's youth in Vienna (around 1190 to 1198) and that Walther was his pupil. However, it is not necessary to assume a longer teacher-student relationship in Vienna.

Walther later fought a sharp feud with Reinmar, which is still reflected in Walther's obituary for Reinmar's death, although Walther admires and honors the competitor's artistic achievement there. The feud seems to have had both an artistic side - the dispute over the “correct” conception of love - and a human side that shows personal hatred.

An important group of songs shows Walther's new, Reinmar opposite concept, the ideal of "even love", which regards a mutual and fulfilled love that is not related to class as an ideal. The most popular of his songs address the fulfilled love for a girl, whose status is usually not stated, but who is not to be thought of as noble. Depending on the perspective of the interpreters, these songs are usually referred to as "Niedere Minne" or "girl songs".

In particular, the genre affiliation to the song Under der linden (L. 39,11) was discussed; above all, to what extent it has characteristics of the genus Pastorelle . This thematizes the love experience of an apparently simple girl with her courtly lover in the great outdoors. It shows the turning away from the ideal of the unfulfilled "Hohen Minne" of the knight to the higher placed lady. Walther himself developed and characterized the essence of high, low and finally "even" love, the fulfilled love of equal to equal, in various songs.

Walther's “girl songs” probably replace the early phase, which is heavily influenced by classical minnesang. A sharp demarcation to the songs of "Hohen Minne" is not possible: the transitions are fluid. Carl von Kraus summarized some of the songs from "Hohen Minne", which give the impression of being a revival of an older theme, as a group called "Neue Hohe Minne". The fact that he understood the group classification Hohe Minne - Niedere Minne - Neue Hohe Minne - as a chronological structure, drew him sharp criticism, especially from Günther Schweikle.

Assignment to literary genres

Medieval poets seem to have adhered to genre conventions, or the creation of a new genre was consciously undertaken and also perceived as such by contemporaries. But this does not correspond to the creation of a correspondingly sophisticated terminology; Compared to later times, there was no interest in the terminological distinction between the subspecies of poems. Therefore, the categorization in today's research literature is different depending on the perspective of the interpreter.

Since Emil Staiger , literary studies have looked at the poem's attitude, whether it is more conveying feelings (lyrical) or narrative (epic) or action-oriented (dramatic); thereafter only a few of Walther's poems could be categorized as “lyrical”. If you take “lyric” as a reference to performance practice, as performed with a musical performance accompanied by a stringed instrument, then Walther's entire verse, because Sangvers, belongs to lyric poetry.

Whether Walther himself had a strict genre separation between the two genres of song and saying depends on the interpretation of a line in his age tone and is therefore controversial. In Walther's poetry of old age, the formal separation between on the one hand a multi-stanza (at least two-stanza) song and on the other hand individually understandable verses (even if some of Walther's proverbs are dedicated to certain themes) becomes blurred. Even some of the songs of the " Hohen Minne " can be understood better than allegorically disguised content-related disputes with political or artistic opponents, so not just mood poetry.

Origin and place of birth

Walther's place of birth is unknown. In the Middle Ages there were many so-called bird pastures near towns and castles, where falcons were kept for the popular falcon hunt. Therefore, the name does not allow a clear supra-regional assignment, but initially only made sense in a narrow regional environment where there was only one bird pasture, or has always been understood as a metaphorical nickname for singers, as used by the poets of the 12th and 13th centuries Century were common. Minnesingers - if they were noble - were generally known by their noble name and Walther's nickname was used by contemporaries like a common proper name derived from the place of origin (e.g. from Gottfried von Strassburg: die [seamless] von der vogelweide , in Bishop Wolfgers Travel bills [ walthero cantori de vogelweide ] and by Wolfram von Eschenbach [in Willehalm verse 286,19, her vogelweid ]).

Several places have been suggested, often by local historians, as possible birthplaces of the singer, including Lajen ( South Tyrol ), Frankfurt am Main , Feuchtwangen , Würzburg , Dux (Bohemia) and the Stollburg near Oberschwarzach .

