The Iliad ( ancient Greek Ἰλιάς Iliás ), one of the oldest written fictional works in Europe , describes a period of the Trojan War . It is difficult to determine the time of their origin; today they are dated to the 8th or 7th century BC. The epic comprises 24 books or chants , as these sections have been called since the translation by Johann Heinrich Voss . The Iliad is based on early historical myths and stories and is ascribed to Homer (for authorship, also with regard to the Odyssey , see Homeric question ). The illustration of the Iliad of the Olympic gods may have contributed significantly to the development of a national Greek religion and has shaped European art and humanities to the present day.
The subject is the nine-year Trojan War between Troy and the Greek alliance of the Achaeans . The central theme of the Iliad is anger , which within its only 51-day course of action draws ever wider circles and overtakes heroes as well as gods as an inescapable fate. The beginning is the dishonoring of the god Apollo through the robbery of the Chryseïs and his revenge on the Achaeans. When the daughter is finally given back to the Apollon priest Chryses, Agamemnon , commander in chief of the Achaeans , demands replacement for his booty and thus comes into conflict with Achilles , who is also dishonored and withdraws from the fighting. The “wrath of Achilles” becomes the bracket of the epic, but finds a new cause towards the end. In Canto 19, Achilles averted the final defeat of the Achaeans through public reconciliation with Agamemnon and his re-entry into the battle, in order to give in to the anger against Hector , who had previously killed his best friend and comrade in arms, Patroclus . Achilles' anger is only moderated in the last or 24th song, when he leaves Hector's corpse to Priam for burial after 12 days of desecration .
The mythical starting point for the Trojan War is the judgment of Paris and his kidnapping of Agamemnon's sister-in-law Helena . Both are described in the Kypria . Knowledge of this is assumed in the Iliad and is therefore only briefly indicated once. The cunning of Odysseus ( Trojan horse ) and the end of the Trojan War are not told in the Iliad, but in the Iliu persis of the so-called Epic Cycle .
The Iliad is one of the most important works in world literature.
The ancient Greek word Ἰλιάς [Iliás] is a feminine adjective to Ἴλιος [Ílios] , an alternative name for Troy ; so it means “belonging to Troy, connected with Troy, Trojan”. If nouned , it can also denote the landscape around Troy, the Troas , or a woman from Troy. The use as a title for the work, which is still known today, is first found in Herodotus Histories (2, 116). This use must have been preceded by a (nowhere documented) connection such as Ἰλιὰς ποίησις [Ilias poíesis] ("the poetry dealing with Troy"). A syntagmatic use of the name can be found before Herodotus in Aeschylus , Simonides von Keos and Euripides . Sappho already writes about the Iliads. When and why the name “Iliad” was able to prevail for a work that does not deal with the entire history of Troy, not even the entire Trojan War, but only one episode from it, is unclear; after all, the so-called cyclical epics also used this framework. Presumably this shows the superior position that the Iliad was accorded in comparison to the other Troy poems.
The question of authorship is difficult to answer because the author did not add a name to his work. The name " Homer " is handed down to us in the 5th century BC. BC also attributed the authorship of the Odyssey , the Cyclic epics , the Troy saga , the Homeric hymns and a few other works. The extent to which he worked on the Iliad or whether his name stands for a group of several editors is controversial. In the first case, the question arises as to how much he contributed to the Iliad. What is disputed, however, is what should be defined as the “Iliad”. You can choose between the plot , the poetic composition and the text . On the question, which can hardly be answered today, Hermann Fränkel states with resignation: “The question must remain open for all time whether Homer, when he put the final touch on the epics, changed a lot or a little about them; whether he was a creative spirit, a skilful editor, an excellent reciter, a hardworking writer - or maybe just the last editor who was no longer succeeded by his honorary title. ” Raoul Schrott's 2007 caused a sensation and severe criticism in the specialist field Thesis put forward that Homer was a court clerk in Cilicia and did not live in western Asia Minor, as was suspected in ancient literature.
The question of the dating of the Iliad is one of the most difficult and controversial in Classical Philology - even in antiquity the authors fluctuated greatly, namely between the 13th and 12th centuries. and 7th century BC It is strongly related to the Homer theories and the authorship - so it has not yet been proven whether the Iliad was linguistically shaped over a longer or shorter period of time. It is viewed both synchronously and diachronically . Since the Homerids - a group of poets emulating Homer - the Iliad has been used in the second half of the 8th century BC. Dated. Even today this is still represented by the majority of specialist scientists, among other things due to new archaeological finds from this time. Since the end of the 20th century, philologists such as Walter Burkert and Martin West have been arguing more intensely for later dating based on workshops. It is also argued for an editorial office at the time of the tyrant Peisistratus or with the Alexandrian philologists . It is also criticized that references to poets, works or art objects related to the Iliad do not have to refer to the written text, but could also refer to oral traditions of the plot. Linguistic arguments for a higher age of the Iliad compared to other works, as cited by many researchers, are now partly disputed.
- Terminus ante quem
Clear references, through which a terminus ante quem can be proven, can only be found in literary form in Alcaios of Lesbos around 600 BC. In the art of the ancient world since 700 BC Scenes of the epic Cyclos are shown, but not the 51 days of the Iliad. Artworks depicting this theme have only been around since 625 BC. To find. Earlier objects could of course be discovered, but the question of the reference to a written text cannot be fully clarified.
- Terminus post quem
Finds of weapons and objects as well as the developed fighting technique speak for the first half of the 7th century BC. Chr. As mentioned above, attempts by text points to post quem Terminus to determine more precisely - so Hom example. Il. 9, 381–384 (description of the hundred-gate Egyptian Thebes ) by Martin Litchfield West not before 663 BC. Dated, Walter Burkert goes even earlier; Hom. Il. 12, 3–33 due to the similarity to the destruction of Babylon's city wall , West is dated 689/688 BC. BC, the reconstruction in the years 678/677 BC BC. Martin West regards the latter date as the terminus post quem , and on the assumption that the text is written in synchronicity, dates to Hesiod (730 to 660, more precisely 680 to 670 BC) - which would be the oldest written work in Greek literature - as was the case before the fourth century BC Was already the case. According to Ernst Heitsch and Martin West, the Iliad contains several documented quotations and references from Hesiod's works. West does not consider the arguments for earlier dating based on allusions to Mimnermos and Tyrtaios to be strong. Finally, the decades from 670 to 640 BC are presented. BC, more specifically the years 660 to 650 BC Adopted as possible date of origin of the text.
The work comprises 15,693 verses in 24 chants , which were written according to the unified alphabet of Eukleides in 403 BC. Are marked with Greek capital letters ; the length of the books varies between 400 and 900 verses.
The motif of anger , which runs through the entire epic, only comes to the fore in a few of the 24 books. Achilles ' anger develops through Agamemnon's dishonor because he steals his booty girl Briseïs to make an example of his power. Achilles bows to this and goes on strike and thus takes a back seat to the Iliad. In the 2nd to 8th books, the narrator can incorporate scenes from earlier war years and depict a first meeting of the warring parties. Achilles is not addressed again until the 9th book, because the other Achaeans have recognized that they cannot survive the Trojans without him and his comrades in arms. Since Agamemnon does not want to apologize for his wrongdoing and Achilles' anger is still too great, he rejects a compromise and is not only against Agamemnon, but also against the other Achaeans . He resolves the death of many of his companions, since Zeus allows the Trojans to get to the Achaean camp. Only then is the battle to be turned. Until that happens, the story is retarded by depicting the battles for the wall in front of the ships and by divine interventions in favor of the Achaeans.
In the 16th book Zeus' plan is fulfilled so that Achilles grants Patroclus to push back the Trojans. But he then attacks the city with high spirits and is killed by Hector , among others . The subsequent struggle for his corpse and the manufacture of new weapons point to the following books. Achilles, appalled at the loss of his friend, then reconciles himself with Agamemnon in the 19th book and, still angry, but now at Hector, storms into battle. Until the final fight with this one in the 22nd book he still fights against some other opponents and even gods. The final overcoming of his anger then takes place after the mistreatment of Hector's corpse and games of the dead for Patroclus' cremation in the 24th book. To do this, he must first get to know the father of his archenemy - Priam - who, like Achilles, suffered a heavy loss.
The structure of the work is outlined below using a table.
|Day Night||Lot||Number of verses||action|
|Proömium||1, 1-7||7th||1. Book : Topic overview|
|day 1||1, 8-52||45||Agamemnon insults and drives out the priest Chryses, who wants to free his prisoner-of-war daughter Chryseïs, whereupon he asks his god Apollon for satisfaction.|
|Days 2-9||1, 53||1||A plague sent by Apollo raged for nine days.|
|Day 10||1, 54-476||423||A meeting of the army is called by Achilles because of the plague in which Agamemnon and Achilles fall apart. A placement by Nestor is not successful. Finally Agamemnon gives in, but demands Achilles' booty girl Briseïs as a replacement, which he does not approve. Achilles' request to his mother Thetis for honor and satisfaction from Zeus. Return of the Chryseïs on Chryse Island.|
|Day 11||1, 477-492||16||Return of the embassy from Chryse.|
|Day 12-20||(1, 493)||(1)||All gods are with the Ethiopians for twelve days.|
|Day 21||1, 493-611||119||The gods are back on Olympus; Zeus grants Thetis Achilles' wish despite Hera's contradiction. Your conflict dissolves in laughter.|
|Night before day 22||2, 1-47||47||Book 2 : Zeus sends Agamemnon a dream that he would now defeat the Trojans.|
|Day 22||2, 48
|3653||First day of slaughter. Army assembly by Agamemnon including examination of the army: The Greeks feel encouraged to leave Troy, but are changed after speeches by Odysseus and Nestor. List of all Greek ship crews and Trojan peoples. Trojans break out of Ilios. 3rd book : Wall exhibition and introduction of the Greek heroes by Helena and Priam. Duel between Menelaus and Paris, from which the latter is saved. 4th book : Oath breach by the Trojans due to an attack on Menelaus. Initially a tie battle. 5th book : Aristie (series of victories) of Diomedes, which among other things leads to the rapture of Aeneas and the wounding of gods. Book 6 : Hector asks Athena in Troy in vain to ward off Diomedes, and there he meets his family for the last time. 7th book : duel between Hector and Aias, which is broken off with slight advantages for the latter. Consultations between the Achaeans and Trojans in the evening.|
|Day 23||7, 381-432||52||Burial of the dead. Truce.|
|Day 24||7, 433-482||33||Construction of a wall and a ditch around the Greek camp. Evening celebration.|
|Day 25||8, 1-488||488||Second day of slaughter. 8th book : After initial advances by the Achaeans, the Trojans, with Zeus' help, can get over the ditch.|
|Night before day 26||8, 489
|1369||The Trojans spend the night in front of the Greek camp, followed by meetings on both sides. 9th book : On the Greek side, a delegation with gifts is initiated to Achilles to appease his anger. After Odysseus, Phoinix and Aias have spoken, Aias rejects a peace treaty. Book 10 : Torn from sleep, Agamemnon sends Diomedes and Odysseus as scouts to the Trojan camp. They meet a Trojan scout, Dolon, extort information from him and then kill him. In the Trojans' camp they kill the Thracian king Rhesus and steal two of their horses, on which they then ride back.|
|Day 26||11, 1
|5294||Third day of slaughter. 11th book : Aristien Agamemnons and Hector. Several Greek princes wounded. 12th book : First Trojan attack on the Greek wall by mainly Asios, Sarpedon and Hector. 13th book : Poseidon supports the Greeks especially briefly after Hector killed one of his sons. Aristias of Idomeneus 'and Menelaus'. 14th book : Hera distracts Zeus with an erotic belt and hypnos lets him fall asleep after the act of love. Poseidon can now better support the Achaeans, who can push the Trojans towards the city again. 15th book : Zeus wakes up angry and calls Poseidon out of the battle. Apollon supports Hector, who can now penetrate to the ships. Book 16 : Patroclus asks Achilles permission to help his Greek friends with the Myrmidons. This allows him to fend off the Trojans and gives him his armor and horses in return. Patroclus uses this, but pushes on and can kill the Lycian king Sarpedon. After Patroclus tries to take Troy four times, he is pushed back by Apollo, who can finally kill him with Euphorbos and Hector. 17th book : Battle for Patroclus' armor, corpse and team. Hector loots the armor, the corpse is protected by Menelaus and Meriones. 18th book : Antilochus tells Achilles about the death of his friend Patroclus. Thereupon he wishes for new weapons from his mother Thetis and drives away the Trojans just by his appearance and his roar.|
|Night before day 27||18, 243-617||375||Polydamas advises the Trojans in a meeting to retreat behind the safe city walls. But Hector can prevail with his wish for the battle to be decided. On the Greek side, people mourn the dead Patroclus. Thetis arrives at Hephaestus, who makes a new shield, armor, helmet and greaves for Achilles.|
|Day 27||19, 1
|2111||Fourth day of slaughter. 19th book : Handover of the weapons from Thetis to Achilles, who then reconciles with Agamemnon in an army meeting. Achilles wants to attack immediately, but the army is to have breakfast first. After renewed complaints about Patroclus' death, they prepare for battle. 20th book : Aeneas attacks Achilles, but is saved from the impending defeat by Poseidon. Achilles' arist. Despite Apollo's ban, Hector attacks Achilles. 21st book : Achilles dishonors the river Skamandros, whereupon the latter attacks him with the Simoeis. Only Hephaestus can save the desperate man. This is followed by a battle of the gods with advantages for the Greek-friendly gods. After the retreat of the other gods, Apollo stays behind and distracts Achilles so that the Trojans can flee into the city. 22. Book : Apollon reveals himself to Achilles, while Hector decides to fight Achilles, but then flees from him first. When he is asked, the gods discuss the outcome of the duel. The balance of fate turns against Hector, whereupon Apollon leaves him and Athena subsequently deceives. Achilles finally kills Hector and grinds his body. The Trojans complain about Hector. 23rd Book : Preparations for Patroclus' Burial.|
|Night before day 28||23, 59-108||50||Patroclus Psyche foretells Achilles' imminent death, asks for a common grave and an early burial.|
|Day 28||23, 110-216||107||Cremation of Patroclus' body.|
|Night before day 29||23, 217-225||9||Achilles donates wine to Patroclus and laments for him.|
|Day 29||23, 226-897||672||Competitions to honor the dead: chariot races with dispute over the placements, boxing, wrestling, running, javelin, archery and javelin throwing.|
|Night before day 30||24, 1-30||30th||24th book : Achilles cannot sleep, mourns Patroclus' corpse and grinds Hector's corpse.|
|Days 29-40||(24, 31)||(1)||Achilles grinds Hector's corpse for a total of twelve days.|
|Day 40||24, 31-158||128||Advising the gods about the theft or return of Hector's body. Achilles is supposed to be asked for the latter, whereupon Zeus sends Iris to Thetis, who presents her son with the commission of Zeus. Achilles accepts this.|
|Night before day 41||24, 159-694||536||Iris asks Priam to ask Achilles with gifts to hand over Hector's body. He gets ready to go and is led by Hermes in the form of a Myrmidon to Achilles' tent. In joint discussions, the two people get to know and appreciate each other. Achilles finally grants Priam the return of the body. During the night, Priam is woken up by Hermes so that he can quickly return to Ilios. This is what Priam does too.|
|Days 41-49||24, 695-784||90||Andromache, Hecabe and Helena complain about Hector. Procurement of wood for Hector's funeral.|
|Day 50||24, 785-787||3||Hector's funeral pyre lit.|
|Day 51||24, 788-804||17th||Burial of Hector's bones.|
→ Additional information on individual people: Figures in the Iliad
People like gods are not characterized by external descriptions of the narrator, but do this through their speeches, which take up around 45% of the entire content. The people can only be sketched by taking snapshots. The hero tries to acquire fame (according to the saying of Peleus: αἰὲν ἀριστεύειν καὶ ὑπείροχον ἔμμεναι ἄλλων [Aien aristeúein Kai hypeírokʰon émmenai Allon] "Always the best and the others be superior") by entering into any venture in the war, virtuous behaves or excels by talking, and still be allowed to show feelings. He is not tired of life and tries to escape death by avoiding the clearly stronger opponent and attacking the opponent if there is a chance of victory. Furthermore, one can achieve fame through elegant speech - whoever acts against these criteria to gain honor will be reprimanded and even beaten for it. Although the noble people claim to be descended from the gods, they are not demigods like the heroes before their time and are not worshiped. Beauty is ascribed to the people in accordance with their royalty - simple people are thus sketched less beautifully. There are a striking number of extras and personal names that only appear once in the work; all extras are nevertheless mentioned by name. In the Iliad it happens only once that a previously deceased person, Pylaimenes, lives again later. The strong character of the characters, especially their problems, which still exist today in the same way, are one of the main reasons why the Iliad remained topical for thousands of years and moved the reader.
