Publius Vergilius Maro , German usually Virgil , Late Antique and Middle Latin Virgilius and later in German also Virgil (born October 15, 70 BC near Mantua ; † September 21, 19 BC in Brindisi ) was a Roman poet and epic poet , that during the time of the Roman civil wars and the principate of Octavian (from 27 v. Chr. Augustus lived). He is considered the most important author of classical Roman antiquity and is a classic of Latin school reading. In addition to Horace and Lucius Varius Rufus , with whom he belonged to the circle of Maecenas , as well as the elegists Cornelius Gallus , Properz and Tibullus , Virgil was probably one of the most famous poets of " Augustan literature " among contemporaries . His works, the Bucolica ( Eclogues ), the Georgica and the Aeneid and their ideas revolutionized Latin poetry and shortly after his death they were repeatedly copied, edited, commented and processed intertextually .
The epic Aeneid provides the founding myth or the prehistory to the founding of the city of Rome by processing the mythological material from the Homeric epics Iliad and Odyssey . The Aeneid replaced the Annales of Quintus Ennius as a kind of Roman national epic.
As diverse and spectacular as the legends surrounding the life of the reclusive poet Virgil were already during his lifetime (and especially in the late antique vitae), so little is known about his life. Numerous inferences about Virgil's life come from hints in his own works. To interpret these loose facts in the light of his works would be a circular argument. A number of Virgilvites have survived from late antiquity, including smaller passages in the Virgil Commentary by the grammarian Maurus Servius Honoratius and the Vita Donati , which refer to the Vita Vergili of the Roman archivist Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus and some other common sources that are no longer extant , could go back. The memorable grave epigram on the Via Puteolana between Naples and Puteoli , an elegiac distich that reflects Virgil's life and work in equal measure, impressively emphasizes the overall Italian merits of the poet:
Mantua me genuit, Calabri rapuere, tenet nunc
- Parthenope; cecini pascua, rura, duces.
- Mantua brought me out, Calabria took me away, now hides me
- Naples. I sang pastures, fields, rulers.
The stations of his works, which he wrote in a more or less certain chronological sequence, at the same time reflect the stations of his life, which stretch across Italy. While he spent his childhood and youth in the north (Mantua and Po Valley) and died in the extreme south of Italy (Calabria), he continued to work in the heart of Italy, in his residence in Naples.
Virgil led the Latin language to a new prime. Like his predecessor, Quintus Ennius, he wrote an epic with over 12,000 verses, following the design principles of the tradition of Alexandrian and neoteric poetry. He was a poeta doctus , that is, he worked on his works cum lima ("with the file") and covered them with allusions to his predecessors. According to Varius , Quintilian reports that Virgil wrote only a few verses a day, which he wrote mostly in the morning, to look through them in the afternoon and to cross them out again in the evening. He was just as adept in the various philosophical teachings as he was in mythology and the literary genres in which his predecessors had written.
Virgil's works offered numerous later movements in art and literature templates and a rich pool of ideas. A famous example is the 69th verse of the tenth eclogue Omnia vincit amor, et nos cedamus amori , which Virgil wrote in memory of the work of his friend Cornelius Gallus and which minstrels of the 13th and 14th centuries took as their motto.
Virgil was born the son of a potter on an estate near Mantua in northern Italy . The location of his birthplace is controversial. It is very likely that it is not in the earlier Pietole , where there is no evidence of an estate or family property. The village of Andes near Mantua is usually called. The close connection to rural life and the rural world will later influence his work again and again.
Contemporary references to Virgil's youth and education can be found almost exclusively in his own works. Most of the facts come from Suetonius. After this, Virgil received the toga virilis when he entered manhood at the age of 15. At that time he was attending a rhetorician school in Cremona. A controversial question is what role the catalepton , a body of poems formerly attributed to Virgil and possibly dating to the early imperial era, plays in this. Epigrams V and VIII there report on Virgil's departure from Cremona (V) to the estate of the Epicurean Siro (VIII) near Naples . According to the epigrams, he turned from rhetoric to poetry (the Carmina ) at this time . The authenticity of the entire body of the poem is controversial, but they date earlier than Sueton's records. In addition to Virgil's training in Cremona, they mention a stay in Milan and then in 53 BC. The direct move to Rome. According to Suetonius, it was only at this time that Virgil wrote the catalepton and also studied mathematics and medicine .
Beyond his early devotion to poetry, Virgil appears to have been rhetorically inefficient. In addition to the complaint about the dull talk in the catalepton, Ovid handed down a praefatio from the controversiae of the rhetoric teacher Seneca maior , who portrays Virgil as an untalented prose writer and speaker. According to Suetonius, Virgil once practiced as a speaker in court and spoke very slowly there, almost like an uneducated person, according to a statement by Melissus.