As an indication of an origin from the Duchy of Austria, and thus probably from the duke's bird pasture , of which one does not know where it was, the so-called age elegance is used. Here Walther refers to the country of his youth and chooses long lines for this retrospective text , as they are characteristic of the "Danube Land Minnesang". Walther's language also has peculiarities that are characteristic of the Austrian Danube region. The assumption that it comes from the bird pasture of the Austrian duke could explain that, despite obvious differences of opinion with Duke Leopold VI, he repeatedly tried to gain a foothold at the court in Vienna and apparently to assert something like a "home right" sought ( Ze sterrîche learns to sing and saye ; Lachmann 32:14), and at the same time took advantage of the patronage of the Bishop of Passau, to whose diocese Vienna belonged. On the other hand, the objection was raised that the quote “ze Ôsterrîche I learn to sing and say” emphasizes the place of training and is questionable as to whether it can be related to the place of origin.

Alois Plesser (1911) and more precisely Helmut Hörner located a Vogelweidhof in the area of ​​the municipality of Schönbach (Lower Austria), which was listed in the land register of the Rappottenstein rulership in 1556 , and derived the assumption that Walther came from the Waldviertel . The mediaevalist Bernd Thum provided a cautiously supportive argument for this thesis in 1977 and 1981: In the “age elegie” the singer complains Prepared is daz velt, verhouwen is the violence ; Thum concluded from this that Walther's home was in an area that was still being cleared at the time, which applies to the Waldviertel. Walter Klomfar agreed with this opinion and also referred to a historical map that had been made by monks of Zwettl Abbey in the 17th century as part of a legal dispute. On it, east of a village called Walthers, a corridor is marked as Vogelwaidt with an associated courtyard. However, the name Walther is so common that it is more likely that names are coincidentally identical.

Walther monument in Bolzano from 1889

In the 19th century, the assumption that Walther came from the Vogelweider Hof near Laion in South Tyrol was more widespread , which - in the German national zeitgeist - led to the erection of a statue of Walther on the Waltherplatz in Bolzano , which is named after it . For this purpose, Wolfram's Willehalm von Eschenbach was cited (136, 1–10), where Wolfram makes fun of a “nightingale” recognizable as Walther, who prefers to drink “Bozener Wein” rather than water. More recent, but not generally recognized research provides further evidence: The Lajener Ried, where the bird pastures are located, is near Waidbruck , which was a key point on the so-called Kaiserstraße , a heavily frequented one , until the opening of the Kuntersweg through the Eisack Gorge around 1314 Traffic route was. The use of this path by Bishop Wolfger, Walther's sponsor, is documented.

The objection to the South Tyrol thesis is that the Wolfram quote does not say that Walther comes from the Bozen area , but rather that Walther complained in the Tegernsee saying that he only received water there. The Tegernsee monastery had its vineyards in Bozen- Quirein (named after the monastery saint Quirinus). There are also other bird pastures in South Tyrol that were not claimed for Walther's origin, such as an Ůlricus dictus Vogelbaider de Rittina (in Unterinn am Ritten ) documented in 1312 . Furthermore, Walther does not mention a Tyrolean personality in any of his poems, and the favoring of this thesis in the 19th century was influenced by the political circumstances of the time.

Monument to Walther von der Vogelweide on the market square of Weißensee (Thuringia)


Tomb in the “Lusamgärtchen”, remains of the cloister of the former Neumünster collegiate monastery in Würzburg

There is only information about the location of the grave and the Latin inscription from the Würzburg protonotary Michael de Leone († 1355), who commissioned the song compilation of the manuscript E. He reproduces the epitaph ( Pascua. Qui volucrum. Vivus. Walthere. Fuisti / Qui flos eloquij. Qui palladis os. Obiisti. / Ergo quod aureolum probitas tua possit habere. / Qui legit. Hic. Dicat. Deus iustus miserereWho was a pasture for the birds, Walther, in life, a flower of expression , a mouth of the palaces, are now dead. Anyone who reads what glorious things your honesty can contain, say: Just God, have mercy! "), what the partial translation in the Munich 2 ° Cod. ms. 731 ( Würzburg song manuscript [E]), fol. 191v is added: Her walter uon der uogelweide. buried ze wirzeburg. zv the Nuwemunster in the grasehoue. There is also a corresponding entry in Latin in the manuals of Michel de Leone (University Library of Würzburg Mpmisc.f.6, fol. 31vb) (Sepultus in ambitu novomonasterii herbipolensis). Some researchers, however, question the trustworthiness of Michael de Leone. A legend says that Walther decreed that the birds should be fed every day at his grave in order to thank his masters forever and to inspire other people.