- Warring parties
On the Trojan side, which is estimated to have about 50,000 people, fight alongside the Trojans ( Τρῶες [Trōes] ), who with the exception of Hom. Il. 2, 819-823 also Dardanians ( Δάρδανοι [Dárdanoi] ) hot - there they set a quota under Aeneas is - especially the Lycian ( Λύκιοι [Lýkioi] ) that of Sarpedon and Glaucus be cited. This also explains the confusion of language emphasized in the Iliad.
Despite the linguistic unit of the approximately 100,000 to 120,000 Greeks, the opponents of the Trojans are sometimes called Achaeans ( Ἀχαιοί [Akʰaioí] ), sometimes Danaers ( Δαναοί [Danaoí] }) or Argeians ( Ἀργεῖοι [Argeīoi] ), depending on which word is necessary to to form a complete hexameter. The name " Hellene " ( Ἕλληνες [Héllēnes] ) is not used in the Iliad for the entire contingent of Achaeans, but only for the inhabitants of an area that is ruled by Achilles' father Peleus . The all-Greek usage occurs in Hesiod's works and days . The meaning of the "Panhellenes" ( Πανέλληνες [Panhéllenes] ) next to the Achaeans in the second book of the Iliad is controversial.
→ Additional information on individual gods: Figures in the Iliad # gods
“The story of Achilles' resentment could be told almost without speaking of the gods. Almost - but not quite. ", So writes Walter Bröcker about the gods, Gustav Adolf Seeck on the other hand:" The gods are almost without religious significance in Homer, but they are an important narrative medium; because [...] a narrative can be easily controlled and structured through their interventions. ”In the Iliad, the gods of Greek mythology are drawn like humans by the author ( omniscient narrator ) - he gives their deeds, plans and intentions through the inspiration of the muses literally again. In places the gods symbolize people's thought processes - people can determine the intensity of the influence. As a rule, people do not recognize the gods, but see in them the causality for desired and undesired events. The only difference between the gods and humans is their immortality and their higher influence, which they present in part through the transformation into humans - the final decision is up to them - but they too are still dependent on fate or the author. They act arbitrarily and partisan, lying and cheating, and thus behave in no way exemplary. This god-critical image is later taken up by the ancient philosophers . Their all too human errors, the quarrels and love affairs are one of the reasons why the reader was able to empathize with the Iliadic world. Although every God is also an abstraction that cannot be explained by man , he does not have to commit himself. It is also noticeable that the gods act cautiously - especially standing by their friends and opposing their enemies - and so neither the dead can be resurrected nor entire cities can be destroyed at once. Wolfgang Kullmann writes that their activities are even more limited: “That The intervention of the gods in the Iliad does not actually serve to change the situation, but only gives people's own actions [...] at important moments greater significance. ”On the Trojan side, Aphrodite , Apollon and Ares are above all , and in Greek Athene , Hera , Hephaestus and Poseidon . Typical of the Iliad are personifications of things like sleep, dream, death, etc., but also of rivers, winds and the like.
Language and style
Although only 15 days and 5 nights from the beginning of the tenth and final year of the war are detailed, the narrator also goes into the previous and subsequent events. The recipient of the works was probably familiar with the context of the epic and only had to be reminded of it by means of individual references. He retards the story through narratives (such as family trees and life stories), added background information or alternative stories.
Past events can be submitted via reports from humans or gods, for example, in the first book of the Iliad, Zeus' plan to reduce humanity is reported. Likewise, past events are by analepsis brought forward in the later war years. For example, the announcement of the arrival of the greatest army of all time and the pondoscopy - the wall show in which Troy King Priam sees the Greek army approaching for the first time - will certainly not only take place in the tenth year of the war.
Subsequent events are partly proclaimed in prophecies by prolepse - for example the end of the wrath of the god Apollo . Dying or deceased people can also make advance announcements - shortly before their death, Patroclus Hector's imminent death and Hector Achilles' end at the Skaean Gate in front of Ilios announce . After his death, Patroclus meets Achilles in a dream and tells him that he will soon die. References to the fall of Ilios are closely linked to Hector's death. In total there are over 60 such references in the Iliad to the framework of the epic Cyclus .
However, it remains unclear why the epic is presented in such a short time in the tenth year of the war. In contrast to the Odyssey, which crosses several narrative lines, the Iliad has a rather linear structure: Only one motif, the “Wrath of Achilles”, is chosen - this is unique for the early Greek epic. The intervening retrospectives mainly appear in the first half of the epic, while the foresight occurs in the second part.
Epic artificial language
The language of the Iliad was never spoken in everyday life and was not easily understood by the listener and reader. It was conceived orally with formulaic phrases and repetitions in order to be able to fit the content better into the hexameter. This required metric licenses such as metric stretching , metric stretching or synicese (merging of two vowels into a single spoken one), and enjambements are also common . The methodology was adopted from all subsequent Greek epics up to late antiquity and expanded with new vocabulary and forms. She also had a noticeable influence on epigrams , elegy , poetry and tragedy , and even on prose writers like Herodotus .
The basic dialect of the Iliad is Ionic , which is enriched by Aeolian , Attic and older (possibly Achaean, Arcado-Cypriot or Mycenaean) forms. Younger and older forms stand side by side - but do not represent the end of the epic tradition. Later reinterpretations and misunderstandings, as well as catachresis , can also be observed. Some coincidences go back to the Indo-European poetic language . Dual forms are also used here.
The Iliad is periodically built in the engraved (that is, strung together), catalectic dactylic hexameter. A verse is made up of six dactyls (structure: a long syllable [so-called elementum longum ] and two short syllables [ elementum breve ; term for two abbreviations: elementum biceps ]), whereby the last foot of the verse is shortened by one syllable (catalexes). All double shortenings can be replaced by a length so that a dactyl becomes a spondeus (——). In the last half-verse there can be a length or a shortness ( elementum anceps ).
There are special places in the hexameter for word endings. In the foot of the verse, this pause is called a caesura , at the end of the meter diheresis . So-called bridges forbid the end of a word - this is often the case in the fourth dactyl. This results in the following scheme for the twelve to 17 syllable verse:
|.||End of meter|
||||Caesuras - the most common are A4 ( trithemimeres ), B1 ( penthemimeres ), B2 ( katà tríton trochaíon ), C1 ( hephthemimeres ) and C2 ( bucolic diheresis ).|
The Homeric language does not consist of individual words, but of word combinations, so-called formulas, which can often be found in the last third of the hexameter or fill the caesuras of the hexameter. Even the ancient interpreters apparently noticed formulaic adynata (impossibilities) that they tried to interpret. Edzard Visser finally starts from a new setting of “determinants” in every verse, by filling them in with epithets every hexameter can be built. The reciter can use such formulas when improvising. Therefore, the dating of individual, even larger sections of text based on single words is questionable. It is assumed that the formulas could have come from the Mycenaean period. According to Carl Eduard Schmidt, Homer has repetitive verses in 1804 that appear 4730 times in the same wording. There are similar verses in which larger parts are repeated, there would be 5605 - the meaning can be completely changed by changing a word. There are only single words in the Iliad 1097. According to Walter Diehl , the most common motifs in epic formulas include sacrifice, meal, sea and carriage journey, errand, bath, assembly and armor.
As epithet is known in classical philology commonly an epithet that does not have to be situational, as already Aristarchus of Samos in the 3rd century BC. B.C., but fits into the hexameter - so Achilles can also be quick to foot when he is sitting straight. Often the name of a god is added to the end of a hexameter - an expressive position - by an epithet. This usually results in an epic formula, of which there is often only one per metric structure; archaisms are strikingly common here .
Typically for an epic, there is also a Proömium in the Iliad as well as further internal Proömien, which are mostly addressed to the Muses and characterize the following sections. In addition to a religious prayer, the topic is specified or a justification for knowledge of the following material is filed. The theme of the Iliad is mentioned in the very first section, even the first word already described in the manner of Sigel's the theme of the epic: Μῆνις [Menis] "resentment, anger". The beginning of the Iliad reads:
Μῆνιν ἄειδε, θεά, Πηληϊάδεω Ἀχιλῆος
οὐλομένην, ἣ μυρί 'Ἀχαιοῖς ἄλγε' ἔθηκε,
πολλὰς δ 'ἰφθίμους ψυχὰς Ἄϊδι προΐαψεν
ἡρώων, αὐτοὺς .DELTA..di-elect cons ἑλώρια τεῦχε κύνεσσιν
οἰωνοῖσί τε πᾶσι, Διὸς δ' ἐτελείετο βουλή,
ἐξ οὗ δὴ τὰ πρῶτα διαστήτην ἐρίσαντε
Ἀτρεΐδης τε ἄναξ ἀνδρῶν καὶ δῖος Ἀχιλλεύς.
Menin aeide, thea, Peleïad (e) o Akhileos
oulomenen, he muri 'Akhaiois alge' etheke,
pollas d 'iphthimous psukhàs Aϊdi proϊapsen
heroon, autous de heloria teukhe kunessin
oionoisi te pasi, Dios d' eteleieto houle,
eks diasteten erisante
Atreϊdes te anaks andron kai dios Akhilleus.
/ mɛ̌ː̂nin ǎei̯de tʰeǎ | pɛːlɛːiǎde͜ɔ akʰilɛ̌ː̂os
ʊːloměnɛːn | ʰɛː muːrǐ akʰai̯ǒî̯s | ǎlge ětʰɛːke |
polːaːs dipʰtʰiː̌ mʊːs p͜sukʰaːs | ǎidi proǐap͜sen
hɛːrɔː̌ɔːn | au̯tʊːs de ʰelɔː̌ria | těû̯kʰe kǔnesːin
oi̯ɔːnǒî̯sǐ te pǎː̂si | dios deteleǐ̯eto bʊːlɛː̌ |
ek͜s hʊ̌ː̂ dɛː ta prɔ̌ː̂ta | diastɛː̌tɛːn erǐsante
atreǐdɛːs te ǎnak͜s andrɔ̌ː̂n | kai̯ dǐː̂os akʰilːeǔ̯s /
Sing, Goddess, the wrath of Achilles (1) ,
the son of Peleus - the one who brought ruin - who caused innumerable pains to the Achaeans,
and threw many souls of strong heroes (2) against Hades, but
they themselves (3) became prey to the dogs and all (4) made birds
; and so the counsel of Zeus was fulfilled,
from which on the two first fell
apart , the Atreide - the lord of men - and the divine Achilles.
The parables in the Iliad can specify processes for which the author lacks suitable vocabulary - such as "danger", "effortlessness" or terms from the field of weather phenomena - or contrast the framed warfare of the Iliad with peaceful life. These comparisons offer today's reader a glimpse into the world of around three thousand years ago and reveal similarities and differences to his own world. The parables clarify the clarity or exaggeration, but also aesthetic disturbance, the clarity or sensation of the situation by reinforcing the perceptions of the recipient. They are generally structured in three parts: A how-comparison is initiated via a keyword, and then the keyword is explained in more detail in the So section and returned to the narrative structure; In some places, whole comparison lines can be seen. Often more than one point of comparison ( tertium comparationis ) is used in order to present the abstract more clearly. The number of points of comparison is often proportional to the length of the parable, with the larger parables reflecting the core message of the smaller ones. Some parables can omit the actually expected point of comparison in the So section or add something new to it; the opposite is also possible. The language of the parables is often younger than the text surrounding them. The length of the parables varies considerably: the longest parable is 29 verses long, the shortest one verse. Typical themes for parables are the shepherd motif and natural spectacles: Hermann Fränkel categorizes the parables based on "forces of nature" (such as the storm, the sea, the clouds as an image for the people, mountains and rocks, etc.), "trees and plants" (the felling of the tree by a carpenter, leaves, etc.); “Field cultivation” (mowing down the grain, the seed field, plowing, etc.), “stars, lightning and fire” (a star, the moon, lightning, fire, etc.), “physical, technical and dimensional comparisons” (for example “fast such as the wind ”, the“ standing battle ”),“ depictions of predators and hunting images ”(lion, wild boar, boar, snake, panther, deer, etc.),“ herds of animals and herds ”(for example flies, birds or swarms of bees and wasps, wolves , Shepherds and flocks), "individual animals" (such as horses, birds of prey, cicadas, bulls, donkeys, dogs and worms), "aquatic life", including Fränkel gulls, polyps and fish, "woman, child and family among humans and animals" (Wife, widow, (lion) father, mother) and "gods", whose parables are rare and then mainly appear as brief comparisons. There are more parables in the Iliad than in the Odyssey. The number of parables depends on their definition; Hermann Fränkel counts 389 major and 138 minor parables.