At the beginning of the 1940s of the 1st century BC Virgil stayed in Rome and Naples, from where he wrote his earliest work, the Eclogues . It is possible that he developed closer ties to neoteric poets' circles at this time; a friendship with the elegiac poets Sextus propertius and Cornelius Gallus can almost certainly apply. Virgil's other acquaintances only appear in the eclogues , and they reveal more details about his position as a poet in Rome. The sixth Eclogue names Varius Rufus and Gaius Helvius Cinna as great poets and role models. Virgil's patron Gaius Asinius Pollio names the third eclogue .
In the wake of the politics of the second triumvirate , Octavian, later the princeps , led in 40 BC. Land expropriations to compensate the veterans from the civil wars against the republicans. Virgil's family in Mantua was affected by these expropriations. The first eclogue deals with the impact of such a displacement. The ninth Eclogue shows how problematic the relation of the eclogues to Virgil's experiences with land expropriations is. Here a poet gets his expropriated land back for his services. However, there is no further source for the fact that Octavian had restored the land to Virgil's family, especially since the poet mourns Mantua in the same eclogue, to which he never returned afterwards ( Mantua, uae miserae nimium vicina Cremonae ). The last mention of Mantua is in the Georgica .
In the 1930s, Virgil belonged to a group of poets around the art patron Maecenas , an officer of Octavian. Horace mentions him next to Plotius Tucca and Varius Rufus in his satires . Varius and Virgil would have suggested it to Maecenas. The poets often accompanied Maecenas on trips and on political occasions. To the agreement of the two triumvirs Mark Antony and Octavian they traveled together with Maecenas to Brundisium , they were invited to recitations in his house on the Esquiline or made excursions to his villa in Capua . Virgil was writing at this time to the Georgica , his pamphlet on agriculture, which is dedicated to Maecenas. Octavian's victory in the naval battle of Actium 31 BC also fell during this period . In the first book of Georgica he received an extraordinary honor from Virgil and a praise for his divinity. In the third book of Georgica , the poet mentions writing an epic for Octavian's glorious deeds. Whether this was in direct connection with the soon after 35 BC. Aeneid that began in BC, i.e. reflects the author's intention, cannot be decided due to a lack of sources.
It is not known when Virgil began work on the Aeneid . The problem with dating his work is that after the Georgica and the Bucolica , contemporaries had high expectations of the work and stylized the poet in this sense. This is exemplified by the third poem of Horace's first ode. Here the poet addresses a ship that is supposed to lead his friend Virgil safely back to Rome from his destination from Attic realms with the words: navis, quae tibi creditum debes Vergilium: finibus Atticis reddas incolumem precor […] . If the poet here refers to a real journey by Virgil to Athens, nothing more is known about it than what the ode itself says. If the ode dates older, the ship could just as well be a metaphor for the wanderings in the first six books of the Aeneid , and the request for Virgil's return could be a request that the completion of these books be easy for him. The Vita Suetons, which date from 31 BC. Chr. (One book for each remaining year of his life = 12 books Aeneid), gives at most the approximate period for Virgil's decision-making (end of the 30s).
Virgil's last years are only set out in Sueton's Vita . The Vita According had made Virgil late 20s, the work on the Aeneid to end a three-year improvement of the work. After that, he wanted to travel east, retire, and devote the rest of his life to philosophy. On his way he met Augustus, who was returning from his victory over the Parthians , and joined him on the return journey. In Megara he is said to have suffered a severe fever and when he arrived with Augustus in Brundisium on the southern tip of Italy, he died there soon after his arrival. He was burned and his ashes were brought to Naples, where they were buried in a burial mound. It is not certain whether the ashes actually lie in today's burial mound at the foot of Posillipo in Parco Virgiliano a Piedigrotta near Naples.
It was not until the second century that literary historians speculated about Virgil's appearance and character. However, contemporary information should be viewed with just as great caution. In the third part of his first book of satires, Horace mentions a friend who was often to be found at his side and who was a ridiculous sight. He is said to have worn a peasant haircut, an unironed toga and loose boots, but was a good person and a sincere friend. These philosophical statements are in the service of Horace's satire and were not intended to reproduce the real state of the poet in detail. The formulation about Virgil's rural appearance has at least parallels with Suetonius, who also described the poet as rusticanus , gaunt and suntanned. According to the biographer, he was also easily susceptible to illnesses and had stomach and lung problems. Suetonius describes Virgil as a very reserved, almost shy person who liked to flee the city from the shops.
