Heinrich von Mügeln

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Cod. Pal. germ. 14 , sheet 2v: Heinrich von Mügeln, Der Meide Kranz - Emperor Karl IV. listens to the arguments of the sciences and arts, which of them deserves priority

Heinrich von Mügeln (also Hainreich von Müglein , Heinrich Mogelin ; born and died in the 14th century) was a German song poet and translator of chronic and religious texts.

The Mastersingers of the 15th and 16th centuries saw Heinrich's poetry as exemplary and counted him among the Twelve Old Masters .

Life and education

Cod. Pal. germ. 5 , sheet 18r: Heinrich von Mügeln: Ungarnchronik (German) - first page of text
Fountain dedicated to Heinrich von Mügeln in Mügeln , one of the places for which Heinrich's descent was discussed

Little is known about Heinrich's living conditions; what can be known has only come down to us from his own works, through the mention of certain historical persons or circumstances or through brief self-nominations.

Heinrich lived around the middle of the 14th century. The older Germanic research assumed that Heinrich belonged to the lay class, this seemed to be expressly emphasized by a self-statement of the poet: in his Marienpreis-sangspruch Der Tum he describes himself twice as "leie". In contrast, it could be shown in the 20th century that a poet's level of education must be assumed that can only be expected from a cleric (or with the appropriate training). Heinrich had broad knowledge in the areas of liberal arts , philosophy and theology.

A single year of his life has been passed down with certainty: Heinrich prefixed his Valerius Maximus interpretation (see under works ) with a dedication for the Austrian state marshal Hertneid von Pettau in Styria, which is dated to the year 1369. In this dedication he also writes about himself “I Hainreich von Müglein, sat pey the Elbe in the land of Meissen”, from which it was concluded that he came from a place called Mügeln in the Margraviate of Meißen , where the information is divided into three different Could relate to places.

Further dedications to the work show that Duke Rudolf IV of Austria (1339–1365) and King Ludwig I of Hungary (1326–1382) were probably Heinrich's clients. He held particular esteem for Emperor Charles IV (1316–1378), whom he mentions several times in his work. These connections allow the following statements to be made about his life: Heinrich himself mentions the Meißen area, and he stayed at the courts in Prague , Vienna and Budapest as well as in the Duchy of Styria during his creative period around the middle of the 14th century .


Heinrich was a well-read and productive author; a total of six individual works have survived, some of them with extensive records, plus more than 400 poems for singing verses.

  • The Meide Kranz is an artfully constructed allegorical couple speech in three parts. The work was not completed before 1355, but probably in connection with the coronation of Emperor Charles IV in that year. First of all, the twelve sciences and arts ( Philosophia , Gramatica , Loica , Rethorica , Arismetica , Geometria , Musica , Astronomia , Phisica , Alchimia , Metaphisica and Theologia ) fight before Emperor Charles IV for priority in the crown ( wreath ) of the Virgin ( Meide ) Maria . The emperor decides for the theologia . In the second part deals with the rank of dispute between the Nature and the twelve virtues ( Wisheit , Gerechtikeit , Sterke , Meßikeit , Mildikeit , Demütikeit , Warheit , Barmherzikeit , Fride , Libe , Hoffenung and Geloube ). Here the theologia is called to the decision, which gives priority to virtues. Finally, in the third part, Nature argues againfor its primacy, it refers to the power of the twelve subordinate constellations of the zodiac . This is rejected by the poet himself in favor of the god-given virtues. The work has come down to us in four manuscripts.
  • Chronicon Henrici de Mügeln Germanice Conscriptum is Heinrich's prose and Hungarian chronicle in German . Thanks to the dedication to Duke Rudolf IV of Austria , the work can be dated to his reign (1358–1365). The basis of the translation was a lost Latin representation. The chronicle treats the history of Hungary from the "flood" to 1333 in 73 chapters. The work is handed down in 10 text witnesses.
  • Chronicon Rhythmicum Henrici de Mügeln is the reverse translation of the aforementioned German-language prose- Hungarian chronicle into an artistically constructed Latin version in 11 parts. The dedication to King Ludwig I of Hungary allows a date to be dated to the period of close collaboration between Ludwig and Rudolf, i.e. around the years 1359–1362. The first part of the work is written in prose, the remaining ten in rhyming verse. The first three notes are called nota mensurata auctoris . These are typical tones for Heinrich himself, the occurrence of these tones led to the attribution to Heinrich as the author of the text. The work has remained a fragment; and since it has only been handed down in a single testimony (Vienna, cod. 3352), it remains unclear whether Heinrich did not update the work or whether there was an error in the transmission.
  • Expositio in Valerium Maximum is a learned interpretation of the work Factorum et dictorum memorabilium libri novem by Valerius Maximus in German. Due to the dedication discussed above, dating 1369, it becomes the only permanent evidence of the chronological classification of Heinrich's life. The work has been handed down in 23 testimonies.

The other surviving works by Heinrich cannot be dated:

  • Heinrich's singing poem was the occasion for the later Mastersingers to include him in the series of their role models . Heinrich orients himself in the choice of his themes and forms on the older song poets. His own contribution to the development of poetry consists in the emphasis on philosophical points of view and in his development of the floral style in the conscious continuation of the models, especially those of Konrad von Würzburg . The manuscript (cod. Philos. 21) , which has been preserved in the Göttingen University Library since 1798, is the most important, almost complete tradition of the singing verses . The texts stored there on 274 sheets were “probably designed as a uniform codex from the start”. A total of 16 text witnesses with sayings by Heinrich have been preserved.
  • Artes liberales is a presentation of 15 human sciences and arts, each in three sections: 1.) prose , 2.) mensura (13-line stanza with rhythmic verses), 3.) meter (hexameter). The work has come down to us in a manuscript (Munich, clm 14574).
  • Libri tocius Biblie is a short version of the Old Testament in Latin prose, actually with the announcement in the text that it should also be available in German. However, the German text is missing from the only record in the University Library in Prague (No. 1302, VII.E.13). A German text has been preserved in the Göttingen manuscript, but a closer examination of the dependencies is pending (as of 2020).