Also typical of epics are ekphraseis , i.e. descriptions of objects. The greatest example of the Iliad is in the 18th book the description of Achilles' new shield that Hephaestus forges for him. In addition, Agamemnon's armaments scene should be mentioned before his aristia .
In contrast to the Odyssey , the Iliad contains catalogs of names of persons and objects that are typical for the later period. In addition to the Myrmidon catalog and the Nereïden catalog in the later chants of the Iliad, the so-called ship catalog of the Achaeans and the enumeration of the contingents of the Trojans, which cover around half of the second book, should be mentioned here.
- Ship catalog and catalog of Trojans
Introduced by a call to the muses, the leaders of the 1186 ships with patronymic icons are systematically given in over 250 verses . Almost exclusively in comparison, the hometowns of the contingents and the number of ships are given. For the boats of the Booter and the contingent of Philoctetes , the number of crews is given as 120 and 50 men respectively. Presumably they stand for the largest and smallest number. In the middle of the row is the ship of Odysseus, on the edges that of Achilles and the great Aias. The list follows a very specific scheme and also mentions places that were built after around 1100 BC. BC no longer existed. The generally linguistically young passage could not originally have been designed for the Iliad, but for the departure from Aulis , for example , and was later supplemented - the medieval manuscripts D, T, R, G and O, as well as a papyrus, even omit the ship catalog. In addition to the euhemeristic portrayal of Asklepios and the detailed report by Boeoters, who otherwise rarely act in the Iliad, above all the two verses on the great Aias are to be mentioned, which, in addition to the lack of patronymic, are striking because of their brevity and the mention of their location. No other fleet does this. The interpretation goes so far that this verse was inserted to manifest Athens' claim to Salamis , whose leader the great Aias was here, to Megara . Although Dieuchidas and Hereas , among others, noticed this interpolation in antiquity , it was not possible for them to uncover a change in the text in favor of Athens with a different edition of the Iliad.
The content of the epic was probably developed in certain units and performed by Aöden at royal courts or at festivals with more than 20,000 spectators after an introductory hymn from memory - in the Iliad this is only attested once, here for your own entertainment. For the Panathenaic Festival , the recitation of the Iliad has been used since Hipparchus around 520 (probably 522) BC. Occupied. Every four years, the epics were performed in full, presumably over three to four days, and were finally taken up as school reading - the extent to which the Athenian citizens had the opportunity to learn from grammar teachers is uncertain.
Just as the authorship and dating are controversial, the research is also divided on the written form - possibly there was in the 8th century BC. Chr. No suitable material to record the Iliad, possibly the rhapsodes used notes with an overview of the epics for their lecture. For example, Albert Lord speaks in favor of dictating the text, and Joachim Latacz, Richard Janko and Uvo Hölscher in favor of handwritten writing . Christian Gottlob Heyne first came up with the rejection of the written form in 1789. Heitsch sums up the situation as follows: “Reasons can be given for all [...] positions, and all [...] are represented today - with neglect, of course or trivializing the counter-arguments. ” Research also assumes that a price list is edited . Porphyry tells us that Theagenes of Rhegion was the first to interpret Homer in an ethically correct manner. Once the text was written down, it was no longer possible to drastically change the content - in Plato or Aeschines there are even greater deviations from the text that has come down to us. This had an impact so far on the forward from that in Sprechvers reciting rhapsodies formerly improvising Aöden peeled off. Only since the 5th century BC Reading by book prevails. According to Ernst Heitsch, an Attic specimen has come down to us due to linguistic anomalies . Was written.
Around 1500 text excerpts (and 130 processed works) from the Iliad on papyrus have been with us since around 300 BC. Known (they were written until the 7th century AD), but many finds have not yet been published or deciphered. The largest part comes from the 2nd or 3rd century AD. The papyri after about 150 BC. Often differ only slightly from the medieval manuscripts we have received - a papyrus from the 3rd century BC. B.C. contains, for example, around 90 verses of the eighth book 30 additional, the average of added verses is around 10%. The reason for this is probably the text standardized by Aristarchus. Nevertheless, there was probably no copy of the Homeland state, as was the case with the tragedians . The papyri can hold a few letters to several books, with books one and two being represented more often than the rest; individual passages of the text have not survived on papyrus.
Alexandrian and late antique tradition
Very important for the transmission of the epics ascribed to Homer are the arrangements made by the directors of the library of Alexandria Zenodotus of Ephesus , Aristophanes of Byzantium and Aristarchus of Samothrace (and later Eratosthenes of Cyrene ) since the 3rd century BC. The three philologists were the first to deal critically with the Homeric text and, in addition to text editions on the passages that caught their attention, also wrote commentaries on Scholia . The latter split into kind comments about a particular property or language problem and line comments, so-called Hypomnemata that verse by verse illuminate a text and corrupt places Remove (later also Apollodorus of Athens ). The Alexandrian school was more concerned with the latter commentaries - here Aristarchus of Samothrace's work should be mentioned in particular - the Pergamon school with factual commentaries. In addition to other manuscripts, Aristarchus also used Zenodoto's edition. Neither the commentaries nor the text editions have survived to us in full, but their work has been preserved through works by grammarians and philosophers, as well as interlinear scholias in Homer manuscripts [text notes between the individual lines of original texts] - these were collected by Hartmut Erbse and Helmut van Thiel .
The work was mainly by Aristonikos (on the critical signs that Aristarchus and his predecessors used to mark the text), Didymos Chalkenteros ("On the Aristarchus Edition [Homers]"; he probably also used the editions of Euripides the Younger - Euripides des Elderly son or nephew -, Antimachos von Kolophon , Sosigenes from Alexandria and Philemon ), Nicanor Stigmatias (on Aristarchus 'accentuation of the Homerext) and Ailios Herodianos (on Aristarchos' punctuation) continued, commented and in probably early Byzantine times of the 10th century Comment, the so-called four - man comment , summarized. This philological work is the basis for the most important Homer manuscript , the Venetus A (today in the Biblioteca Marciana in Venice ).
Inspired by Photios I , the Byzantine Empire of the 9th century dealt more intensively with literature - in the second half of this century there are fragments of the Iliad in St. Catherine's Monastery on Sinai and a dictionary of words including further background information. In the next century, the above-mentioned Venetus A manuscript was written there, which also contains marginal and interlinear scholia, including the four-man commentary.
Middle Ages and Modern Times
Over 200 codices from the Middle Ages and the Renaissance have been known since the 9th century (handwriting Z). The first manuscript to reproduce the complete text of the Iliad can be found in the 10th century. Due to the good tradition and the associated large number of manuscripts, a complete listing of these is unlikely. In 1358, at the request of Francesco Petrarch , Leontius Pilatus translated parts of a Greek Iliad manuscript into Latin for the first time in post-ancient times . In 1488 Demetrios Chalkokondyles published the editio princeps in Florence on the basis of several today lost, imprecise manuscripts, in 1566 in Paris Henricus Stephanus ' important edition under the title Poetae Graeci Principes Heroici Carminis . After 1700 the first commentaries on Homen , still written in Latin , appeared by Joshua Barnes (Cambridge 1711) and Samuel Clarke (London 1729 to 1740). After the publication of Venetus' A by Jean-Baptiste Gaspard d'Ansse de Villoison (1788; discovered 1781), Friedrich August Wolf published his groundbreaking book Prolegomena ad Homerum sive de Operum Homericorum prisca et genuina forma 1795, which according to Joachim Latacz was the first artist archos 'Could surpass work. In 1802 Christian Gottlob Heyne published his text edition of the Iliad, which represented the greatest advance since Richard Bentley's discovery of the Digamma in 1713.
The work of Ameis - Hentze (- Cauer ) (for the Iliad 1868 to 1886 [supplemented until 1913]) was and is groundbreaking for the Homer commentary , in the English-speaking world the commentary by Walter Leaf (1886), based on Ameis-Hentze (- Cauer) s comment is based. The latter was followed by a comment by Geoffrey Stephen Kirk and colleagues (1985 to 1993 for the Iliad), who presented the current state of research. Due to the split between the English and German-language Homer commentary based on the work of Parry and Lord, this commentary is mainly limited to English-language research. In order to keep the German-language Homer and especially Iliad research up to date, Joachim Latacz and colleagues are working on the so-called Basel Homer Commentary . According to the still reliable text edition by Arthur Ludwich (Leipzig 1902–1907, reprint Stuttgart / Leipzig 1995), Thomas W. Allen's editio maior ("main edition", Oxford 1930) should be emphasized, in which many manuscripts are cited, in some cases only in excerpts become. In addition to this editio maior , Allen's edition with David Binning Monro (1902), as well as the 1995 by Helmut van Thiel and the 1998/2000 by Martin Litchfield West are among the most popular modern editions.
Main research questions
Location of Ilios
In the 19th century, ancient scholars agreed that the historical background of the Trojan War, like other Greek legends, could no longer be grasped. Archaeologists suspected the Homeric Ilios - on the assumption that the core of the legend might not be to be found in Anatolia but in Greece - in central Greek locations; however, it was also equated with Bunarbaschi or Ballı Dağ in the Troas. It was not until Heinrich Schliemann's excavations at Hisarlık from 1870 onwards that philological views changed - Franz Kauffer and Edward Daniel Clarke had previously determined the site (1787 and 1801, respectively), while John Brunton and Frank Calvert began excavations. After Schliemann's death, the excavations were continued by Wilhelm Dörpfeld , Carl Blegen , Manfred Korfmann , Ernst Pernicka and Rustem Aslan . The scientists who believe in a real core of the Trojan War identify the sixth or the seventh layer with the Homeric Ilios. Dörpfeld linked the destruction of the late Troy VI with the capture by the Greeks, while Blegen favored Troy VIIa, since according to his investigations Troy VI had been destroyed by an earthquake. Many researchers agreed with this thesis. Blegen dated the end of Troia VIIa around the middle of the 13th century BC. However, more recent dates vary between the early 12th century and the early 11th century BC. In the meantime, it is therefore more often represented that Troia VIh, which according to today's research was around 1300 BC. BC or in the first half of the 13th century BC BC found its end, which could have been Homeric Ilion.
The Troy debate in 2001 shows that the importance and extent of Troy in the late Bronze Age are still being questioned . As additional evidence of Ilios' great importance and localization in the Troy, some of the research suggests that in Hittite cuneiform texts from the 14th and 13th century BC Mentioned Wiluša and the only once (in CTH 142) attested to Taruiša possibly related to Wilusa considered, which are connected by many scholars with Ilios or Troy. From a linguistic point of view, equating Wiluša with Ilios and Tariuša with Troy is considered possible despite some phonetic problems, but the localization of Wiluša in the Troas is uncertain. Frank Starke and David Hawkins came to the independent conclusion in 1997, after evaluating newly discovered or reinterpreting known written documents regarding the topographical information for Western Anatolia, that Wiluša was now localized in the Troas, but above all Susanne Heinhold- Krahmer showed that some central supports in the arguments are uncertain and that some information in Hittite texts cause problems with a localization in the Troas, but without explicitly rejecting the equation of Wiluša with Ilios. Whether Wiluša can be connected to Ilios and identified with the Hisarlık settlement remains controversial. In addition to a number of supporters, there are also strict rejecters of this thesis, as well as those who urge caution without explicitly specifying for or against a certain localization.
Generally, the question of a specific localization of the event is viewed as irrelevant to the Ilias text itself . In 2007 the comparatist Raoul Schrott located the location of the Iliad in Cilicia , which led to great contradiction in the specialist field.
Iliad and Homeric Question
→ Main article: Homeric question
The "analysis" (and modern antiquity ) was founded (based on preliminary work by Giambattista Vico ) by Friedrich August Wolf's book Prolegomena ad Homerum , published in 1795 , in which he set Homer's lack of writing and thus sought oral models. Homer was no longer seen as the inventor of the conception, plot and text of the Iliad that had come down to us, and he tried to reconstruct a "primordial Iliad" that Homer had created. In addition to linguistically supposedly younger scenes, “ugly” scenes were also removed - Wolf, for example, removed the last six books from the Iliad - Walter Diehl sums up the danger as follows: “[…] The third restriction is the risk of being closed the investigation easily follows a subjective judgment. The judgment of the individual about the fitting of the place is different. ”Nevertheless, in the 19th century, despite objections from Johann Wolfgang von Goethe , Friedrich Hölderlin and Friedrich Gottlob Welcker, this Homer theory was predominant. Pioneering was Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff's The Iliad and Homer from 1916/1920 (and later Karl Reinhardt's The Iliad and its poet ), in which Wilamowitz-Moellendorff writes: “The single poem that suffices for a lecture was the before the Iliad prevailing form and has remained alongside and after it. ”However, Wilamowitz-Moellendorff does not try to discover (and remove ) these individual songs, but rather to look for the function of these songs for the Iliad. Furthermore, the “Analysis” accepts further written additions to the text - so Wilamowitz-Moellendorff continues: “[…] her [the Iliad sc.] Is not that one, but that many important poets come to us in her talk, including the Iliad poet, and the same is true of his work ”. Gustav Adolf Seeck sums up the “analysis”: “The analysis had become an end in itself and the Iliad and Odyssey remained as a heap of rubble, i. H. one had almost completely lost sight of the whole and its own quality. […] The Homer analysis failed, […] but since the question of the genesis of the Iliad and Odyssey is in itself justified, analytical considerations, albeit on an appropriately differentiating basis, are still fundamentally not unreasonable, and it may be that one Day a (at least halfway binding) solution is found. "
Unitarianism and Neoanalysis
Above all, Wolfgang Schadewaldt tried to counter the different results with his "structural analysis", Heinrich Pestalozzi and Wolfgang Kullmann and thus founded a more enlightened variant of Unitarianism, the neoanalysis. The term was first used by Johannes T. Kakridis . Neoanalysis tries to explain the aesthetic weaknesses found by the analysis in such a way that the text, despite oral influences, can only be traced back to one person (mostly Homer) who may have worked on her work for several decades. Gustav Adolf Seeck commented: “You [sc. the Unitarians] had the right aim of showing the Iliad and the Odyssey as unified poems. But since they were inclined to completely deny traces of origin and discrepancies or to cover them up with artificial interpretations, they found little approval in a scientific environment fixated on the historical perspective. ”The neoanalysis also assumes subsequent rhapsodic changes, but limits them apart from tenth book, which they mostly describe as spurious, on individual verses and formulas. The fact that the tenth book was accepted as spurious by some Unitarians - according to the analytical results - led to a “moderate Unitarianism”. Joachim Latacz comes to the conclusion in the New Pauly that “in the main structure [...] the narrative is composed as an obviously well-planned unit - without any real overlaps, duplicates, logical gaps and contradictions in the basic plan; Lengths and colorations can certainly reflect the successive work of the original author on his gigantic work and do not have to be insertions by someone else's hand. The opinion is gaining ground that the Iliad was written and the work of a great poet. "
Oral poetry theory
Inspired by the research of Mathias Murko at the beginning of the 20th century, Gerhard Gesemann and especially Milman Parry were able to develop a new theory of Homer interpretation in the 1920s and 1930s. Parry is working on around 12,500 texts of South Slavic heroic poetry, which are individually shorter than Iliad or Odyssey (an epic by Avdo Mededovič , however, had over 12,000 verses), but have a larger repertoire of individual singers. He even ascribed to the poet of the Iliad that he did not understand what he was singing because he was quoting old formulas that he could no longer understand. According to this line of research, the - mostly historical - contents of the epics are roughly defined. The singer is still given the freedom to improvise the works in a formulaic language optimized for the performance (Homeric is also seen as a language adapted for the hexameter) - some passages in the poem are nonetheless unchangeable (see " Epic formulas ") . From the fact that formulas and the like can also be found in the Iliad, Parry's pupil Albert Lord concluded in 1953 that these works must also be the result of oral poetry - this does not clarify whether they could themselves be oral poetry. Lord thus justified the "oral poetry theory", through which exact inquiries about certain abnormalities in orally performed works want to be circumvented - Gustav Adolf Seeck and Albin Lesky contradict: "As far as the general understanding of Homer is concerned, this theory [...] done more harm than good because Homer uses formulas, but does not work with formulas, but with motives ”and“ We fully agree with fundamental reservations against the Parry School, where it tends to place the original poet over the one who works with formulas To forget aoids. ”In recent years, computer-aided evaluations have attempted to relativize the formulaic nature of the Homeric epics. Ernst Heitsch sums up: “It is [...] not wrong if we first say that for our Iliad and Odyssey, oral poetry definitely belongs in the prehistory; All that remains to be clarified is what is meant by prehistory and what is meant by 'our Iliad'. "
The Iliad (and also the Odyssey) influenced many literary genres, authors, artists and scholars in Europe through its early development and the complexity of its content - be it as a continuation or reinterpretation. That is why this can only be sketched in this overview - Joachim Latacz with resignation: "Whether Homer's history of impact will ever be fully comprehensible must in fact be doubted."