Monument to Walther von der Vogelweide in Duchcov, 1911

At the place in the grass courtyard of the Neumünster cloister, where the poet was buried probably around 1230 in the cemetery north of the Neumünster church in the Lusamgärtchen , at the site of the former cloister (in the grasehoue) ( Sepulto in ambitu novimonasterii herbipolensis - 'buried in the cloister des Neumünster zu Würzburg '), there has been a memorial for him since 1930. The memorial bears the verses ascribed to Hugo von Trimberg : Her Walther von der Vogelweide, swer des vergaeze, who taet mir suffer . The old tomb was probably removed during construction work in the middle of the 18th century. However, on August 25, 1843, the Historical Association for Lower Franconia and Aschaffenburg installed a memorial with the burial motto in a side niche on the apse of the Neumünster Church. The emperor himself awarded the first benefices of the Neumünster monastery and other important imperial monasteries after the accession to the throne. This could explain how Walther came to a clerical fief and was buried in the cloister of the monastery without being a clergyman or canon .

Frankonia Fountain Würzburg, Walther von der Vogelweide

A monument created by Heinrich Karl Scholz in 1911 is located in the Bohemian town of Duchcov .

A stone sculpture of Walther, created by Ludwig Sonnleitner, first erected in 1921 and restored by Ernst Singer, has been on the Würzburg Kiliansplatz, the former “Leichhof” between the cathedral and Neumünster, since June 1984. Another representation of Walther in the typical pose from the Manessian song manuscript shows the Frankonia fountain in front of the Würzburg residence . The Walther School in Winterhäuser Strasse 1, which has existed as a (originally Catholic) primary school in Heidingsfeld since 1909 , but was only named after the Second World War, has a bronze figure of Walther von der Vogelweide made by the sculptor Karl Schneider in 1966 in its schoolyard.

A plaque about him is in the Walhalla in Donaustauf . In Bolzano there is the Walther monument on the central Waltherplatz . There is also a memorial in Halle in East Westphalia .

Well-known works by Walther

2 Schilling coin (1930), identical to the 3 Reichsmark coin (1930)

Relevant text output

  • Walther von der Vogelweide. Leich, songs, sayings. 15th edition of Karl Lachmann's edition, modified and expanded to include version editions. Reissued on the basis of the 14th edition edited by Christoph Cormeau, provided with indexing aids and text-critical comments by Thomas Bein. Edition of the melodies by Horst Brunner. de Gruyter, Berlin / Boston 2013. 843 pages. ISBN 978-3-11-017657-5 . e- ISBN 978-3-11-029558-0 .