Little is known about Virgil's personal life. He is said to have owned two estates in Taranto in Calabria (georg. 2, 197ff.) And in Campania near Naples. Suetonius also mentions a town house given by Maecenas in Rome among the horti Maecenati . Virgil's eventual homosexuality and preference for boys was an issue even among contemporaries. Properz dedicated a few verses in his second elegy to the shepherd boy Alexis from the second eclogue, in which he celebrates the happiness of a landowner who only has to love his Alexis and does not have to perform the service of love ( servitium amoris ) to a woman. Similar mentions can be found in Martial and Suetonius.
Catalepton (Appendix Vergiliana)
The catalepton (Greek katá leptón : poems written in a fine, delicate manner) are eighteen short poems (14 epigrams, three Priapea, one Sphragis), which, together with some epyllies, were passed down again and again with Virgil's works (in the appendix Vergiliana ). In the opinion of many modern researchers, the majority of these works are considered not to have been written by Virgil. Whether individual poems of the Corpus (namely the epigrams V and VIII) could not have been written by the youthful poet Virgil is, however, disputed in the judgment. These two poems apparently provide biographical information about Virgil's tendencies to turn away from rhetoric and move to the estate of the Epicurean Siro . A later Epicureanism of Virgil, similar to that of his poet colleague Horace, is not evident from Virgil's works. The authenticity of the eighth epigram is controversial because the author complains that Cremona , where Siro allegedly had his goodwill, and Mantua were badly affected by the land expropriations of the civil wars. As early as the 1970s, the German classical philologist Heinrich Naumann, contrary to Büchner et al. a. points out that Virgil had no reason to mourn Cremona due to his living conditions and that he did not do so later (e.g. in the Bucolica ).
- the didactic poems Moretum (“The herb cheese poem ”, peasant hand cheese recipe) and Aetna (about volcanism) [late 1st century BC. Or middle of the 1st century AD],
- the short epics Culex ("The Midge") and Ciris ("The Heron") [14–37 AD],
- the Dirae ("curses" of a peasant who was driven from his estate) [formerly principate],
- the two Elegiae ad Maecenatem [uncertain dating],
- the copa ("landlady") (about a dancing Syrian landlady).
See also: Appendix Vergiliana .
→ Main article: Eclogae
The Eclogues or Bucolica are a collection of ten pastoral poems by Virgil, written between about 43 and 39 BC. Were created. The distributions of land in the years 42/41 after the defeat of Brutus and Cassius , the murderers of Caesar , in which the dismissed soldiers of the victors were settled on expropriated land in Italy, appear as historical background, especially in the first and ninth eclogues . The fact that the Virgil's estate near Mantua had also been confiscated, but that Octavian had his property returned to him, was already clear in late antiquity from the first poem (probably written in 40 BC, according to Clausen not until 35 BC). want to remove.
→ Main article: Georgica
Virgil soon belonged to the circle around Gaius Maecenas , one of Octavian's early allies, who later promoted poets like Virgil and Horace and helped them to become prominent in Rome's influential circles. After the Eclogae were completed, Virgil worked from 37 to 29 BC. BC to the Georgica ("About agriculture"), which are dedicated to Maecenas.
→ Main article: Aeneid
Octavian, the Antony in the battle of Actium 31 BC Chr. And four years later was awarded the title " Augustus " by the Roman Senate , Virgil is said to have urged to write an epic to the glory of his reign. Virgil's answer was the Aeneid , which occupied the last ten years of his life.
Virgil's death and afterlife
In late antiquity , Gorippus wrote an epic based on Virgil's Aeneid called Johannis ; it represents the last significant contribution to ancient Latin literature. At around the same time - in the 6th century - Fulgentius wrote an allegorical interpretation of the Aeneid from a Christian perspective. Virgil is one of the few authors whose writings have been preserved in a relatively large number of manuscripts from antiquity . These include two richly illustrated codices , the Vergilius Vaticanus and the Vergilius Romanus .
In the Middle Ages , Virgil was considered the poet par excellence and at the same time a harbinger of Christianity - in the 4th Eclogue the birth of a boy is predicted in words that strongly recall the birth of Christ. The verses could allude to the pregnancy of Octavian's wife, Scribonia , who gave birth to a girl. Dante made Virgil, who had described the hellish place of the departed in his work, the guide in his Divine Comedy . In the late Middle Ages, a number of fabulous stories circulated about him, in which he appears as a powerful magician who does a great job for Naples and Rome, but also suffers failures (see Virgilian Legends of the Middle Ages ).