Reception in literature
- Cyclic epics
- → Main article: Epic cycle
The Cyclic epics include the Cypria, the Iliad, the Aithiopis , the Little Iliad, the Nostoi, the Odyssey and Telegonia . The Cyclic epics without the Iliad and the Odyssey are probably from the 7th or 6th century BC. BC to fill the frame of the two great epics. The texts have only survived to us in fragments, but the contents of the individual works have been handed down to Proklos from the 5th century AD.
Great differences are found between the Iliad and the Odyssey in language, style, disposition and the moral demeanor of the gods, which lead to the dating of the Iliad before the Odyssey. Whether the two works were written by a poet is disputed. Even in antiquity there was a dispute about whether the Iliad and the Odyssey were by the same author. The group of people who refused a joint authorship for both works called themselves " Chorizontes ". Almost nothing of their works has survived, but since Aristarchus of Samothrace argued against them, the core theses can be reconstructed. Even Aristotle called for unity. The first modern approaches to separating the author of the Iliad and the Odyssey can be found in François Hédelin , which were later intensively taken up - the assumption that the Odyssey as a whole is older than the Iliad, however, according to Walter Diehl, was not yet expressed until 1938. In his comparison, all repetitions in the Odyssey are secondary to the verses in the Iliad, with the aim of continuing the Iliad.
- Homeric hymns
- → Main article: Homeric hymns
33 hymns in the catalectic , dactylic hexameter , which contain three to 580 verses, are from the eighth to the second century BC. Narrated and attributed to Homer. The four greatest hymns are those of Apollon , Aphrodite , Demeter and Hermes - in this order they are dated in the critical edition of Allen-Halliday-Sikes. At the time of Thucydides and Pindar, the hymns were possibly still called Proömien. In addition to formula verses, which can also be found in the Iliad, the mention of a blind man from Chios, who some scholars equate with Homer, should be mentioned in the Apollo Hymn.
In his works, Theogony and the Works and Days , Hesiod uses a language similar to the Iliad and Odyssey. With 1022 or 828 verses, they are shorter than the Iliad (or Odyssey) and do not deal with a motif such as the anger of the Iliad, nor the depiction of war events or heroes - but Herodotus emphasizes the introduction of the Greek gods through Homer's and Hesiod's works. In the works and days , Hesiod's time is described, whereas the narrator of the Iliad reports on an earlier event. He gives biographical information in his works and knows (besides the events around Thebes ) the Trojan War, but does not mention Homer, the Iliad or the Odyssey in his works. The catalog of women attributed to Hesiod collects in the middle of the sixth century BC. The Greek myths up to the Trojan War.
Even the nine lyric poets addressed the Iliad - Stesichorus wrote these and other epics of Kyklos in up to 1,500 verses large Kleinepen in the meter of iambic 'order. Longinus calls Stesichoros and Archilochus Homerics. Whether Sapphos , Archilochus ', Alkmans and Mimnermos ' poems could refer to the Iliad is controversial - but the first is later called "female Homer" by Antipater of Thessalonica . Simonides von Keos writes an elegy in which he compares the Greek victory before Ilios with that of the Spartans before Plataia - elegies are written in the same meter as the Iliad and also deal with topics that overlap with the epic (for example in Tyrtaios and Kallinos , but later also to be found at Solon ). Semonides of Amorgos literally quotes a passage from the Iliad and ascribes it to a blind poet from Chios . In fragment 151, Ibykos von Rhegion emphasizes that he does not want to write about the events of the Trojan War, but praises the tyrant Polycrates .
The Certamen Homeri et Hesiodi reports on a competition between Homer and Hesiod, in which Homer has to answer Hesiod's questions and then both authors have to quote verses from their works. Although the audience voted for Homer as the winner, King Panedes presented Hesiod with the trophy. The partially iambic Margites was attributed to Homer by Aristotle . Herodotus, in turn, sees Homer as the possible author of the Theban epic Epigonoi ; to what extent Hecataeus of Miletus was influenced by the Iliad and the Odyssey is uncertain.
The pre-Socratics and natural philosophers Parmenides , Empedocles , Heraclitus Anaxagoras and Anaximander deal, among other things, with the criticism of the immoral behavior of the iliadic gods and the introduction of philosophical instead of anthropomorphic gods, as described in the Iliad. Xenophanes does this before these. Metrodorus von Lampsakos interprets the Iliad allegorically as a kind of "organism" in which Achilles, for example, represents the sun and Hector the counterpart, the moon. The gods stand opposite one another as elements.
The classical poet Pindar mentions Homer three times (adding that he was as highly regarded as Homer in his time) and the Homerides once. Panyassis von Harlikarnass and Antimachos von Kolophon write an Ionica and Heracleia or Thebais in the tenor of the Iliad and Odyssey .
The Greek tragedy takes epic material such as that of the Iliad as a template and adapts it primarily for its depictions of gods. This is especially in Aeschylus ' Seven Against Thebes , The Persians and the first two works of the Oresteia (here with kyklischen influences) - but in addition also the work was not received Achilleustrilogie with the tragedies The myrmidons , the Phrygian and Hector's solution - to find . Likewise in Sophocles ' Aias , Philoctetes , Die Trachinierinnen and King Oedipus ; as well as in Euripides ' Die Troerinnen , Die Phoenikerinnen , Hecabe , Andromache , The wreathed Hippolytos and in the second part of Heracles .
The only appearance of the iris outside of the Iliad is found in Aristophanes ' clouds . The latter portrays his gods as ruthlessly as those of the Iliad. The extent to which his image of the Iliad is distorted by the comedy used by him - for example in the Acharns - cannot be precisely determined.
Herodotus quotes eleven verses from the Iliad and Odyssey and is considered "Homeric" for Longinus. Similar to the ship catalog, Herodotus describes the command of Xerxes I , but criticizes the representation of the Iliad Helena . Thucydides quotes a verse from the Iliad (and 13 from the Apollonhymnos ), looks for the background to the Trojan War and describes it as less important for the Greeks than the Peloponnesian War .
Plato's Socrates criticizes the immoral and anthropomorphic demeanor of the gods and describes the Iliad and Odyssey (as in Laughs ) as unsuitable for upbringing, whereupon he banishes Homer's epics from his fictional state - but love and respect for Socrates prevent him from saying anything negative about Homer say, whom he describes as the first "tragic poet". He criticizes poetry as an imitation ( mimesis ) of imitation, since reality is already an image of ideas , but allows hymns for gods and songs of praise to "good people". In the work Ion , Socrates discusses with the rhapsody Ion about his homecognitions, the lecture and the presentation of the epics - that they convey no knowledge . In the Hippias Minor , Socrates speaks with Hippias von Elis about the difficulty of determining the intention of the Iliad. Finally, in the Apology , Socrates reinterprets Achilles' words for his defense.
There were also Homer dictionaries of, for example, Antimachus of Colophon , Philetas or Simias of Rhodes - in general the interest of the commentators was directed more towards linguistic questions, and this above all by the Sophists . Gorgias ' Helena and Palamedes , but also Hippias von Elis ' and Protagoras ' views that have come down to us about Plato's dialogues , deal with the ethical and rhetorical thoughts of the Iliad. As a countermovement, a criticism of Homer emerged, which was primarily against ethical views and to which Aristotle was critical. The latter reflects that a poet does not have to tell what happened as it was, but what could have happened, and assumed a single author for the Iliad (the only legitimate epic poet), which was only confirmed by the rebellion against its analysis in the 18th century Century has been questioned. In Poetics, like Plato in the Politeia, Aristotle names the Iliad and Odyssey as the origins of the tragedy and in De anima he compares different expressions for the same subject in the Iliad.
In the so-called Frog Mouse War (Batrachomyomachia), the Trojan War, as well as the language and style of the Iliad, are caricatured on the basis of disputes between frogs and mice. Hekataios of Abdera wrote a treatise on Homer and Hesiod, Demetrius of Skepticism on the Trojan catalog. The Hellenistic philosophical directions Stoa and Epicureanism saw the archaic poetry less as literature than as ethnographic material - Zeno von Kitions Homeric Problems is completely lost. Poseidonios saw scientific sources in Iliad and Odyssey and compared them with Aratos von Soloi's works in the book Comparative Studies on Arat and Homer in Mathematical Questions . According to Marcus Tullius Cicero , the Stoa interprets the works ascribed to Homer so allegorically that Homer must also have been a Stoic. - just as the sophists saw Homer as the first sophist. It should be noted, however, that only a few stoic-interpretive commentaries on the Ilias have survived.
The poet and Alexandrian librarian Callimachus hates the Cyclic epics and recommends writing shorter works - he also writes hymns that are similar to those ascribed to Homer, among other works. Contrary to the recommendation writes Apollonius of Rhodes in his Argonautica in four books and about 6100 verses the Argonauts in the style of the Iliad and the Odyssey by, converting the (here still frequent) parables and the scenery around. He enriches his material with scientific-technical and geo- and ethnographic topics. In addition to the accuracy of the text, he also pays attention to humor. The occasions that are more frequent in number stand in opposition to the leitmotif of the Iliad, anger.
Roman Republic and Imperial Era
In Roman times, Greek was learned in schools using the Iliad and the Odyssey. Livius Andronicus (including in the tragedies Achilles and Equos Troianus ["Trojan Horse"] and in his epic Odusia ), Naevius and Ennius were the first Latin- speaking authors known to us to deal with topics from the Iliad and Odyssey. Pacuvius wrote from around 200 BC At least eight tragedies related to the Trojan War. Later, first recorded for Publius Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus Africanus , quotations from the Iliad were used, for example to compare the destruction of places with them. The Annales written by Ennius were later replaced by Virgil's Aeneid as a folk epic - as the Iliad was for the Greeks. Aeneas sees the course of the Trojan War on the Temple of Juno in Carthage and then follows the fatum to Latium in order to initiate the foundation of Rome there (and thus to conclude the Trojan saga). The second part of the Aeneid in particular, the last third in Knauer's case, is based on the Iliad. In addition to the third letter of the Heroides - a conversation between Achilles and Briseïs - Ovid wrote the Metamorphoses , in which he also took up Iliadic motifs and above all the age of the hero. Like Virgil, he presents rather secondary characters and locations from the Iliad. Properz subordinates himself to the “war service of love” and distances himself from the epic in his elegies , but hopes (as a Roman love-electic ) to live on like Homer through his works. Also Plautus , Marcus Tullius Cicero (in his letters), Seneca (among others in his Apocolocyntosis ), Horace and others deal with the reception of Iliad (and Odyssey), often ironic and umdeutend for her statement. In 68 AD a Latin summary of the Iliad, the so-called Iliad Latina , was completed.
Titus Petronius ' Trimalchio tries to be characterized by verses from the Iliad and Odyssey in his banquet . Also Numenios dealt with the epic and assumed that the Iliad was part of the original Enlightenment. Publius Papinius Statius wrote an unfinished but influential Achilles , in which Achilles, like the authors before him, is not portrayed negatively. The epic Callirhoe (probably mid-1st century AD) by Chariton frequently quotes the Iliad and the Odyssey and outlines the characters in a similar way to the two epics. This is similar with Achilleus Tatios 'novel Leukippe und Kleitophon (around 150 AD) and Heliodorus ' novel Aethiopica (second half of the 3rd century), which tells a very entangled, often retrospective story. The Egyptian Triphiodoros wrote a short epic about the Trojan War in the second half of the 2nd century. An extensive, almost completely preserved epic telling the story of the Trojan War after the Iliad ( Posthomerica ) was written by Quintus of Smyrna . In the so-called Second Sophistic , Epiktet , Pausanias , Strabo and Plutarch draw on the contents of the Iliad and Odyssey. On the rhetorical side, Dion Chrysostomos ( Trojan speech ) and Flavius Philostratos ( Heroikos ) transform the course of the Trojan War. Although it is not known exactly how intensively the Iliad and Odyssey was worked on in the school for Hellenism and the Imperial Era, Plutarch (especially the work of an unknown grammar ascribed to him : De Homero “About Homer”), Aelius Aristides , Dion Chrysostom, Flavius Philostratos and Cassius Maximus Tyrius to know the complete text of the Iliad.
