Hartmann von Aue

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Herr Hartmann von Aue (idealized miniature in Codex Manesse , fol.184v, around 1300)

Hartmann von Aue , also Hartmann von Ouwe († probably between 1210 and 1220), along with Wolfram von Eschenbach and Gottfried von Straßburg, is considered to be the most important epic of the Middle High German Classical period around 1200. Together with Heinrich von Veldeke , he stands at the beginning of the courtly novel taken over from France . The tales of verse Erec , Gregorius or Der gute Sünder , Der poor Heinrich , Iwein , an allegorical argument known as The Lament Book , as well as some songs of love and the cross have come down from him.

Life and temporal classification of the work

Hartmann von Aue has not been documented so that the reconstruction of his living conditions is dependent on his own statements in his works and mentions by other authors; possible life dates are derived from the chronological classification of the work and ultimately remain speculative.

Chrétiens de Troyes Erec et Enide and Yvain , the old French sources for Hartmann's Erec and Iwein , probably originated around 1165 and around 1177. Therefore, it is assumed that Hartmann appeared as a poet after 1180. All of Hartmann's verse novels were known by 1205/10 at the latest, because Wolfram von Eschenbach refers to the Iwein in Parzival (253.10–14; 436.4–10), which for stylistic reasons is considered the last of Hartmann's four novels.

Hartmann's Kreuzlieder play either on the Third Crusade (1189) or that of Heinrich VI. prepared so-called German Crusade (1197), which was not carried out because of Heinrich's death. Hartmann's own participation in a crusade is controversial. The death of a patron, who is addressed twice in the Kreuzlied (V, 4 and XVII, 2), can be interpreted as the death of Zähringer Berthold IV. 1186. A mention of Saladin († 1193) in the third cross song (XVII, 2) used to be the central point of reference for the chronology of works. From the surviving text in the Codex Manesse , the only source of tradition, one cannot, however, clearly determine whether Saladin is still referred to as a living person.

Around 1210, Gottfried von Straßburg names Tristan Hartmann as a living poet in his literature excursion (v. 4621–4635). Heinrich von dem Türlin , on the other hand, laments his death after 1220 in his Gawain novel Der Âventiure Crône (v. 2372–2437).

Status, education and origin

The very fact that Hartmann von Aue wrote his works bears witness to at least one, at first glance, banal quality: he could read and write. This was not a matter of course in the Middle Ages and was only granted to a relatively small group of people. Most of the information about Hartmann's living conditions is provided by the prologues and epilogues of his works. Hartmann makes statements about himself especially in the prologues of Armen Heinrich and in a hardly modified form of Iwein .

A knight sô gelêret what,
because he read the books,
swaz he wrote on it vant:
what Hartmann called,
servant what he zouwe.

Once upon a time there was a knight who was educated
read everything he found written in books .
His name was Hartmann
and he was a feudal man in Aue.

Prologue of the poor Heinrich (Heidelberg, UB, Cpg 341, fol. 249ra)

Hartmann calls himself a knight (more precisely belonging to the unfree state of the ministerial ) and at the same time emphasizes his education, which he continues to develop by reading books. In terms of time, gelêret means an education based on Latin works at a school run by spiritually trained teachers.

What Hartmann names in the prologue is unusual for a knight around 1200 and could - regardless of Hartmann's actual status and his personal education - arise from the need to stylize himself literarily and to recommend himself to his audience: Hartmann says that he as a knight same (desirable) status as his audience and that his education also gives him a special competence to tell the work. The legendary works Gregorius and Poor Heinrich as well as the lament do, however, show basic philosophical, theological and rhetorical knowledge that makes training at a cathedral school likely. A monastery school like the one in Reichenau , on the other hand, would probably not have been open to him. Since Erec and Iwein were transferred from written French templates, Hartmann must also have an excellent knowledge of French .

Neither Hartmann's origins nor his place of work can be reliably located. He wrote in a Middle High German literary language that avoided strong dialect peculiarities and thus allowed his works to be spread across the region. However, his rhymes point to an origin from the Alemannic area. This fits the description of Hartmann as von der Swâben lande in Heinrich von dem Türlin ( Crône , v. 2353). Overall, his origin can be narrowed down to the Duchy of Swabia .