  • Thomas Bein: Walther von der Vogelweide. Reclam, Stuttgart 1997, ISBN 3-15-017601-8
  • Ingrid Bennewitz: "Vrouwe / maget": Considerations for the interpretation of the so-called. "Girls' songs" in the context of Walther's Minnesang concept . In: Walther von der Vogelweide . Edited by Hans-Dieter Mück, 1989, pp. 237-252.
  • Karl Bertau: German literature in the European Middle Ages . 2 vols. Munich 1972 f.
  • Helmut Birkhan (ed.): The 800 year old fur skirt - Walther von der Vogelweide - Wolfger von Erla - Zeiselmauer. Verlag der Österr. Academy of Sciences, Vienna 2005, ISBN 3-7001-3467-3 .
  • Horst Brunner (Ed.), With contributions by Helmut Lomnitzer a. Hans-Dieter Mück: Walther von der Vogelweide. The entire transmission of the texts and melodies (= Litterae 7). Göppingen 1977, ISBN 3-87452-136-2 .
  • Konrad Burdach : Reinmar the old and Walther von der Vogelweide. A contribution to the history of minstrels. Leipzig 1880, 2nd, corrected and supplemented edition there 1928.
  • Konrad Burdach: Walther von der Vogelweide I. Leipzig 1900 [Volume II not published].
  • Konrad Burdach: The mythical and the historical Walther. In: Siegfried Beyschlag (Ed.): Walther von der Vogelweide. Scientific Book Society, Darmstadt 1971.
  • Jean Firges: Walther von der Vogelweide. Poet of the Staufer period (= Exemplary Series Literature and Philosophy. 22). Sonnenberg, Annweiler 2007, ISBN 3-933264-45-6 .
  • Gerhard Hahn: Walther von der Vogelweide. In: The German literature of the Middle Ages. Author Lexicon . Vol. X, Berlin 1999, Col. 665-697.
  • Joachim Heinzle: Dawn of the Maiden. On Walther 39, 11 and 74, 20. In: Burkhart Krause (Ed.): Understanding through reason. FS for Werner Hoffmann (= Philologica Germanica 19). Vienna 1997, pp. 145–158.
  • Werner Hoffmann: Walther's departure from Vienna and the beginning of his political poetry. In: Stefan Horlacher (ed.): Expedition according to the truth, FS Theo Stemmler . Heidelberg 1996, pp. 93-108.
  • L. Peter Johnson: Lyrical allegory in Morungen and Walther. In: Volker Honemann u. a. (Ed.): Poetry and useful literature in the German Middle Ages, Würzburg Colloquium 1978. Tübingen 1979, pp. 181–204.
  • Volker Ladenthin: Walthers Kreuzlied 76, 22 against the background of medieval sermons on the cross. In: Euphorion 77 (1983), pp. 40-71.
  • Volker Ladenthin: scolding, vision and instruction. Walther von der Vogelweide 13.5 . In: Zeitschrift für Deutsche Philologie 102 (1983), pp. 84–111.
  • Volker Mertens (Ed.): Read Walther. Interpretations and reflections on Walther von der Vogelweide; Festschrift for Ursula Schulze on her 65th birthday (= Göppingen work on German studies. 692). Goeppingen 2001.
  • Wolfgang Mohr : The 'vrouwe' Walthers von der Vogelweide . In: Journal for German Philology 86 (1967).
  • Hans Dieter Mück (ed.): Walther von der Vogelweide, contributions to life and work. Günther Schweikle on his 60th birthday (= cultural studies library. 1). Stuttgart 1989.
  • Jan-Dirk Müller, Franz Josef Worstbrock (ed.): Walther von der Vogelweide. Hamburg Colloquium 1988 on the 65th birthday of Karl-Heinz Borck . Stuttgart 1989.
  • Jan-Dirk Müller: Walther von der Vogelweide . In: Katharina Weigand (ed.): Great figures of Bavarian history . Herbert Utz Verlag, Munich 2011, ISBN 978-3-8316-0949-9 .
  • Hermann Reichert: Walther von der Vogelweide for beginners 3rd, revised edition. facultas.wuv, Vienna 2009, ISBN 978-3-7089-0548-8
  • Hermann Reichert: Walther von der Vogelweide . In: Theologische Realenzyklopädie 35 (2003), pp. 435-439.
  • Hermann Reichert: Walther: Sheep in wolf's clothing or wolf in sheep's clothing? In: Helmut Birkhan , Ann Cotten (ed.): The eight hundred year old fur skirt. Walther von der Vogelweide - Wolfger von Erla - Zeiselmauer. Vienna 2005, pp. 449–506 ( online ; PDF; 390 KB).
  • Hans-Uwe Rump: Walther von der Vogelweide (= rororo Monographs No. 50209). 8th edition. Rowohlt, Reinbek 1995, ISBN 3-499-50209-7 .
  • Manfred Günter Scholz: Walther von der Vogelweide (= Metzler Collection 316). 2., corr. u. bibliogr. supplementary edition Metzler, Stuttgart a. a. 2005, ISBN 3-476-12316-2 .
  • Meinolf Schumacher: The world in dialogue with the 'aging singer'? Walther's dismissal song 'Frô Welt, ir sult dem wirte Tell' (L. 100,24) , In: Wirkendes Wort 50 (2000), pp. 169-188.
  • Günther Schweikle: Walther von der Vogelweide. Works. 2 volumes. Reclam, Stuttgart 1998.
    Vol. 1: ISBN 3-15-000819-0 , Vol. 2: ISBN 3-15-000820-4 .
  • Günther Schweikle: Was Reinmar 'von Hagenau' court singer in Vienna? In: H. Kreuzer (Ed.): Design history and social history. Festschr. for F. Martini . K. Hamburger, Stuttgart 1969.
  • Peter Wapnewski: Waz is love . Munich 1975.