In the Weimar Classic , it was thought of, among other things, by creating the Vergilgrotte Tiefurt . The Reale Accademia di Scienze e Belle Lettere in Mantua took over Virgil's name by order of Napoleon Bonaparte and is now called Accademia Nazionale Virgiliana . The person of the poet is at the center of Hermann Broch's novel The Death of Virgil .
The late antique folk etymology brought the name of the poet as Virgilius with the Latin virga , "rod" in context. (A golden branch, also called virga at one point ( Aeneis VI, 144), enables Aeneas in the sixth book of the Aeneid to access the underworld .) The form Virgilius is only used in the Romance languages to this day, cf. french Virgile , Italy. and Spanish Virgilio , Portuguese Virgílio . In German and English older are Virgil and later, approximate to the classical antiquity Virgil side by side. However, a few linguists also associated his name with the Latin vergalilius , which means "The Blessed One".
- Cf. Vita Donati 3 .: His mother is said to have dreamed before his birth that she was giving birth to a laurel branch.
- See Suet. vita Verg. 46f.
- See Albrecht, Virgil, 2007, p. 10.
- See Quint. inst. 10.3.8.
- Cf. Verg. Ecl. IX 7 - 9, interpreted by Servius as a description of the Virgilian property near Mantua.
- cf. Albrecht, Virgil, 2007, p. 7 (note 3).
- See Suet. Vit. Carr. 6.
- See Suet. Vit. Verg. 7, 15.
- See Sen. contr. 3, praef. 8., Vergilium felicitas ingenii in oratione soluta reliquit
- See Suet. Vit Verg. 16: […] nam et in sermone tardissimum eum ac paene indocto similem fuisse Melissus tradidit .
- Cf. Verg. Ecl. 10, 35.
- Cf. Verg. Ecl. 3, 84ff.
- Cf. Verg. Ecl. 9, 27.
- Cf. Verg. Georg. III, 12f.
- See Hor. Sat. 1, 6, 54f.
- See Hor. Sat. 1, 5.
- Cf. Prop 2, 34: Cedite, Romani scriptores, cedite Grai: Nescio quid maius nascitur Iliade .
- See Hor. Carm. 1, 3, 5ff.
- See Suet. Vit. Verg. 25f.
- See Suet. Vit. Verg. 35f.
- See Hor. Serm. 1, 3, 29ff .: iracundior est paullo, minus aptus acutis naribus horum hominum; rideri possit eo, quod rusticius tonso toga defluit et male laxus in pede calcaeus haeret: at est bonus, ut melior vir non alius quisquam, at tibi amicus, at ingenium ingens inculto latet sub hoc corpore .
- See Suet. Vit. Verg. 8f.
- See Suet. Vit. Carr. 13.
- Cf. Prop 2, 67., cf. Mart. 7, 56., cf. Suet. Vit. Carr. 9.
- See Büchner, Vergilius, in: RE, Vol. VIII, Sp. 1070-1087.
- Cf. Naumann, Virgil is the author of Catalepton V and VIII, in: Rhm, Vol. 121 (1978), pp. 83ff.
- Albrecht, M. v., Virgil, Bucolica, Georgica, Aeneis. An introduction. Heidelberg 2007, 11, 31.
- Schmidt, EA, Zur Chronologie der Eklogen Vergils, Heidelberg 1974, 28.
- Clausen, W., On the Date of the First Eclogue. In: Harvard Studies in Classical Philology, Vol. 76, Harvard 1972, 201-205.
- The Oxford Classical Dictionary . January 1, 2012, doi : 10.1093 / acref / 9780199545568.001.0001 .
- On the eight ancient manuscripts cf. Article Virgil manuscripts of late antiquity .
- http://www.accademianazionalevirgiliana.org/ (Italian, accessed February 20, 2013).
- Minor Planet Circ. 16590
- Lotte Burkhardt: Directory of eponymous plant names - Extended Edition. Part I and II. Botanic Garden and Botanical Museum Berlin , Freie Universität Berlin , Berlin 2018, ISBN 978-3-946292-26-5 doi: 10.3372 / epolist2018 .
- P. Vergili opera recognovit brevique adnotatione critica instruxit , ed. by FA Hitzel, Oxford, London and New York 1900 (series: Scriptorum classicorum bibliotheca Oxoniensis).
- Vitae Vergilianae Antiqvae. Vita Donati. Vita Servii. Vita Probiana. Vita Focae. S. Hieronymi Excerpta , ed. by Colin Hardie , Oxford: Clarendon Press 1966.