On the Christian side , there was criticism of the polytheistic faith from the 4th century - with the exception of Julian's reign , but above all in Basil's adulescentes ("The Young Men") . Even Augustine of Hippo , sits like Plato , critical of the gods of the Iliad and the Odyssey apart and rejects the non-Christian, polytheistic from faith. He complains about the difficulty of translating the works and probably advises against reading it for this reason. This did not cause any problems for Jerome , who was living at the same time . Claudian even mentions in his work De nuptiis Honorii et Mariae that the future wife of the main character Flavius Honorius knows Homer, Orpheus and Sappho and describes Homer as the father of the poets. Fulgentius von Ruspe is said to have known the Iliad and Odyssey completely by heart in the 5th century . At this time Dares Phrygius wrote a report on the Trojan War, Dictys Cretensis a “Diary of the Trojan War” in six books. Nonnos von Panopolis writes in 48 books and around 25,000 in the style of the Iliad and Odyssey of the triumphal march of Dionysus to India. The writings of Plotinus , Porphyrios and Proclus are important for the interpretation of the Iliad in connection with Plato's works .
Central and Western Europe in the Middle Ages
For almost the entire Middle Ages, knowledge of the Iliad was lost and the usefulness of reading it was doubted, but the name of the author and the Iliad Latina , which is later used as school reading, have been passed down - Peter von Pisa carmen 11, 5 compares Paul the deacon with Homer, although the former couldn't speak Greek. Furthermore, Wigbold , Rabanus Maurus , Ermenrich von Ellwangen , Pseudo-Dionysius Areopagita , the Panegyricus Berengarii , Liutprand from Cremona , Widukind von Corvey , Balderich von Bourgueil , Archipoeta , the Roland song (verse 2616), the Roman de Thèbes were concerned (Verses 1 to 10) and Bénoît de Sainte-Maure with the Iliad and Homer. The reason for the general ignorance of the Iliad was probably Augustine's writings. The work of Bénoît de Sainte-Maure, which was influenced by Dares Phyrgius and Dictys Cretensis , was translated by authors into several languages; among others Herbort von Fritzlar (“Daz Liet von Troye”), Konrad von Würzburg (“Trojan War” - an unfinished epic of 40,424 verses, which was written in Basel in 1280) and Guido delle Colonne ( Historia destructionis Troiae ). With the Dialogus super Auctores , written by Conrad von Hirsau in the first half of the 12th century, and the anonymous Accessus Homeri of the 11th century, Iliad and Odyssey are again honored. The second work separates a "Homerus latinus", who wrote the Iliad Latina, from a "Homerus graecus". According to Conrad von Hirsau, he is said to have written the works De excidio Troiae et eius decennali obsidione ("On the destruction of Troy and the ten-year siege") and minor Homerus . The latter - the "little Homer" - reports on Achilles' bravery and is said to have been translated into Latin by the Theban philosopher Pindarus . This "Pindarus Thebanus" was then placed as the author of the Iliad Latina and placed qualitatively behind the original poet of the Iliad. During this time, many rulers saw themselves as descendants of the Trojans.
Dante Alighieri only mentions the Iliad by means of a quotation from Aristotle 's Nicomachean Ethics and Homer in the Divine Comedy - he was probably only known to the Iliad Latina and the works of Dares Phrygius and Dictys Cretensis . Francesco Petrarca wants to be a follower of Homer in his early work Africa . He used a manuscript of the work Periochae Homeri Iliadis et Odyssiae from the circle of Ausonius (who also wrote about Homer and encouraged reading) and a Homer code, which Nikolaos Sigeros gave him in 1353, for his writings. However, he had difficulty reading the Greek text. At this time, Leontius Pilatus was the first to translate the Iliad and Odyssey into Latin and finished his work in 1362. It was not until 1397 that Manuel Chrysoloras' teaching of ancient Greek enabled a more intensive study of the Iliad and other ancient Greek texts.
In the Byzantine Empire , the polytheistic worldview was taught using the Iliad and Odyssey - the students dealt with the Iliad or the Odyssey using 30 to 50 verses per day. The Iliad dealt with, among others, Demo , Michael Psellos (who, according to his own statement, could recite the Iliad by heart at the age of nine), Isaak Komnenos and Isaac Porphyrogennetos . In addition to scholia, so-called epimerisms were created for school lessons by Georgios Choiroboskos, for example , which break up the verses into individual words and then explain them, marginalia and interlinear translations (by Manuel Moschopoulos, for example ). Only the first two books were edited. The already frequently mentioned Venetus A was written in Byzantium - the longest preserved, complete Ilias manuscript.
In Byzantium, the 12th century formed the aetas Homerica ("Homeric Age"), in which scientists studied the Iliad intensively and cited it most frequently in their literature. Johannes Tzetzes wrote the works Exegesis to Homer's Iliad and "Homeric Allegories", as well as Iliadic poems ( Carmina Iliaca ), in which he describes the framework history of the Iliad. Eustathios of Thessalonike writes commentaries on the Iliad and Odyssey, which relate, among other things, to the four-man commentary , and polemicizes against Tzetzes, because he does not write his works on behalf of a noblewoman - the Empress Bertha von Sulzbach - but his students. He deals comprehensively with the works and thus also deals with realities and customs . As a Homer lover, he sees the Iliad as a wonder of the world and as the origin of almost all literature. In his history, Niketas Choniates compares the French, who destroyed Constantinople in the Fourth Crusade in 1204, with barbarians who were illiterate. The court writer Konstantin Manasses sees it quite differently , who like his colleagues who produced world chronicles , rejected the historical accuracy of the Iliad and linked it with biblical history . Konstantin Hermoniakos processes the content of his and Tzetze's works in an epic comprising 9,000 eight-syllable verses. At the end of the Byzantine Empire, an Achilles ("Tale of Achilles") and the so-called "Byzantine Iliad", both of which were created without knowledge of the ancient Greek original text - an anonymous author of the "Trojan War" (after the 12th century; 14,000 unsympathetic fifteen -syllables) doesn't even mention Homer anymore. The translation of Nikolaos Loukanis from ancient Greek into modern Greek was important for knowledge of the Iliad in modern times . The first translation of the Iliad into a modern language ever processed Konstantin Hermoniakos' work and was published in 1526 in 138 woodcuts.
The first translations of the Iliad into Latin and modern languages made it possible for modern writers to deal more intensively with this epic - the first translations can be found by Simon Schaidenreisser (1537; first German translation) and Johann Spreng (1610) . Influences of this can first be found in a chivalric novel by Matteo Maria Boiardo , Gian Giorgio Trissinos Italia liberata da 'Gotti (1547), Torquato Tasso's La Gerusalemme liberata (1570) and William Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida . Nevertheless, Virgil's Aeneid is almost exclusively preferred to the Iliad and Odyssey, as a result of the “ Querelle des Anciens et des Modernes ” Homer was even drastically attacked and only rehabilitated by Johann Joachim Winckelmann . Johann Wolfgang von Goethe , like Winckelmann, was enthusiastic about the "holy Homer". His Achilles , which continued the Iliad , however, remained unfinished. It should be a reaction to Friedrich August Wolf's criticism of Homer. By Johann Heinrich Voss ' translation of the Iliad (1793) and Gustav Schwab's Most legends of classical antiquity (1838-1840) was increased interest in the Iliad. Later, Jean Giraudoux's The Trojan War Doesn't Take Place and Heiner Müller's drama Zement (1972) again deal with the Iliad. Christa Wolf Kassandra emphasizes the brutality of war in the same way, especially by calling Achilles “Achilles the cattle”.
Voss's translation also had an impact on English-language literature: George Gordon Byron (especially in Don Juan ), William Blake , John Keats , William Hazlitt , Percy Bysshe Shelley , Alfred Tennyson and Robert Southey are interested in the ilias and odyssey female authors (such as Anna Laetitia Barbauld , Felicia Hemans and Mary Robinson ) are mostly not mentioned - Mary Shelley is an exception . After all, Homer was even more respected than Shakespeare, was depicted in the center of the frieze of the Albert Memorial and was placed in front of the jubilee at the celebration of Robert Bridges' 300th birthday . Alexander Pope , George Chapman , William Cowper , Matthew Arnold and Francis William Newman worked on English translations . More modern English-language novels related to the Iliad include The Private Life of Helen of Troy by John Eskine , The Great Legend by Rex Stout, and Homer's Daughter by Robert Graves. More recently, the novel cycle Ilium (2004) and Olympus (2005) by the American writer Dan Simmons has developed strong ties to the Homeric epic.
The present day is still characterized by the reception of the Iliad in literature (for example Derek Walcott's Omeros ) and art, however, as a study from 2007 by the “Casimirianum” Coburg high school showed, there is only limited knowledge of the original text.
Reception in art
Similar to the composition of the hexameter using formulas in the Iliad, vase painters could also fall back on certain repetitive structures. To what extent the representations on works of art such as the Nestor Cup relate to the texts of the Iliad and Odyssey, or to possible oral preliminary stages, is difficult to answer. The number of works of art related to the epic Cyclos increases in the 6th century BC. - Klaus Fittschen counts 43 art objects (including 16 for Iliad and Odyssey) up to this time, Ahlberg-Cornell 77 (25). The first vases of the epics ascribed to Homer relate to the Odyssey, especially to the blinding of Polyphemus - the games for Patroclus' corpse can be found on a vase from around 600 BC. BC Vitruvius spoke in the 1st century BC. BC of Roman wall paintings depicting events from the Iliad - these can still be seen today in the so-called cryptoportic house and in the house of D. Octavius Quartio on Via dell'Abbondanza in Pompeii .
After little knowledge of Homer and the Iliad in the Middle Ages, an anonymous artist initially created book illustrations for Konrad von Würzburg's Trojan War (around 1440–1445) . Several depictions of scenes from the Trojan War followed (by Bartholomäus Spranger , Pieter Schoubroeck and Lucas Cranach the Elder , among others ), but these do not refer directly to the Iliad. In Romanticism , which saw Homer as an incomparable poet, Angelika Kauffmann , Benjamin Robert Haydon and Johann Heinrich Füssli were particularly interested in the depiction of subjects from the Iliad. In 1793, in response to the French Revolution , John Flaxman made pictures of violent scenes from the Iliad in the style of Greek vase painting . Cy Twombly depicted the 50, actually 51, days of the Iliad in his work Fifty Days at Ilium ; even before that, he dealt with the Iliad in Achilles Mourning the Death of Patroclus . In 2001, Mimmo Paladino depicts the most important scenes from the Iliad and Odyssey in 202 illustrations.
Theater and film
On April 12, 1989, The Iliad des Homer was premiered in the Düsseldorf Schauspielhaus under the direction of Hansgünther Heyme and Hanns-Dietrich Schmidt . The performance of two parts of two and a half hours each follows a modern scientific translation for the first time - that of Wolfgang Schadewaldt - and should also be made into a film - the planning failed for financial reasons.
As early as 1902, with Le jugement de Pâris (“The Paris Judgment”) by Georges Hatot, a motif sketched out in the Iliad was processed on film, a little later (1910) a film was made about the Trojan War - La caduta di Troia by Luigi Romano Borgnetto and Giovanni Pastrone . Other silent films were the three and a half hour film Helena , which was published in 1924 by Manfred Noa in the two parts The Rape of Helena and The Fall of Troy in Germany. Like Alexander Korda's The Private Life of Helen of Troy (based on the novel of the same name by John Erskine ), this film was long lost and was not reconstructed until 2001. There are many sound films with reference to the Iliad, but almost always not only the short section of the Iliad but the entire Trojan War is shown. Performances include Robert Wise's The Beautiful Helena , John Harrison's television film Helena von Troja , Marino Girolami's L'ira di Achille ("Achilles. The Wrath of the Warrior") and Wolfgang Petersen's Troy - the gods often play little or no role. Petersen comments on his decision to choose the theme of the Iliad as follows:
“You once again make clear the fundamentals that determine everything we do to this day. Name me a dramaturgical turn, tell me an ingenious principle of figure drawing - Homer has already used everything, 3000 years ago. If there is such a thing as a tree of storytelling, where every book, every film is a tiny leaf, then Homer is the trunk. But not only that. Look at the present! What the 'Iliad' says about people and wars is just still true. "
- Homeri Opera. Edidit Thomas W. Allen . Oxford 1902.
- Homerus: Iliad . Recensuit Helmut van Thiel . Hildesheim 1996, ISBN 978-3-487-09459-5 .
- Homeri Iliad. Recensuit / testimonia congessit Martin Litchfield West . Two volumes:
Johann Baptista Rexius (1584) is considered to be the author of the first German-language version of the Iliad, a prose translation . The most widespread and most persistent translation, however, comes from Johann Heinrich Voss from 1793. Although it no longer meets the current state of research and the demands of a modern readership, this translation is an influential achievement in the series of translations of the Work.
- Homer: Iliad. Odyssey. Trans. V. Johann Heinrich Voss. Insel Taschenbuch, ISBN 3-458-32904-8 ( at digbib.org , at the Gutenberg project )
Wolfgang Schadewaldt's translation of the Iliad from 1975 is highly valued in specialist circles . It is written in free verse (or rhythmic prose) and is considered to be the most faithful translation of the original into German.
- Homer: Iliad. Insel, Frankfurt 1975, ISBN 3-458-31853-4
In addition to these, numerous other translations were created, for example
- Homer: Iliad. New translation, epilogue and index by Roland Hampe . 1979, ISBN 3-15-010290-1 (translation of the Iliad in hexameters)
- Homer: Iliad. Retransmitted by Raoul Schrott . Hanser, Munich 2008, ISBN 978-3-446-23046-0 .
From 2005 to 2007 Schrott worked on a new translation in rhythmic prose on behalf of the Hessischer Rundfunk , which will be broadcast by Deutschlandfunk . ( Radio play online , Homer, ILIAS. Transferred by Raoul Schrott. Commented by Peter Mauritsch )
- Homer: Iliad , translation by Hans Rupé , Tusculum Collection , De Gruyter, 16th edition 2013.
- Gods and people in the Trojan War. The 24 books of Homer's Iliad, based on the original texts, translated into German by Ludwig Bernays, EDITION SIGNAThUR, Dozwil 2013, ISBN 978-3-908141-90-7
- Homer: Iliad. Translated by Kurt Steinmann . Manesse, Munich 2017, ISBN 978-3-7175-9022-4 .