Web links

Wikisource: Under der linden  - sources and full texts
Wikisource: Walther von der Vogelweide  - Sources and full texts
Commons : Walther von der Vogelweide  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Audio samples

interpreted by the Salzburg ensemble for early music Dulamans Vröudenton


  1. Hedwig Heger: The life testimony of Walther von der Vogelweide . Vienna 1970, p. 85 ff.
  2. Reichert 2005, p. 475.
  3. Wolfram, Parzival 297,24.
  4. Wolfram, Willehalm 136.8 and 286.19; probably also 417.25.
  5. Gottfried, Tristan , v. 8400 ff.
  6. For example: L 3,1 = the poem beginning in Lachmann's edition on page 3, line 1; that would be the corpse
  7. Horst Brunner: The house book of Michael de Leone (Würzburg song manuscript) of the Munich University Library (2 ° Cod. Ms. 731) in illustrations ed. Göppingen 1983 (= Litterae , 100).
  8. Gretel Hecht, Wolfgang Hecht: German minstrel stories of the Middle Ages. Leipzig (1977 and) 1982, p. 232.
  9. Wolfram, Willehalm 286,19 ff.
  10. Reichert 2005, p. 480.
  11. ^ Joachim Baumeister: Retired poet. Walther von der Vogelweide. In: Kurt Illing (Ed.): In the footsteps of the poets in Würzburg. Self-published (print: Max Schimmel Verlag), Würzburg 1992, pp. 13–24; here: p. 14.
  12. Schweikle (1969) in particular spoke out against the assumption that Reinmar was court poet in Vienna.
  13. Peter Wapnewski: Walther's Song of Dream Love (74.20) and the German-language Pastourelle , most recently with addenda in: PW: Waz is minne. Studies on Middle High German Poetry , Munich 1975, pp. 109–154. Against: Bennewitz 1989; Heinzle 1997, p. 150 ff. Mediating: Reichert 2005, p. 492 ff.
  14. Main-Post (January 24, 2010): Was Walther von der Vogelweide a real Franconian .
  15. Helmut Hörner : 800 years of Traunstein . 1974.
  16. Helmut Hörner: Does Walther von der Vogelweide really come from the Waldviertel? In: The Waldviertel. Vol. 55, 2006, No. 1, pp. 13-21.
  17. Bernd Thum: Walther von der Vogelweide's so-called "old age elegance" and the crisis of regional development in the 13th century with special consideration of the Danube region . In: Contributions to the older German literary history. (Bern 1977) p. 229 ff. And Bernd Thum: Walther von der Vogelweide and the developing country of Austria . In: The Kuenringer. The becoming of Austria. Catalog of the Lower Austrian State Museum NF No. 110. Zwettl Abbey. May 16 - October 26, 1981. Vienna 1981, pp. 487-495.
  18. Oswald Egger , Hermann Gummerer (ed.): Walther - Poet and monument. Edition per procura, Vienna-Lana 1990.
  19. Georg Mühlberger: Does Walther von der Vogelweide come from South Tyrol? In: Der Schlern 81, 2007, no. 2, p. 25.
  20. ^ Georg Mühlberger: Waidbruck or Weidbruck? In: Der Schlern 87, 2013, pp. 23–28.
  21. ^ Hannes Obermair : Bozen Süd - Bolzano Nord. Written form and documentary tradition of the city of Bozen up to 1500 . tape 1 . City of Bozen, Bozen 2005, ISBN 88-901870-0-X , p. 178, no. 257 .
  22. ^ Klabund : German literary history in one hour - primeval times in the Gutenberg-DE project
  23. ^ Joachim Baumeister: Retired poet. Walther von der Vogelweide. In: Kurt Illing (Ed.): In the footsteps of the poets in Würzburg. Self-published (print: Max Schimmel Verlag), Würzburg 1992, pp. 13–24; here: p. 17 f.
  24. ^ Sybille Grübel: Timeline of the history of the city from 1814-2006. In: Ulrich Wagner (Hrsg.): History of the city of Würzburg. 4 volumes, Volume I-III / 2, Theiss, Stuttgart 2001-2007; III / 1–2: From the transition to Bavaria to the 21st century. Volume 2, 2007, ISBN 978-3-8062-1478-9 , pp. 1225-1247; here: p. 1235.
  25. ^ Joachim Baumeister: Retired poet. Walther von der Vogelweide. In: Kurt Illing (Ed.): In the footsteps of the poets in Würzburg. Self-published (print: Max Schimmel Verlag), Würzburg 1992, pp. 13–24; here: pp. 16–23.