Aue is such a common place name that Hartmann's exact place of origin cannot be determined. The discussed places called Aue or Au include Au near Ravensburg ( Weißenau Abbey ), Au near Freiburg , Eglisau (in the canton of Zurich) and Obernau am Neckar (near Rottenburg near Tübingen). There is evidence of a ministerial family in the service of the Zähringer since 1112 , a Henricus de Owon or de Owen is one of the documentary members of this noble family von Ow , which is still flourishing today .

It is striking that the name is identical with the hero of the poor Heinrich: Heinrich von Ouwe (v. 49) who gesezzen the vürsten gelîch (v. 43) ze Swâben (v. 31). As an interpretation, it is possible to see either Hartmann's own poetically glorified family history or an homage to the client's family. Since the descendants of the imperial princely Heinrich must have lost the nobility through his marriage to a peasant girl, the second explanation does not seem plausible. On the other hand, Hartmann could have glorified the status of his own family in the unfree ministeriality through a princely descent.

Possible patrons of Hartmann

The Weingartner Liederhandschrift provides an author image by Hartmann that is almost identical to that of the Codex Manesse (Stuttgart, LB, HB XIII poetae germanici 1, pp 32–39)

Unlike Chrétien de Troyes, Hartmann did not name his patrons, so that one remains dependent on speculation on this issue. As possible patrons, without whom a medieval poet could not have worked, in the case of Hartmann, the Zähringer, the Guelph and the Staufer come primarily into consideration. However, no connection can be proven to any gender.

Mostly today the opinion is held that Hartmann was most likely to have worked for the Zähringer court. This could explain the way in which Hartmann came up with his models for Erec and Iwein , because the noble family had close contacts to France, which reached as far as Chrétiens de Troyes. The coat of arms , which is added to Hartmann's author images in the song manuscripts at the beginning of the 14th century, can also be interpreted as a modification of the Zähringer coat of arms: white eagle heads on a blue or black background. Among the Guelph princes there is only Welf VI. as a benefactor. In this case Hartmann's home would probably be Weißenau near Ravensburg .



For stylistic reasons, an internal chronology of the works can be deduced, according to which the complaint book is at the beginning. Erec is Hartmann's first verse novel, followed by Gregorius , the poor Heinrich and Iwein . Although this order is based almost entirely on language research, it is widely recognized in research. Poor Heinrich's emergence after or parallel to Iwein would also be possible . The beginning of Iwein (about 1000 verses) could have been written near the Erec and the novel may have been completed later. The position of the complaint as the first work is not entirely clear, but the author describes himself in it as jungelinc (v. 7).

The order of the songs must remain hypothetical. It is unclear whether the songs that have survived come close to conveying Hartmann's complete lyrical oeuvre. We also know little about performance practice. Should they tell a story as a whole, a dramaturgy could be developed that could then also fall back on what they experienced themselves. But such a cycle remains speculation and is considered rather unlikely, so that only the Kreuzlieder can be linked to historical events - but even that remains controversial.

Earlier research assumed Hartmann's personality development and derived from this an early creative phase with the secular Arthurian epics Erec and Iwein , which were then followed, after a personal crisis, by the religiously tinged stories Gregorius and Poor Heinrich . This view was based on the one hand on the contrast between the secular Minneieder and the crusade songs and on the other hand on the prologue of Gregorius . Here the author rejects the vain words of his youth with which he sought the applause of the world in the past; but now he wants to alleviate this burden of sin with a religious story. Such an author-psychological interpretation is largely rejected today because of the topical character of the prologue statements for Hartmann as for most medieval authors.


Hartmann's songs in Codex Manesse (fol.185r), beginning of the 14th century

A total of 18 notes (each of which had its own melody that has not been handed down) with a total of 60 stanzas have been handed down under Hartmann's name. Thematically, the Minnelieder are close to the didactic text of the complaint book . Here as there, the subjective-erotic and the societal-ethical aspects of gender love are discussed in terms of courtly love . The three cross songs thematically fill a sub-genre of the Minne lyric, which was of great importance in the decades around 1200 and weighs the obligation of the knight to serve God against his obligation to ministerial. Formally, they are no different from minne songs.