For a wider reading public, there were various retellings of the Iliad material early on:
- Gustav Schwab : Troy. Insel-Taschenbuch, Frankfurt / Leipzig 2004, ISBN 3-458-34717-8 (is not limited to the anger of Achilles, but also describes the prehistory of the war and the conquest of Troy)
- Homerus, Iliad and Odyssey. Retold by Walter Jens . Pictures by Alice and Martin Provensen , Ravensburg 1956, ISBN 978-3-473-35503-7 .
- Franz Fühmann : The wooden horse. Berlin 1968 (tells the Iliad and Odyssey in easily understandable, yet challenging language).
- Homerus, Iliad. Declared for school use by Karl Friedrich Ameis . Edited by Carl Hentze . Leipzig 1905–1932.
- Walter Leaf , The Iliad. Edited, with Apparatus Criticus, Prolegomena, Notes and Appendices. 2nd edition London (Reprint Amsterdam 1960). ( available online )
- The Iliad: A Commentary. General edited Geoffrey Stephen Kirk . (6 volumes) Cambridge 1985-1993, ISBN 978-0-521-31209-7
- Homer's Iliad: Overall Commentary . On the basis of the edition by Ameis-Hentze-Cauer (1868–1913) ed. by Joachim Latacz . Munich / Leipzig 2000 ff. ISBN 978-3-598-74302-3 ( background information )
Used specialist literature
- Walter Bröcker : Theology of the Iliad. Klostermann, Frankfurt 1975, ISBN 978-3-465-01111-8
- Walter Diehl : The literal relationships between the Iliad and the Odyssey. Greifswald 1938.
- Friedrich Eichhorn : Homer's Iliad. Its general becoming under the hand of the poet and its final form. Horn 1971, ISBN 3-11-004045-X
Robert Fowler (Ed.): The Cambridge Companion to Homer. Cambridge 2004, ISBN 978-0-521-01246-1 ; in this
- Richard Hunter : Homer and Greek literature. Pp. 235-253.
- Joseph Farrell : Roman Homer. Pp. 254-271.
- Timothy Webb : Homer and the Romantics. Pp. 287-310.
- James I. Porter : Homer: the history of an idea. Pp. 324-343.
- Lorna Hardwick : "Shards and suckers": contemporary receptions of Homer. Pp. 344-362.
- Hermann Fränkel : Poetry and philosophy of the early Greek culture. 3. Edition. Munich 1976, ISBN 978-3-406-37716-7 , pp. 1–103
- ders .: The Homeric parables. 2nd Edition. Göttingen 1977, ISBN 978-3-525-25734-0
- Wolf-Hartmut Friedrich : wounding and death in the Iliad. Homeric modes of representation. In: Treatises of the Academy of Sciences in Göttingen. Philological-historical class. Third episode No. 38. Göttingen 1956, ISBN 978-3-525-82306-4
- Ernst Heitsch : Epic Artificial Language and Homeric Chronology. Heidelberg 1978, ISBN 978-3-533-00468-4
- ders .: Collected writings I: On the early Greek epic. Munich / Leipzig 2001, ISBN 3-598-77701-9
- ders .: Old and new on the Iliad. Reflections on the genesis of the work. Stuttgart 2006, ISBN 978-3-515-08884-8
- Ludwig Hasper : Contributions to the topography of the Homeric Iliad. Brandenburg 1867
Wolfgang Kullmann : Homeric motifs. Edited by Roland J. Müller . Stuttgart 1992, ISBN 978-3-515-06206-0 ; in this
- A pre-Homeric motif in the Iliasproömium. Pp. 11–36 (originally published in Philologus . Berlin 1955, pp. 167–192)
- To the Διὸς βουλή [Diòs boulē] of the Iliasproömiums. Pp. 36–37 (originally published in Philologus. Volume 100, Berlin 1956, pp. 132–133)
- The rehearsal of the Achaean army in the Iliad. Pp. 38–63 (originally published in Museum Helveticum . Volume 12, Basel 1955, pp. 253–273)
- The daughters of Agamemnon in the Iliad. Pp. 64–66 (originally published in Gymnasium . Volume 72, Heidelberg 1965, pp. 200–203)
- Past and future in the Iliad. Pp. 219–242 (originally published in Poetica. Volume 2, Munich 1968, pp. 15–37)
- Gods and Men in the Iliad and the Odyssey. Pp. 243-263 (originally published in Harvard Studies in Classical Philology. Volume 89, Harvard 1985, pp. 1-23)
- Interpretation and meaning of the gods in Euripides. Pp. 319–338 (originally published in Mythos, Deutung und Meaning. Innsbruck Contributions to Cultural Studies, 1987, pp. 7–22)
- Some remarks on the Medieval Homer image. Pp. 353–372 (originally published in Michael Borgolte and Herrad Spilling (eds.): Litterae medii aevi. Festschrift for Johanne Autenrieth . Sigmaringen 1988, pp. 1–15)
- Friedrich Gottlieb Welcker on Homer and the epic Kyklos. Pp. 373–399 (originally published in William Musgrave Calder III , Adolf Köhnken , Wolfgang Kullmann & Günther Pflug (eds.): Friedrich Gottlob Welcker. Werk und Effect. Stuttgart 1986, pp. 105–130)
- Joachim Latacz : Homeros. In: The New Pauly (DNP). Volume 5, Metzler, Stuttgart 1998, ISBN 3-476-01475-4 , Sp. 686-699.
- Joachim Latacz (Ed.): Homer's Iliad. Overall comment. Prolegomena. Saur, Munich / Leipzig 2000, ISBN 3-598-74300-9 ; in this
- Joachim Latacz: On the Homer comment. From the beginning to this comment. Pp. 1-26.
- Martin Litchfield West : History of the Text. Pp. 27-38.
- Joachim Latacz: Formula and orality. Pp. 39-59.
- Rudolf Wachter : Grammar of the Homeric Language. Pp. 61-108.
- René Nünlist : Homeric Metric. Pp. 109-114.
- Fritz Graf : On the inventory of figures in the Iliad: Gods. Pp. 115-132.
- Magdalene Stoevesandt : On the inventory of figures in the Iliad: people. Pp. 133-143.
- Joachim Latacz: On the structure of the Iliad. Pp. 145-157.
- René Nünlist & Irene JF de Jong : Homeric poetics in keywords. Pp. 159-171.
- Joachim Latacz, Thierry Greub , Peter Blome & Alfried Wieczorek (eds.): Homer. The Myth of Troy in Poetry and Art. Munich 2008, ISBN 978-3-7774-3965-5 ; in this
- Joachim Latacz: Why Homer? Pp. 15-17.
- Peter Jablonka : The location of the Iliad. Pp. 81-89.
- Sigrid Deger-Jalkotzy : The pre-Homeric epic - clues and probabilities. Pp. 99-105.
- Stefan Hagel : The singers from a music-archaeological perspective. Pp. 106-111.
- Ernst-Richard Schwinge : The large structure of the epics. Pp. 151-156.
- Irene JF de Jong : Homer's Storytelling. Pp. 157-163.
- Arbogast Schmitt : God and man in Homer. Pp. 164-170.
- Martin Litchfield West: History of Lore. Pp. 182-194.
- Peter Blome: The Reception of Homeric Poetry in Greek Visual Art. Pp. 196-207.
- Anton Bierl : The Reception of Homeric Poetry in Greek Literature. Pp. 208-214.
- Hellmut Flashar : The reception of Homer by the philosophers. Pp. 215-220.
- Henriette Harich-Schwarzbauer : Homer in Roman literature. Pp. 245-250.
- Carolina Cupane : The Homer Reception in Byzantium. Pp. 251-258.
- Thierry Greub: Proximity and Distance to Homer: The Artistic Reception of Homer in Modern Times. Pp. 265-275.
- Bernd Seidensticker : Homer's literary reception in modern times. Pp. 276-282.
- Martin M. Winkler : Tell me, Muse, the father of mass culture: Homer in commerce and cinema. Pp. 283-289.
- Dietrich Mülder: Iliad. In: Paulys Realencyclopadie der classischen Antiquity Science (RE). Volume IX, 1, Stuttgart 1914, Col. 1000-1057.
- Albin Lesky : Homeros. In: Paulys Realencyclopadie der classischen Antiquity Science (RE). Supplementary volume XI, Stuttgart 1968, Sp. 687-846.
- Ian Morris & Barry Powell (Eds.): A new companion to Homer. Leiden 1997, ISBN 90-04-09989-1 ; in this
- Gustav Adolf Seeck : Homer. An introduction. Stuttgart 2004, ISBN 978-3-15-017651-1
- Bruno Snell : Poetry and Society. Hamburg 1965, ISBN 978-3-546-48557-9 , pp. 30-55
- Martin Litchfield West: The Date of the Iliad. In: Museum Helveticum . Volume 52, Basel 1995, pp. 203-219 ( )
Other important specialist literature
- Cecil M. Bowra : Tradition and Design in the Iliad. Oxford 1930, ISBN 978-0-8371-9561-2
- John Chadwick : Linear B. The decipherment of the Mycenaean script. Göttingen 1959, ISBN 978-3-525-25706-7
- Irene JF de Jong : Narrators and Focalizers: The Presentation of the Story in the Iliad. 2nd Edition. London 2004, ISBN 978-1-85399-658-0
- Richard P. Martin : The Language of Heroes: Speech and Performance in the Iliad. Ithaca 1989, ISBN 978-0-8014-2353-6
- Peter von der Mühll : Critical Hypomnema on the Iliad. Basel 1952, ISBN 978-3-7965-1677-1
- Milman Parry : L'Epithète traditional dans Homère. Paris 1928
- ders .: The Making of Homeric Verse: The Collected Papers of Milman Parry. Edited by Adam Parry. Oxford 1971, ISBN 978-0-19-520560-2
- Pietro Pucci : Odysseus Polutropos: Intertextual Readings in the Odyssey and the Iliad. Ithaca 1987, ISBN 978-0-8014-1888-4
- Karl Reinhardt : The Iliad and its poet. From the estate. Edited by Uvo Hölscher . Göttingen 1961, ISBN 978-3-525-25716-6
- Wolfgang Schadewaldt : Iliasstudien. 3. Edition. Darmstadt 1966, ISBN 978-3-534-09424-0
- ders .: From Homer's world and work. Essays and interpretations on the Homeric question. 4th edition. Stuttgart 1965, ISBN 978-3-87425-117-4
- Arbogast Schmitt : Independence and dependence on human action in Homer. Hermeneutic studies on Homer's psychology. AAWM 1990/5. Stuttgart 1990, ISBN 978-3-515-05726-4
- Johannes Spreng : Homerus: Ilias Homeri. This is Homeri, the ancient, excellent Greek poet, XXIIII. Books. The 12th books of Aeneidos deß ... Publij Virgilij Maronis, of the stories and tremendous deeds of the Troian hero Aeneae…. Published by Willer, Augsburg 1610; online in the digital collections of the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek ( reader.digitale-sammlungen.de ).
- Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff : The Iliad and Homer. Berlin 1916, ISBN 978-3-487-13136-8
- Friedrich August Wolf : Prolegomena ad Homerum sive de Operum Homericorum prisca et genuina forma. Hall 1795 ( excerpts )
- Iliad in Greek and German (Voss) at gottwein.de
- Perseus Digital Library: Iliad (original Greek text and English translations)
- The Chicago Homer (Greek and English text with multiple search options)
- Original recitation of the Iliad ( Internet Archive )
- Extensive literature review of the Austrian Academy of Sciences
- Iliad passages, quoted from Wolfgang Schadewaldt's translation of the Iliad
- Cf. 6, 145–149 with Mimn. fr. 2, 1-4; 22, 71-76 with Tyrt. fr. 10, 21-30.
- 3, 149-160.
- On the saying cf. 11, 783-784; 1, 348-351; 9, 442–443.410–416 (Achilles ultimately opts for immortal glory); 18, 115-116; 22, 365-366,435-436 et al. 24, 3-11.
- 1,286; 2, 265-269 et al. 18, 105.
- On demigods cf. 1, 260-274; only exception for the designation of the Achaeans as demigods in 12, 17–24, cf. Hes. erg. 156-160 u. Bryan Hainsworth , The Iliad. A Commentary , Vol. III, Book 9-12, Cambridge 1993.
- To compare royalty with beauty, cf. 2, 211-219 et al. 3, 161-180.
- 2, 802-806 et al. 4, 436-438.
- 9, 395.
- 2, 530.
- 1, 188-222 and 18, 311.
- Exceptions 3, 395-409; 5, 183 u. 6, 128.
- 4, 320 and 24, 525-528.
- 5: 900-901; see. Frankel (1976) pp. 58-70.
- Before speaking, the metamorphosis is often only related to the voice, e.g. 2, 790–791; 13, 215-216 et al. 20, 81-82; Fränkel (1977) p. 10 note 1.
- You can be absent for a short time, cf. 1, 423-427; for the final decision, e.g. 7, 101-102.202-205 and the like. 24, 525-528; the only exception, however, is 20, 100–102 - to 16, 780 cf. Norbert Blößner , The Singular Iterata of the Iliad. Books 16–20 , Stuttgart 1991, pp. 32–38; Bröcker (1975) p. 30 and Heitsch (2006) p. 12.
- 16, 431-461 and 22, 167-187; see. Eckhard Leitzke , Moira and God in the old Homeric epic , Göttingen 1930; WC Greene , Moira , Cambridge / Massachusetts 1944 a. Brocker (1975) pp. 36-37.
- 16, 33-35.
- 2, 330-332.
- E.g. 11, 218-231; 16, 698-701 et al. 22, 466-472.
- See 1, 5 with 2, 110-118; 9, 17-25; 11, 52-55; 12, 13-19; 17, 645-647; 19, 270-274 et al. 20, 20-25; see. on the other hand 8, 470-472 u. 13, 347-350.
- 2, 798-799 and 3, 161-244.
- 16, 851-854 and 22, 358-360; see. 17, 201-208; they invoke the gods. This is not the case in the Odyssey, cf. Kullmann (1985) p. 8 (= Kullmann (1992) p. 249).
- 23, 80-81.
- Cf. e.g. 1, 458-469 with 2, 421-432.
- Cf. e.g. 3, 50–51 with 24, 706.
- E.g. 2, 484-492
- 17: 51-60.
- E.g. 5, 84-94; 6, 504-515; 12, 141-153 et al. 13, 489-495.795-801, cf. e.g. Hom. Od. 13, 81-85; for comparison series 11, 473-486 u. 16, 156-167.