From the middle of the 19th century until the 1980s, the translation of a commentary on the psalms by Nikolaus von Lyra , for which more than 70 text witnesses have since been found, was treated as a work by Heinrich von Mügeln. The work was attributed to Heinrich because his colophon was also handed down in the psalm commentary manuscript in the monastery library in Rein (cod. 204) . The Austrian Bible translator ( emergency name ) is now considered an author.


Web links

Commons : Heinrich von Mügeln  - Collection of images, videos and audio files


  1. Karl Stackmann's publications are essential for information on the poet's life and work . Overview in: Stackmann, Heinrich von Mügeln , Die deutsche Literatur des Mittelalters, author's lexicon , Volume 3., 1981/2010 (VL 2 ), Sp. 815–827.
  2. ^ Stackmann, Heinrich von Mügeln , VL , 3., 1981/2010 (VL 2 ), col. 816.
  3. ^ Stackmann, Heinrich von Mügeln , VL , 3., 1981/2010 (VL 2 ), col. 824.
  4. ^ Pettau an der Drau , in the 14th century Duchy of Styria; since 1945 Ptuj , Slovenia .
  5. quoted from Stackmann, VL 2 , Volume 3, Col. 815.
  6. for example Johannes Kibelka in the NDB entry on Heinrich von Mügeln , NDB Volume 8, 1969, p. 417 f. ( Digitized version ; accessed March 30, 2020).
  7. suitable: Mügeln in Nordsachsen , Mügeln in the district of Wittenberg (since 1993 District of Jessen ) and Mügeln in District Saxon Switzerland-Eastern Ore Mountains (since 1920 the district of Heidenau ).
  8. The basis of this section, unless otherwise stated, is the overview by Karl Stackmann, Heinrich von Mügeln , VL , Volume 3., 1981/2010 (VL 2 ), Col. 817–827.
  9. some of Heinrich's works are available online in Heinrich von Mügeln , Bibliotheca Augustana ; accessed March 31.
  10. fundamental to this work: Annette Volfing: Heinrich von Mügeln “Der meide kranz” . A commentary. Munich texts and investigations into German literature of the Middle Ages, Volume 111, Tübingen 1997, ISBN 3-484-89111-4 .
  11. ^ Karl Stackmann, Heinrich von Mügeln , VL 3, 1981/2010 (VL 2 ), Col. 820-822.
  12. Text content available online at Bibliotheca Augustana : Der meide kranz ; Retrieved March 23, 2020 (follows the - historically outdated, but useful as an overview - edition of Willy Jahr: Heinrich von Mügeln, Der Meide Kranz . Dissertation Leipzig 1908, pp. 101-136).
  13. The Meide Kranz in the manuscript census ; accessed March 30, 2020.
  14. ^ Karl Stackmann, Heinrich von Mügeln , VL 3, 1981/2010 (VL 2 ), Col. 818 f.
  15. Hungarian Chronicle (German) in the manuscript census ; accessed March 30, 2020.
  16. ^ Karl Stackmann, Heinrich von Mügeln , VL 3, 1981/2010 (VL 2 ), col. 817.
  17. ^ Karl Stackmann, Heinrich von Mügeln , VL 3, 1981/2010 (VL 2 ), Col. 818 f.
  18. ^ Karl Stackmann, Heinrich von Mügeln , VL 3, 1981/2010 (VL 2 ), Col. 819 f.
  19. ^ Valerius Maximus interpretation in the manuscript census; accessed March 31, 2020.
  20. ^ Karl Stackmann, Heinrich von Mügeln , VL 3, 1981/2010 (VL 2 ), Col. 822-824.
  21. Hartmut Broszinski : "... a very good piece" . Waldeck princes as patrons of the Göttingen University Library. In: Book Culture and Knowledge Transfer in the Middle Ages and Early Modern Times , edited by Andreas Gardt , Mireille Schnyder and Jürgen Wolf with the collaboration of Susanne Schul. De Gruyter , Berlin / Boston 2011, ISBN 978-3-11-026870-6 , pp. 163–180, here pp. 167f.
  22. Göttingen, Staats- und Universitätsbibl., 4 ° Cod. Ms. philos. 21 in the manuscript census; accessed March 31, 2020.
  23. ↑ Song poetry in the manuscript census; accessed March 31, 2020.
  24. ^ Karl Stackmann, Heinrich von Mügeln , VL 3, 1981/2010 (VL 2 ), col. 823.
  25. ^ Karl Stackmann, Heinrich von Mügeln , VL 3, 1981/2010 (VL 2 ), col. 823.
  26. Stiftsbibl., Cod. 204 in the manuscript census ; Retrieved March 30, 2020. Gisela Kornrumpf states in the "additional note" at the foot of the website that the first link in the translation with Heinrich von Mügeln goes back to a reference by Joseph Diemer in 1848 in a message to the Royal Society of Sciences in Göttingen.
  27. ^ Karl Stackmann, Heinrich von Mügeln , VL 3, 1981/2010 (VL 2 ), col. 817.
  28. Gisela Kornrumpf: Austrian Bible Translator , VL 11, 2004/2010 (VL 2 ), Sp. 1097–1110, especially Sp. 1101 f. Kornrumpf refers to the first reservations of Kurt Gärtner 1983 in: VL 4, 1983/2010 (VL 2 ), Col. 1248–1258, especially Col. 1256 f.