Hartmann is characterized by a serious, sober and rational style that moves arguing in the courtly Minne discourse and in dealing with the crusade issue. Hartmann's songs occupy a special position in German-language crusade poetry. No other vernacular poet, with the exception of Walther von der Vogelweide with his elegy , takes up fundamental ethical questions with such seriousness.

In the judgment of literary historians, who for a long time had given Hartmann no special rank as a poet, the minne songs have been rated increasingly positively since the 1960s. Only the cross songs had always been given high literary value.

The greatest interpretative problem of courtly poetry is its biographical content. In older research, Hartmann's work was interpreted from an author-psychological perspective, a real, unfulfilled love affair was assumed, and participation in the crusade was viewed as the end of personal development. His crusade poetry was therefore understood as a rejection of the earthly in favor of God's love. The death of his patron, mentioned twice, was seen as the trigger for a personal crisis of meaning. The wail of love is now generally viewed as topical; whether Hartmann actually took part in a crusade must remain hypothetical.

The litigation book

First narrative work of Hartmann applies the action book , even the action or the booklet called. Like the novels, the complaint book is written in four-part rhymes . It comprises 1914 verses and, like the Erec, is only passed down in the Ambraser Heldenbuch (around 1510). The allegorical debate is written in the form of a scholarly disputation . The conversation partners are the heart as the spiritual center and the lîp as the physical and sensual part of the human being. The topic is the sense of love and the correct behavior of a man when soliciting a woman.

The literary pattern of the quarrel between soul and body was widespread in religious medieval poetry, but Hartmann's transference to the secular sphere had no direct forerunners or successors in German-speaking countries. Only in the 14th century are there numerous comparable miner speeches handed down - but Hartmann's work was probably already forgotten by this time. A possible French or Provencal template is being discussed , as the Minneehre adapts the most modern Minne concept from France. A passage in the text also points to French sources in which it is said that the heart brought the herb magic from France (v. 1280). The search for surviving French texts that could be considered for such a template, however, was unsuccessful.

Artusepik: Erec and Iwein

Erec and Iwein belong to the legend of King Arthur . The Erec is considered the first novel Hartmann, at the same time he was the first Arthurian romance in German-speaking and after Eneasroman Henry of Veldeke the first novel of the current Minne conception recorded from France. According to literary-historical conventions, the Eneasroman and the Erec are therefore considered to be the first courtly novels in the German language in the true sense of the word . Since the prologue in the Ambraser Heldenbuch (around 1510), the only (almost) completely preserved manuscript, is missing, there are no indications of the circumstances of the origin of this first German Arthurian novel.

Both Arthurian epics by Hartmann are based on French epics by Chrétien de Troyes. Hartmann translated the Erec into the German language very freely, taking into account his less literary literary audience in a different cultural environment by adding explanatory digressions to his template. Occasionally it was considered that Hartmann had not used the old French Chrétien novel for the Erec , but a Lower Rhine - Dutch template. This theory can only be based on a few clues, but secondary sources are conceivable.

In broadcasting the Iwein , Hartmann, despite all his artistic sovereignty, adhered more closely to his original. Since the new literary type of the courtly novel was now established in Germany, it was now largely able to dispense with detailed explanations. What is striking in both Arthurian episodes, but especially in Iwein, are fairytale narrative motifs that essentially go back to the origin of the literary material. The subject area around King Arthur belongs to the Matière de Bretagne , originally orally handed down Celtic materials that entered European literature with the adaptations of Chrètien.

Structurally, both Arthurian episodes have a so-called double path in common: the hero gains social recognition at the court of King Arthur through âventiure and the hand of a beautiful lady (the key words here are êre and minne ) and thus reaches the peak of fame from being nameless. Through his own fault, however, he comes into conflict with the environment and loses the favor of his lady again. Only in a second round can he rehabilitate himself through renewed chivalric deeds and a learning process and regain the lady's social reputation and affection.

Legendary stories: Gregorius and the poor Heinrich

It is difficult to assign the two stories Gregorius and Poor Heinrich to a genre : Both deal with religious themes about guilt and divine grace and use forms of the narrative type legend ; the Gregorius is a Pope Vita, the arms Heinrich is also the Mare close. At the same time, however, it is a novel-like courtly tale that can be considered fictional to a certain extent. Research therefore makes do with the designation of courtly legends .