- 2, 455-483
- For the Storm 11, 305-309.747-749; 12, 37-40.373-376 et al. 20, 51-53; for the sea 2, 144-146.207-210.393-397; 4,422-428 (449); 9, 1-8; 11, 296-298; 13, 794-801 et al. 14, 16-24,389-401; for mountains and rocks 15, 615–622 u. 17, 746-747; for clouds as an image for the people 3, 8–14; 4, 275-282; 5, 519-527,864-867; 13, 334-338; 16, 64-70.297-302.364-367 and 23, 131-134; see. Fränkel (1977), pp. 16-35.
- For the carpenter e.g. 3, 59–63; 4, 482-489; 5,569-570; 11, 86-91 et al. 13, 177-181, 389-392 (= 16, 482-486). 436-441; for the leaves, for example 2, 464-468.799-801; 6, 144-149 et al. 21; 462-467; see. Fränkel (1977) pp. 35-41.
- For Mowing Down 11, 67–72; 19, 221-224; 20, 495-499; for the seed field 2, 147-149 u. 23, 596-600; for plowing 13, 703-708 u. 17, 742-746; see. Fränkel (1977), pp. 41-47.
- For the star 5, 3–8; 6, 293-295.508-515; 8, 555-562; 10, 545-547; 11, 62-66; 14, 184-185; 19, 380-383,397-398; 22, 25-32.131-135; for the moon 8, 555-562; 19, 371-374 et al. 23, 452-455; for flashes 10, 5-10, 150-154; 11, 64-66.80-83; 13, 239-245; for fire 1, 101-104; 2, 455-458.780-785; 5, 3-8; 11, (148) 155-162; 12, 463-466; 14, 389-401; 17, 735-741; 19, 15-18.364-368.375-380; 20, 490-499; 21, 12-17,522-525 and the like. 22, 131-135; see. Fränkel (1977), pp. 47-52.
- For the phrase "as fast as the wind" 10, 436–437; 16, 148-151 et al. 24, 95-96,339-344; for “standing battle” 12, 432–438 u. 15, 408-414; see. Frankel (1977), pp. 52-59.
- To the Lion 3: 24–28; 5, 134-143.161-164.472-476; 7, 255-257; 11, 113-121.172-178.548-557; 12, 41-50.290-308; 13: 198-205; 15, 271-280,592-593,630-640; 16, 487-491.751-755.818-829; 17, 61-69.107-113.540-542.657-665; 20, 164-175; 21, 479-484; 22, 261-266 et al. 24, 39-44; zum Eber 11, 323-326; 12, 41-50, 146-152: 16, 818-829 and the like. 17, 281-287; on lion, wild boar and boar, for example 17, 20-23; for the serpent 3, 33-37; 12, 200-209; 22, 93-97; for the Panther 21, 573-582; for the stag 1, 225; 3, 24-28; 4, 242-246; 11, 472-483; 13, 99-106 et al. 15, 271-280; see. Fränkel (1977), pp. 59-70.
- For Flies 2, 469-479; 4, 127-131; 16, 641-644; 17, 567-574; for birds 2, 459-466; 3, 1-14; 17, 755-759; for swarms of bees and wasps 2, 87–93; 12, 167-172; 16, 257-267; for Shepherds 4, 470-472; 12, 70-74; 13, 99-106; 16: 155-167,351-357; for shepherds and flocks 2, 474–477,480–483; 3, 191-198; 4, 275-283,433-436; 10, 180-189 et al. 13, 489-495; see. Frankel (1977), pp. 71-76.
- 18, 483-608; see. Klaus Fittschen , Bildkunst I: The Shield of Achilles, Göttingen 1973 a. Fulvio Canciani , Bildkunst, Göttingen 1984.
- 11, 15-46.
- 16, 168-197; 33 Nereids are listed, cf. 18, 39-49; see. Norbert Blößner , The Singular Iterata of the Iliad. Books 16–20, Stuttgart 1991, pp. 49–58; 2, 494-759,816-877.
- 2, 484-493
- 2, 510 and 2, 719.
- 8, 222-226.
- 9, 185-189; see. Fränkel (1976) p. 10.
- Further primary literature, abbreviated to the list of abbreviations of ancient authors and work titles
- See additions with χώρη [kʰōrē] "Land" in Hdt. 5, 94, Ἀθηναίη [Atʰēnaíē] "Athenian" in Hdt. 7, 43 and γῆς [gēs] "earth" in Hdt. 5, 122 and 7, 42; see. Aeschyl. Ag. 453: Ἰλιάδος γᾶς [Iliádos gās] "of the Iliadic land"; Simonides , in: Felix Jacoby , The fragments of the Greek historians , 1a, 8, F fragment 6; Eur. Andr. 128,141,301,489,797, El. 4, Hec. 102.905.922.931.941.1008.1061, Hel. 1114, Rhes. 236.366b u. Tro. 245.526.1256.
- Sapp. fr. 44.
- For the fact that the work would otherwise have become too big and too complex, cf. Aristot. poet. 23.1459a17-b2 and 26.1462b 10-11; Seeck (2004) p. 16 speaks out in favor of the Alexandrian librarians when it comes to dating, see “ #Alexandrians and late antique tradition ”.
- Herodotus sets the earliest possible point for the Iliad in 850 BC. At, cf. Hdt. 2, 53.
- Alc. Fr. 44, 6-8 (cf. fr. 42 and 283).
- Cf. Simonides , in: Felix Jacoby , The Fragments of the Greek Historians , 1a, 8, F fragment 6.
- Hdt. 2, 116 assigns a passage from today's 6th book to the “heroic deeds of Diomedes”, which in later manuscripts represents the heading of the 5th book; see. Plut. De vit. hom. 4.
- On the other hand, cf. Hom. Od. 8, 83–86, Odysseus does not want to be recognized here.
- Hor. Ars 359.
- See Hes. Op. 653.
- See Hom. Od. 1, 337-338.
- See Hom. Od. 8, 62-64.
- See Hom. Od. 4, 653-656.
- See Hom. Od. 14, 83-84.
- See Hom. Od. 1, 32-34; Hdt. 6, 11.109 and Plut. Nicias 17, 4; see. Brocker (1975) pp. 27-30; Christian Voigt: Considerations and decision. Studies on the self-conception of man in Homer. Berlin 1933 a. Frankel (1976) pp. 58-83.
- Cf. Xenophanes fr. VS 21 B 11 (as well as VS 21 B 14, 15 and 16); Georg Finsler , Homer , 1924, p. 66 interprets this passage as only applicable to the Iliad, Diehl (1938) p. 4 argues against it; see. Fränkel (1976) p. 59.
- Porph. Quaestiones ad Homericae ad Il. 8, 555 with Hom. Il. 8: 155-156; for further examples cf. Latacz (2000b) pp. 39-40.
- See Hor. Ars 140–152.
- For the former, e.g. 9, 14–17; for the second e.g. Hom. Od. 16, 216-219; see. Fränkel (1977), p. 8.
- Felix Jacoby , The Fragments of the Greek Historians, 485 F 5 and 486 F 4; on the Attic writing of the text cf. West (2000) p. 30.
- For the units cf. Hom. Od. 8, 492-498 et al. Hdt. 2, 116: ἐν Διομήδεος Ἀριστηίῃ [en Diomēdeos Aristēíē] "in the Aristie of Diomedes ", cf. Frankel (1976) pp. 13-14; for the audience cf. Plat. Ion 535d, cf. Seeck (2004) pp. 19-20.44-45; on reciting from memory cf. Hom. Od. 11, 328-331; 17, 512-520 et al. 22, 345-349; Hes. Op. 654-657, cf. Hermann Koller , Das kitharodische Prooimion: Eine formgeschichtliche Studium, in: Philologus, Volume 100, Berlin 1956, pp. 159-206 u. Frankel (1976) pp. 9-17.20-24; for the structure of a lecture see p. 15 note 15; Latacz (2000a) p. 3; on the musical instruments cf. Hagel (2008) pp. 106-111.
- Plat. Hipparchus. 228b; Lycurgus. Oratio in Leocratem 102 a. Diog. Laert. 1.57; on the other hand Plut. Pericles 13; see. West (2008) p. 182 and Martin Litchfield West, History of the Text, in: Joachim Latacz (Ed.), Homer's Ilias. Overall comment. Prolegomena, Munich / Leipzig 2000, p. 29 and Martin Litchfield West, The Gesch. of the text, in: J. Latacz et al., Homer, Iliad. Ein Gesamtkomm., I 2, 1999
- Xenophanes fr. VS 21 B 10; see. Aristoph. Daitales fr. 233 K. A .; Plat. Prot. 338 6-8; Plat. rep. , Book 10, 606e-607a et al. Xen. symp. 3, 5; see. Llewelyn Morgan , Patterns of Redemption in Virgil's Georgics, Cambridge 1998; Ineke Sluiter , Commentaries and the didactic tradition, in: Glenn W. Most (Ed.), Commentaries - Comments, Göttingen 1999; Greg Horsley , Homer in Pisidia: aspects of the history of Greek education in a remote Roman province, in: Antichton, Volume 34, Perth 2000, pp. 46–81; Raffaella Cribiore , Gymnastics in Mind, Princeton 2001; Fränkel (1976) p. 29 and Latacz (2000a) pp. 3-4.
- Porph. Quaestiones ad Homericae ad Il. 20, 67 = Theagenes fr. VS 8 A 2, 13; Tatianos 31 p. 31, 16 Schwartz = Theagenes fr. VS 8 A 1; Theagenes fr. VS 8 A 2.
- See Goethe's letter to Schiller of May 17, 1795, in which Wolf's criticism of Homer is presented as "devastation"; see. Friedrich Gottlieb Welcker , The epic cycle or the Homeric poets, Bonn 1865–1882, Internet source, commented on by Kullmann (1986) pp. 105–130 (= Kullmann (1992) pp. 373–399) and. Eichhorn (1971) p. 7.
- Hdt. 2, 117 speaks out against a Homeric authorship.
- Aristot. to post. 2, 92b 30 u. 93b 36; Aristot. metaph. 6 1030a 7, 1030b 7 and 8 1045a 12.
- See Thuk. 3, 104 u. Pind. N. 2, 3.
- Cf. Hdt. 2, 53.
- See Hes. Th. 22-35 and Hes. Op. 27-41,633-660.
- See Hes. Op. 161-165.
- See Stesich. fr. 19 (u. 192); for stitch. fr. 19 and further examples of the reinterpretation of the Iliossage cf. Porter (2004) p. 327 note 14.
- Archil. fr. 114 u. 196A.
- See. De LONGINUS sublimitate 13, 3.
- Sappho fr. 1, 15, 16, 31 and 44; Archil. fr. 2, 4, 5, 114 and the like 128; Mimn. fr. 2.
- Cf. Anth. Pal. 9, 26, 3.
- See Semonides fr. 19 with Hom. Il. 6, 146-149.
- Cf. Aristot. poet. 1448b.
- Cf. Hdt. 4, 132.
- Cf. Herakl. fr. 42 u. 56
- See Xenophan. fr. 11, 14-16, 23 and 26; see. Criticism of Religion # Ancient Greek Philosophy .
- See Pind. N. 7, 20-30
- So already Aeschylus: Athenaios Deipnosophistai 8.347e (= Test. 112), who describes his tragedies as "plays from the great meal of Homer", and others. Aristot. poet. 4, 5, 23 and 24.
- Cf. e.g. Aischyl. Hept. 36-68 u. Pers. 230–245 with Hom. Il. 3, 161-244.
- In Soph. Test. 115 Polemon of Athens calls Homer the epic Sophocles and this the tragic Homer.
- Cf. Aristoph. Oh. 45–46 with Hom. Il. 2, 212-215; 581-587 with 6, 466-470.
- See. De LONGINUS sublimitate 13, 3.
- Cf. Hdt. 7: 61-99.
- See Thuk. 1, 1.10.11 and 2, 41.
- Cf. Plat. Laugh. 181c-184d.
- Cf. Plat. rep. , Book 2, 376e to 385c, Book 10, 595b 9 to 595c 3 u. 606e to 607b.
- Cf. Plat. rep. , Book 10, 607a and Plat. Tht. 152e-153a.
- Cf. Plat. rep. , Book 10, 607a.
- Plat. Hipp. min. 365c-365d.
- Cf. Plat. apol. 28b – d with Hom. Il. 18, 94-106.
- In Plat. Hipp. min. Socrates and Hippias of Elis discuss whether it is better to be capable like Achilles or cunning and clever like Odysseus; Protagoras goes to Plat. Prot. 316c – 317c assumes that Homer, Hesiod and Simonides were sophists.
- Cf. Zoilos von Amphipolis , Κατὰ τῆς Ὁμήρου ποιήσεως [Katá tēs Homērou poiēseōs] "Against the poetry of Homer".
- Cf. Arist. poet. 25; 40 preserved fragments of the five-volume work Homerprobleme (which probably looked at around 400 passages in the Iliad and Odyssey), which the chapter on poetics may. summarized, cf. Barbara Breitenberger , in: Hellmut Flashar (Ed.), Aristoteles, Works in German Translation 20 I, Berlin 2006, pp. 305-311.371-430 and. Olof Gigon (Ed.), Librorum Depertitorum Fragmenta = Aristotelis Opera, Volume 3, Berlin 1987, pp. 366-404.
- Cf. Aristot. poet. 9, 1451 a 36-38.
- Cf. Aristot. poet. 23, 1460a5-9 and 24, 1460a19.
- Cf. Plat. rep. 607a and Aristot. poet. 1448b 34-40.
- Cf. Aristot. on. 404a et al. 427a.
- Cf. Cic. nat. 1, 41.
- See app. Pun. 132.
- See Verg. Aen. 1, 453-493.
- See Ov. met. 11, 199 ff.
- Cf. Prop. Elegiae 1, 7, 3 and 3, 1, 5-38.
- See Sen. apocol. 5, 4.
- E.g. Petron. satyrica . 29-30; 48, 7 and 59.
- Cf. Dion Chrys. oratio 18, 8.
- See Quint. inst. 1, 8, 5; Sen. epist. 27, 7 and Heraclitus Homeric Problems 1, 5–7.
- See Bas. Ad adulescentes 5, 28.
- See Aug. conf. 1, 14.16 u. Aug. civ. 2, 14.
- See Claud. Nupt. Hon. Et Mar. 232-235 et al. carm. 23, 13.
- See Gabriel G. Lapeyre , Vie de Saint Fulgence de Ruspe, Paris 1929, 11 (c. 1).
- See Porph. Vit. Plot. 1 u. Marinus Vit. Proc. 38.