- P. Vergilius Maro: Opera , ed. by Roger AB Mynors , Oxford: Clarendon Press 1969, ISBN 978-0-19-814653-7 .
- P. Vergilius Maro: Aeneis , ed. by Gian Biagio Conte , Berlin: de Gruyter 2009 (Bibliotheca Teubneriana), ISBN 978-3-11-019607-8 .
Latin and German text
- P. Vergilius Maro: Bucolica / Shepherd poems , ed. and translated by Michael von Albrecht, Stuttgart: Reclam 2001, ISBN 978-3-15-018133-1 .
- P. Vergilius Maro: Bucolica, Latin / German , ed. and translated by Winfried Tilmann, Edition XIM Virgines, Düsseldorf 2011, ISBN 978-3-934268-88-3 .
- P. Vergilius Maro: Georgica / Vom Landbau , ed. and translated by Otto Schönberger , Stuttgart: Reclam 1994, ISBN 978-3-15-000638-2 .
- P. Vergilius Maro: Country life: Catalepton. Bucolica. Georgica. Virgil-Viten , ed. and translated by Johannes and Maria Götte and Karl Bayer , 6th completely. and verb. Edition, Düsseldorf and Zurich: Artemis & Winkler 1994, ISBN 978-3-7608-1651-7 .
- P. Vergilius Maro: Bucolica, Georgica / Shepherd poems, agriculture (Latin / German), ed. by Niklas Holzberg and Bernhard Zimmermann , translated by Niklas Holzberg, Berlin 2016, ISBN 978-3-11-044312-7 .
- P. Vergilius Maro: Aeneis , ed. and translated by Gerhard Fink , Düsseldorf and Zurich: Artemis & Winkler 2005, ISBN 978-3-7608-1740-8 .
- P. Vergilius Maro: Aeneis , ed. and translated by Edith and Gerhard Binder , Stuttgart: Reclam 2008, ISBN 978-3-15-010668-6 .
- Michael von Albrecht : History of Roman literature from Andronicus to Boethius and its continued effect . Volume 1. 3rd, improved and expanded edition. De Gruyter, Berlin 2012, ISBN 978-3-11-026525-5 , pp. 560-598
Introductions and general presentations
- Michael von Albrecht: Virgil. Bucolica, Georgica, Aeneid. An introduction , 2. unchangeable. Edition, Heidelberg: Winter 2007, ISBN 978-3-8253-5338-4 .
- Karl Büchner : P. Vergilius Maro, the poet of the Romans (RE, Vol. VII, A 2), special edition: Druckermüller, Stuttgart 1956, Col. 42–160.
- Marion Giebel : Virgil. With self-testimonials and picture documents , 4th edition Reinbek: Rowohlt 1999, ISBN 3-499-50353-0 .
- Pierre Grimal : Virgil. Biography , Düsseldorf and Zurich: Artemis & Winkler 2000, ISBN 3-7608-1226-0 .
- Niklas Holzberg : Virgil. The poet and his work , Munich: CH Beck 2006, ISBN 3-406-53588-7 .
- Brooks Otis : Virgil: A Study in Civilized Poetry , Oxford: Clarendon Press 1964.
- Achim Hölter , Eva Hölter: Virgil. In: Peter von Möllendorff , Annette Simonis, Linda Simonis (ed.): Historical figures of antiquity. Reception in literature, art and music (= Der Neue Pauly . Supplements. Volume 8). Metzler, Stuttgart / Weimar 2013, ISBN 978-3-476-02468-8 , Sp. 1021-1034.
- Proceedings of the Virgil Society , .
- Literature by and about Virgil in the catalog of the German National Library
- Works by and about Virgil in the German Digital Library
- Works by Virgil in the Gutenberg-DE project
- Virgil's works at Zeno.org . (German)
- Biographical profile (life, work, text selection, quotations, literature)
- Eclogues and Aeneid (completely Latin and German)
- Virgil's Eclogen (completely Latin and German)
- Virgil - English language website with Latin text, further text materials and an extensive bibliography on Virgil and his reception
- Works by Bibliotheca Augustana (Latin)
- The Virgil Society
- Marko Rösseler: 15.10.0070 BC - Birthday of the poet Virgil WDR ZeitZeichen from October 15, 2016 (Podcast)
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Virgil; Virgilius Maro, Publius|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||roman poet|
|DATE OF BIRTH||October 15, 70 BC Chr.|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Andes|
|DATE OF DEATH||September 21, 19 BC Chr.|
|Place of death||Brindisi|