The Gregory attacks the incest motif on twice. It is largely up to the audience to interpret how heavy the involuntary sin of birth from incest and the unconscious sin of one's own incest weigh.

The arms Heinrich is more focused on the reflection and the subjective reaction of the acting figures as to the external action. The possible reference to Hartmann's own family history is interesting. The prologue speaks of searching for sources in (Latin) books, but no corresponding template has been proven.



Manuscript A by Iwein , 2nd quarter of the 13th century. (Heidelberg, University Library, Cpg 397, f. 78r)

From Erec few textual witnesses are puzzling get: Just a nearly complete manuscript of the 16th century ( Ambras Book of Heroes ) and three fragments from the 13th and 14th centuries are known. This does not correspond to the effect that the Erec substance has been proven to have. One can only speculate about the reasons for the sparse tradition. Recently, fragment finds have raised new questions about the history of transmission. The so-called Zwettler fragment from Zwettl Abbey ( Lower Austria ) turned out to be an Erec fragment from the 2nd quarter of the 13th century. The Central German text seems to have passed on a translation from French independent of Hartmann and is referred to as the Central German Erec . Even earlier, the Wolfenbüttel fragment from the middle or third quarter of the 13th century had made a second translation appear possible, which was closer to Chrétien's novel than the text of the Ambras book of heroes. The position of this supposed Central German transfer to the Upper German Erec Hartmanns (whether forerunner, independent parallel version or reception certificate) has not yet been clarified.

The Iwein , on the other hand, is one of the most surviving novels from around 1200: with 15 complete manuscripts and 17 fragments from the beginning of the 13th to the 16th century, more manuscripts have survived than, for example, by Gottfried's Tristan . Only Wolfram von Eschenbach's novels (Parzival, Willehalm ) have been copied more often than Iwein . Gregorius and Poor Heinrich have come down to us with six and three complete manuscripts and five and three fragments. The Gregorius was the three arms Heinrich once translated into Latin. In addition, both texts have been anonymously incorporated into widely used compilations such as collections of legends, historical works or folk books .

All 60 stanzas of Hartmann's songs are handed down in the Codex Manesse , in the Weingartner Liederhandschrift 28 and in the Kleiner Heidelberger Liederhandschrift 10, in addition there are scattered reports. Hartmann's three Kreuzlieder are contained in the Codex Manesse, one of them also in the Weingartner song manuscript.

Adaptations in the late Middle Ages and in the early modern period

The open text form of Hartmann's legendary tales made it easier to include them in collections of legends and examples , which made the anonymized material widespread. The Gregorius was Latin to 1450 in three and processed two German adaptations. Through its inclusion in the Latin collection of examples Gesta Romanorum , which is spread throughout Europe, and in the most popular German collection of legends, Der Heiligen Leben , the Gregorius material became very well known in prose resolutions . The poor Heinrich was handed down into the 15th century and included in two Latin collections of examples.

Ulrich Fuetrer wrote a greatly abbreviated new version of Iwein after 1480 . The Iban in 297 title stanzas is the fourth of seven Arthurian novels in his book of adventures . The tradition of the Arthurian epic comes to an end with the break in tradition of the Reformation in the 16th century. Like most courtly novels, Iwein and Erec are not broken down into prose versions and incorporated into printed popular books . Only a few Middle High German epics with lesser literary demands succeed in this change of media.

Mention of Hartmann by other poets

Hartmann was already regarded by his contemporaries as a leading poet whose importance lay on the one hand in the formal and meaningful clarity of his novels, on the other hand in his genre-defining role within German poetry. Gottfried von Straßburg praised him in Tristan (around 1210) for his crystalline wortelîn (verse 4627) and in a literary excursion gave him the first place among the epics.

Hartman the Ouwære,
âhî, as the diu mære
both ûzen unde inside
with words and senses thoroughly used and adorned
swer guote talk to guote
and ouch ze rehte kan understand
the mouz dem Ouwaere lân
sîn schapel and sîn lôrzwî,

Hartmann von Aue,
yes, how he completely adorns and adorns his stories
both formally and in terms of content
with words and thoughts
Anyone who
can understand good language well and correctly
must give Hartmann
his wreath and laurel.

Catalogs of poets, in which Hartmann is praised in a similar way as style-forming, can be found in Rudolfs von Ems Alexander (after 1230) and Willehalm von Orlens (around 1240, with a mention of Erec ). Heinrich von dem Türlin dedicates an eventful lament for the dead to Hartmann in der Crône (after 1220) and also highlights him as a poet as the norm-setting starting point and focus. Here, too, reference is made to the act of Erec , which is assumed to be known by the audience. Heinrich von dem Türlin also uses a French Erec manuscript for quotations .

Similar mentions, already canonized, can be found later in the Meleranz des Pleiers (around 1270), in Konrads von Stoffeln Gauriel (around 1270), in Albrecht's Younger Titurel (around 1270) and in Ottokar's Styrian rhyming chronicle from the Gaal (around 1310) . While these poets emphasize Hartmann's Arthurian epics, von Gliers , a lyric poet from the second half of the 13th century, praised him as a minstrel. Despite their wide tradition and numerous adaptations, Hartmann's religiously colored works are nowhere mentioned.

Among the individual appointments, those in the Parzival Wolframs von Eschenbach stand out. Since both the Erec and the Iwein are alluded to in the work from around 1205, the Parzival also provides the most valuable clue for the dating of Hartmann's epics ( terminus ante quem ). The tenor of Wolfram's allusions is, in contrast to the later mentions, more joking, mocking and even critical. Later on, allusions to the Arthurian novels Hartmanns integrated into the plot became common, for example in the Wigalois Wirnts von Grafenberg , in the Garel des Pleiers and in the Younger Titurel . Such references can even be found in a work that is not Arthurian, the rhyming legend of St. George Reinbots of Durne .

Image reception

The Iwein was the subject of pictorial representation several times, and this very quickly after the novel became known. It is noticeable that the medium for this is not book illustrations , but above all wall painting and carpets . The form of use of monumental representations in living rooms ('drinking rooms') is social representation.

Fresco from the Iwein cycle at Rodenegg Castle

The artistically most demanding illustrations are the Iwein murals at Rodenegg Castle near Brixen ( South Tyrol ). It is disputed whether they should be dated immediately after 1200 or between 1220 and 1230 according to art historical criteria. The cycle, which was only uncovered in 1972, consists of eleven pictures that only depict scenes from the first part of Iwein . In the Hessenhof in Schmalkalden , also from the first half of the 13th century, murals with 23 scenes of the original 26 have been preserved in a living room ('drinking room').

Around 1400 further murals were created with exemplary heroes of courtly poetry in Runkelstein Castle near Bozen (South Tyrol). There Iwein, Parzival and Gawein form a triad of the best and most exemplary knights. Iwein and Laudine (next to Lunete as an assistant figure ) appear as one of the exemplary couples on the so-called painter's carpet , which was created around 1320/1330 (today: Augustinermuseum Freiburg im Breisgau). The medallions on the carpet depict 'minneslaves' - men who have become dependent on a woman. Besides Iwein, these are Samson , Aristotle and Virgil . According to recent studies, the Erec fabric is the subject of plastic representation on the Krakow Crown Cross .

Modern reception

In 1780 the modern Hartmann reception began with Johann Jakob Bodmer's fable von Laudine . His pupil Christoph Heinrich Myller published the first text edition by Armen Heinrich and Twein (= Iwein ) based on medieval manuscripts in 1784 . In 1786 Karl Michaeler followed with a bilingual Iwein edition. Gerhard Anton von Halem's Rococo adaptation of Ritter Twein (1789) was based on Myller's edition . The Iwein edition by Georg Friedrich Benecke and Karl Lachmann from 1827 has remained the authoritative text edition in various revisions to this day. The Erec was edited by Moriz Haupt in 1839 .

In 1815 the Brothers Grimm published an annotated edition of Poor Heinrich with a retelling. The Gregory brought for the first time Karl Simrock in 1839 for 'every soulful readers' out and had this claim to restore the authenticity of the text with a paraphrase. In literary terms, poor Heinrich was treated particularly frequently , including by Adelbert von Chamisso (1839), Ricarda Huch (1899) and Gerhart Hauptmann (1902). Hans Pfitzner's first opera is also a setting by Armen Heinrich based on a libretto by James Grun (1895). August Klughardt composed an unsuccessful Iwein opera in 1879, succeeding Richard Wagner . The late romantic composer Richard Wetz set a crusader song for mixed choir after Hartmann in a New High German poetry by Will Vesper .

The free Gregorius adaptation The Elected by Thomas Mann (1951) stands out among all modern adaptations of Hartmann's works. Most recently, Markus Werner ( See you soon , 1995), the playwright Tankred Dorst (1997) and the poet Rainer Malkowski (1997) took up the poor Heinrich . Felicitas Hoppe retold the Iwein story for children with Iwein Löwenritter (2008).


  • The litigation book. Hartmanns von Aue and the second booklet. Ed. Ludwig Wolff . Wilhelm Fink, Munich 1972
  • Poor Heinrich. Middle High German / New High German. Translated by Siegfried Grosse , ed. Ursula Rautenberg , Reclam, Stuttgart 1993; continuous and bibliographically supplemented edition 2005 and ö. (first: Reclam's Universal Library RUB 456 in the prose of the Brothers Grimm , introduction by Friedrich Neumann)
    • Transfer from Jürgen Wolf, Nathanael Busch. Reclam, Stuttgart 2014 ISBN 3150191319
  • Erec. Middle High German text. Nhd. Transfer from Thomas Cramer, Frankfurt 1972, 25th edition 2003
  • Gregorius the good sinner. Middle High German / New High German. Mhd. Text after Friedrich Neumann . Transferred from Burkhard Kippenberg, afterword Hugo Kuhn , Stuttgart 2005.
  • Iwein. Text and translation. Text of the 7th edition by Georg Friedrich Benecke , Karl Lachmann and Ludwig Wolff. Transl. And comments by Thomas Cramer, Berlin 1968, 4th revised edition 2001.
  • Iwein. Bilingual Middle High German and New High German by Rüdiger Krohn and Mireille Schnyder. Reclam, Stuttgart 2012.
  • Booklet. Ed. Moriz Haupt . 2nd edition Leipzig 1871
  • Minne and cross lyrics. In: The Minnesang's Spring. First in 1888. Revised. by Carl von Kraus . 31st edition, Zurich 1954; last id edit d. Hugo Moser , Helmut Tervooren . S. Hirzel Verlag, Stuttgart 38th edition 2007.
  • Minnie poetry. In: Hennig Brinkmann (Hrsg.): Love lyric of the German morning in chronological order. Schwann, Düsseldorf 1952
  • The lawsuit. Edited by Kurt Gärtner (= Old German Text Library. 123). De Gruyter, Berlin / Boston 2015. ISBN 978-3-11-040430-2 .
  • Songs. Middle High German / New High German. Edited, translated and commented on by Ernst von Reusner (= Reclams Universal Library. 8082). Reclam, Stuttgart 1985, ISBN 3-15-008082-7 .
Research and teaching literature
  • Helmut de Boor: The courtly literature, in: History of German literature. Vol. 2. CH Beck, Munich 1953, etc.
  • Christoph Cormeau, Wilhelm Störmer: Hartmann von Aue. Epoch, work, effect . 2., revised. Edition. Beck, Munich 1998, ISBN 3-406-30309-9
  • Christoph Cormeau: Hartmann von Aue . In: Kurt Ruh (Ed.): The German literature of the Middle Ages. Author Lexicon . 2nd edition, Vol. 3. Berlin 1981, ISBN 3-11-008778-2 , Sp. 500-520
  • Hans Eggers : Symmetry and Proportion of Epic Narration. Studies on Hartmann von Aue's art form. Klett, Stuttgart 1956
  • Werner Fechter : About the "poor Heinrich". Euphorion 49, 1955
  • Jean Fourquet : To the structure of the "poor Heinrich". Working word , special issue 3, Düsseldorf 1961
  • Hans Harter: The Counts of Hohenberg and the knightly courtly culture around 1190. A contribution to the patronage question of Hartmann von Aue. In: Sönke Lorenz, Stephan Molitor (Hrsg.): Dominion and Legitimation. High medieval nobility in southwest Germany. Writings on southwest German regional studies, 36. Leinfelden-Echterdingen 2002, pp. 99–129
  • Ulrich Hoffmann: work on literature. On the mythicity of Hartmann von Aue's Arthurian novels . 2012. Academy, Berlin, ISBN 978-3-05-005859-7 .
  • Hugo Kuhn , Christoph Cormeau (ed.): Hartmann von Aue . Ways of research. Vol. 359. Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft WBG, Darmstadt 1973, ISBN 3-534-05745-7 . (Collection of important older essays, including Kuhn, HvA als Dichter, from Der Deutschunterricht, 1953, no.2)
  • Friedrich Maurer : Suffering. Studies on the history of meaning and problems, especially in the great epics of the Hohenstaufen era. Francke, Bern 1951, 4th edition 1969
  • Volker Mertens : Hartmann von Aue . In: German poets. Vol. 1: Middle Ages. Eds. Gunter E. Grimm, Frank Rainer Max. Reclam, Stuttgart 1989 ISBN 3-15-008611-6 pp. 164-179
  • Bert Nagel: The "poor Heinrich" Hartmann von Aue. An interpretation. German Language Library, 6. Max Niemeyer, Tübingen 1952
  • Friedrich Neumann:  Hartmann von Aue. In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 7, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1966, ISBN 3-428-00188-5 , pp. 728-31 ( digitized version ).
  • Arno Schirokauer : The legend of the "poor Heinrich". In: Germanic-Romance monthly magazine 33, 1951/1952
  • Anette Sosna: Fictional identity in the courtly novel around 1200: "Erec, Iwein, Parzival, Tristan". S. Hirzel, Stuttgart 2003
  • Hugo stop: Explanations to: Poor Heinrich, little book, Erek, Minnelyrik, Kreuzzug lyric, Gregorius, Iwein. König's Explanations of the Classics, 290. C. Bange, Hollfeld o. J. (1962, 1970)
  • Peter Wapnewski : Hartmann von Aue. Metzler, Stuttgart 1962, 1979 (7th edition), ISBN 3-476-17017-9 .
  • Jürgen Wolf : Introduction to Hartmann von Aue's work. Introductions to German studies. Scientific Book Society WBG, Darmstadt 2007, ISBN 978-3-534-19079-9
  • Oskar JänickeAue, Hartmann von . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 1, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1875, pp. 634-636.
  • Petra Hörner (Ed.): Hartmann von Aue. With a bibliography 1976–1997 . Information and interpretation. Vol. 8. Lang, Frankfurt am Main 1998. ISBN 3-631-33292-0
  • Elfriede Neubuhr: Bibliography on Harmann von Aue . Bibliographies on German literature in the Middle Ages. Vol. 5. Erich Schmidt, Berlin 1977. ISBN 3-503-00575-7
  • Irmgard Klemt: Hartmann von Aue. A compilation of the literature published on him and his work between 1927 and 1965 . Greven, Cologne 1968.

Web links

Commons : Hartmann von Aue  - Collection of images, videos and audio files
Wikisource: Hartmann von Aue  - Sources and full texts

Individual evidence

  1. Hartmann von Aue: The poor Heinrich, v. 1-5. Ed. V. Ursula Rautenberg, translated by Siegfried Grosse. Stuttgart 1993
  2. Compare Cormeau, Störmer p. 35 (without exact date, but: "several times from 1112")
  3. Gottfried von Strasbourg: Tristan . Reissued from the text by Friedrich Ranke, translated into New High German, with a commentary and an afterword by Rüdiger Krohn. Stuttgart 1990, V. 4621-4637
  4. ^ Joanna Mühlemann: The Erec reception on the Krakow Kronenkreuz . PBB 122 (2000), pp. 76-102
  5. ^ Wilhelm and Jacob Grimm: 'The poor Heinrich' by Hartmann von Aue. Berlin 1815.
  6. ^ Hartmann von Aue: songs. Poor Heinrich. New German by Will Vesper (= statues of German culture. Volume II). CH Beck, Munich 1906, p. 16 ( digitized versionhttp: //vorlage_digitalisat.test/1%3D~GB%3D~IA%3Dliederderarmehe00vespgoog~MDZ%3D%0A~SZ%3Dn30~ double-sided%3D~LT%3D~PUR%3D ).
This article was added to the list of excellent articles on June 14, 2006 in this version .