- See Isid. orig. 5, 39, 12 and 8, 8, 3 and Vita Sancti Eligii ed.Bruno Krusch , in: Monumenta Germaniae Historica Scriptores rerum Merovingicarum 4, Hannover / Leipzig 1902, p. 665.
- Cf. Wigbold carmen 8, 54, in: Ernst Ludwig Dümmler (Ed.), Monumenta Germaniae Historica Poetae, Volume 1, Berlin 1881, p. 97 u. Rabanus Maurus Carmen 10, 5 u. Walahfrid Strabo carmen 35, 3, in: Ernst Ludwig Dümmler (Ed.), Monumenta Germaniae Historica Poetae, Volume 2, Berlin 1884, p. 172.387; Ermenrich von Ellwangen , final poem of the Epistula ad Grimaldum verse 112, in: Ernst Ludwig Dümmler (Ed.), Monumenta Germaniae Historica Epistolae, Volume 5, Berlin 1899, p. 536 ff; Pseudo-Dionysius Areopagita carmen 2, 1, verses 1–16, in: Ludwig Traube (ed.), Monumenta Germaniae Historica Poetae, Volume 3, Berlin 1896, p. 527 ff; Panegyricus Berengarii verse 1–4.200–203, in: Paul von Winterfeld (ed.), Monumenta Germaniae Historica Poetae, Volume 4, 1, Berlin 1899, pp. 355–356; Liutprand by Cremona Liber antapodoseos 1.3.4, in: Joseph Becker (ed.), Monumenta Germaniae Historica Scriptores rerum Germanorum, Liudprandi opera, Hanover / Leipzig ³1915, p. 14.90; Widukind by Corvey Res gestae Saxonicae 74, in: Paul Hirsch , Hans-Eberhard Lohmann (eds.), Monumenta Germaniae Historica Scriptores rerum Germanorum, Widukindi monachi Corbeiensis rerum gestarum Saxonicarum libri tres, Hannover 5 1935, p. 151; Baundry de Bourgeuil carmina 87,18 u. 192.36 u. 201, 31-34, in: Karlheinz Hilbert , Baldricus Burgulianus, Heidelberg 1979, p. 91; Archipoeta carmina 4, verse 4 a. 5, verse 7, in: Heinrich Watenpfuhl , Die Gedichte des Archipoeta (ed. By Heinrich Krefeld ), Heidelberg 1958, p. 57; La Chanson de Roland, Edizione critica a cura die Cesare Segre , Milan / Naples 1971; Le Roman de Thèbes, publié par de Guy Raynaud de Lage , Paris 1966; Le Roman de Troie par Benoit de Sainte-Maure, publié par Leopold Constans , Paris 1904, verses 45–50, 71–74.
- See Nathaniel Edward Griffin , Guido de Columnis, Historia destructionis Troiae, Cambridge (Massachusetts) 1936.
- Cf. Otto von Freising , in: Adolf Hofmeister (ed.), Monumenta Germaniae Historica Scriptores rerum Germanorum, Ottonis episcopi Frisigensis chronica , Hannover / Leipzig 1912 25.56 a. Hugo von Trimberg , Registrum multorum auctorum, in: Karl Langosch , The "Registrum Multorum Auctorum" by Hugo von Trimberg. Investigations and annotated text edition, in: Germanic Studies, Volume 235, Berlin 1942, p. 167.
- Cf. Dante Alighieri Vita Nova 2, 8; Divine Comedy , Inferno 4, 86 ff. And 26, 49 ff. And Purgatorio 22, 101.
- Cf. Francesco Petrarca Africa 4, 34 ff .; 9, 158 ff.
- See from. Mos. 374-381, Internet source et al. Epostula ad nepotem 45-46.
- Cf. Francesco Petrarca fam. rer. 18, 2, 7 in Francesco Petrarca, Opere 1. Canzioniere, Trionfi, Familiarum rerum libri, Florence 1975.
- Cf. Michael Psellos Encomium in matrem 361, 97.
- Cf. Eust. Comm. Il. Prol. I 1, 8-10.
- Cf. Niketas Choniates Hist. 653, 94 ff.
- See Vitruv de architectura 7, 5, 1–2.
- Further comments and literature, as well as internal references
- LSJ , p. 828
- See Latacz (1999).
- See Fränkel (1976) p. 26; see “ #Archaik ”, subsection “Cyclic Epics”.
- Assuming the oral preliminary stages also not necessary, cf. Seeck (2004) pp. 41-42.
- See Lamberton (1997) p. 33; see " #Archaik ".
- For the various interpretations see #Iliad and Homeric Question .
- Fränkel (1976) p. 7; see. Fränkel (1976) pp. 7-8.
- For the 13./12. Century later also Heinrich Schliemann , cf. Fränkel (1976) p. 50 and West (1995) p. 204 note 4.
- See #Author and #Iliad and Homeric Question .
- See Walter Burkert , Das Hundredtorige Theben , in: Wiener Studien 89, 1976, pp. 5–21 or West (1995) pp. 203–219, especially 217–219; see. for an earlier date, for example, Alfred Heubeck , Die Homerischefrage, Darmstadt 1974, pp. 213-228; Wolfgang Schadewaldt , Homer and his century , in: The new image of antiquity I (1942), reprint in: ders., From Homer's world and work. Essays and interpretations of the Homeric question , 4th edition, Stuttgart 1965, pp. 87–129, especially 93–96, u. 429-441; Geoffrey Stephen Kirk , The Songs of Homer , Cambridge 1962, pp. 282-287 et al. The Iliad. A Commentary , i: Books 1-4, Cambridge 1985, pp. 3-4; Joachim Latacz, Homer. The First Poet of the Occident , 3rd edition, Munich / Zurich 1997, pp. 75–85: "This time approach <is actually considered to be the most likely in international Homer research today"; Barry B. Powell , Homer and the Origin of the Greek Alphabet , Cambridge 1991, pp. 187-220.
- See Gregory Nagy , Homer's Text and Language , University of Illinois Press 2004; see " #Alexandrians and Late Antique Tradition ".
- See " #Autor ".
- See West (1995) pp. 204-205 and 205 note 8.
- See West (1995) pp. 206-207 and 207 note 17.
- See Bertrand Jaeger et al. John Boardman (Ed.): Lexicon Iconographicum Mythologiae Classicae (LIMC). Published by the Fondation pour le Lexicon Iconographicum Mythologiae Classicae, Zurich 1981–1999, ISBN 3-7608-8751-1 ; Anthony Snodgrass , Homer and the Artists , Cambridge 1998, pp. 88-89; West (1995) p. 207 u. Note 21; Heitsch (2006) p. 16 note 18.
- See West (1995) p. 209 and 209 note 23 and Raoul Schrott , Homer's Home: The Struggle for Troy and Its Real Background , Munich 2008, pp. 103-104.
- On the first cf. West (1995) pp. 210-211 et al. Walter Burkert , Das Hundredtorige Theben , in: Wiener Studien 89, 1976, pp. 5–21; for the second cf. West (1995) pp. 211-217; Seeck (2004) p. 95 explains the destruction of the wall with the author's wish to suppress the recipients' urge to discover.
- See Heitsch (2006) p. 16, note 18; Martin Litchfield West, Hesiod. Theogony , Oxford 1966, pp. 40-48 et al. West (1995) pp. 218-219; on the other hand, Fränkel (1976) pp. 3-4.
- See Ernst Heitsch , Aphroditehymnos. Aeneas and Homer (Hypomnemata 15), Göttingen 1965, pp. 87-93 u. West (1995) pp. 208-209.
- See West (1995) p. 206; the same applies to Musaios fr. 5, cf. Bierl (2008) p. 209.
- See West (1995) p. 218; a German-language summary of West's argumentation can be found in Raoul Schrott, Homer's Heimat: Der Kampf um Troy und seine realen Background , Munich 2008, pp. 103-104; on the problem of differentiating between poetic conception, plot and text, see “ #Autor ”.
- Cf. Latacz (2000) p. 145 and Minna Skafte Jensen , Dividing Homer: When and How were the Iliad and the Odyssey divided into Songs? , in: Symbolae Osloenses , Volume 74, Oslo 1999, pp. 5-91.
- See “ Narrative Techniques ”.
- See " Psychology ".
- See “ Ship Catalog and Catalog of Trojans ”.
- An overview of the structure of the Iliad - there are two main narrative threads: The Wrath of Achilles from the first to the 19th book and the avenging of Patroclus' death in the 16th book to Hector's burial in the 24th book - also offer Latacz (2000c ) Pp. 145-157; Schwinge (2008) pp. 151–156. Hasper (1867) pp. 41-44 and Seeck (2004) pp. 69-74.89-90. The latter also places it in the background of the Trojan War.
- See Fränkel (1976) pp. 41-44 and de Jong (2008) pp. 158-159.
- See de Jong (2008) p. 158; Seeck (2004) p. 34; on psychology and rhetoric especially of the legation in the ninth book cf. Seeck (2004) pp. 153-157; An overview is provided by Fränkel (1976) pp. 83-94 and Stoevesandt (2000) pp. 133-142; on the Trojan fighters cf. Paul Wathelet , Dictionnaire des Troyens de l'Iliade , Liège 1988; on the secondary characters cf. Gisela Strasburger , The Little Fighters of the Iliad , Frankfurt am Main 1954.
- Seeck (2004) p. 62.
- On virtue cf. Peter Stemmer , Tugend , in: Historical Dictionary of Philosophy , Volume 10, Basel 1998, Column 1532–1548 u. Snell (1965) p. 31.
- Hector flees from Achilles - Hom. Il. 22, 135-136; to compare Odysseus 'flight from the monsters in the Odyssey with Heracles' fights, cf. Seeck (2004) p. 21; see. Brocker (1975) p. 17.
- See Snell (1965) pp. 17.32-33; on dealing with slaves cf. Slavery in Ancient Greece .
- Cf. Bröcker (1975) p. 32 and Stoevesandt (2000) p. 27 with note 2.
- Seeck (2004) p. 103.
- On Homeric personal names cf. Hans von Kamptz , Homeric personal names . Linguistic and historical class, Göttingen / Zurich 1982 (= dissertation Jena 1958).
- See Hasper (1867) p. 28.
- For the activities of individuals, see “ People ”.
- Cf. for this and for the identity of Ilios and Troja Latacz (2000b) pp. 50–51; see also hexameter .
- Bröcker (1975) p. 20 and Seeck (2004) p. 63, exceptions p. 100–101.
- See Schmitt (2008) pp. 164–167.
- See Bröcker (1975) p. 32.
- See Bröcker (1975) pp. 26.32-33 u. Diehl (1938) pp. 131-132.
- See Fränkel (1976) pp. 64-66.
- See Fränkel (1976) pp. 79-81.
- See Kullmann (1955) p. 256 (= Kullmann (1992) p. 41)
- For an overview of the personifications in the Iliad, cf. Graf (2000) pp. 126-131.
- Cf. de Jong (2008) pp. 159–162 and Kullmann (1968) pp. 17-19 (= Kullmann (1992) pp. 222-223).
- See Fränkel (1976) p. 26; on analepse in Homer, cf. Nünlist / de Jong (2000) p. 159.
- Cf. Latacz (2000c) p. 155, who assumes an analepse from books two to seven inclusive; Alfred Heubeck , Studies on the Structure of the Iliad. Retardation - transfer of motives, in Gymnasium Fridericianum. Festschrift to celebrate the 200th anniversary of the Humanist High School Erlangen 1745–1945, Erlangen 1950, pp. 17–36 u. Joachim Latacz , Homer. The first poet of the occident, Düsseldorf ³1997.
- Cf. Georg Eckel Duckworth , Foreshadowing and Suspense in the Epics of Homer, Apollonius, and Vergil, Princeton 1933; Brigitte Hellwig , Space and Time in the Homeric Epic, Hildesheim 1964; Irene de Jong , Narrators and Focalizer. The Presentation of the Story of the Iliad, Amsterdam 1987, pp. 81-90; Scott Richardson , The Homeric Narrator, Nashville (Tennessee) 1990, pp. 132-139 et al. Michael Reichel , long-distance relationships in the Ilias, Tübingen 1994, pp. 47–98, Internet source ; for further examples cf. de Jong (2008) pp. 159-160.
- For loss of income cf. e.g. 4, 164-165; 6, 448-449 et al. 7, 399-402 et al. 24, 723-746.
- See Wolfgang Kullmann , The sources of the Iliad. Troischer Sagenkreis, Wiesbaden 1960, 5–11 a. Latacz (2000c) pp. 156-157.
- Seeck (2004) p. 60 and Kullmann (1968) pp. 16-18 (= Kullmann (1992) pp. 220.222).
- See Rudolf Wachter (2000) pp. 63–67 and Frankel (1976) pp. 2.27-28.
- E.g. With the metric expansion, ὄνομα [ónoma] "name" becomes οὔνομα [oúnoma] and Ὀλύμποιο [Olúmpoio] "of Olympus " becomes Οὐλύμποιο [Oulúmpoio] ; with the metric expansion from μετεῖπεν [meteîpen] "speaking to several people" μετέειπεν [metéeipen] }; see. the modernization of the text in West (2000) p. 30; for metric licenses cf. Wachter (2000) pp. 74-83; on the enjambement in Homer cf. Milman Parry , The Distinctive Character of Enjambement in Homeric Verse, in: Transactions of the American Philological Association, Volume 60, Charles Village (Baltimore) 1929, pp. 200-220 et al. Nünlist / de Jong (2000) p. 161.
- Bernhard Forssman : Homeric language. In: The New Pauly (DNP). Volume 5, Metzler, Stuttgart 1998, ISBN 3-476-01475-4 , Sp. 683-686.
- Against Wachter (2000) p. 64 note 4; on the Aeolian cf. Wachter (2000) p. 64 note 5 and Frankel (1976) p. 28; on the discovery of Mycenaean see Eichhorn (1971) p. 16 note 47 and especially John Chadwick , The Decipherment of Linear B, Cambridge 1956; the origins of the content probably go back to the Mycenaean culture , cf. Deger-Jalkotzky (2008) pp. 99-105. u. Latacz (1999) - limiting Lesky (1968) p. 755, who gives Mycenaean documents among other things the names Aias, Achilles and Pandaros, but describes them as people of everyday life.
- See Manu Leumann , Homeric Words, Basel 1950; Karl Meister , The Homeric Artistic Language, Leipzig 1921; West (2000) pp. 30-31. u. Heitsch (1968) pp. 11-13.
- See Nünlist (2000) pp. 109-114.
- See Nünlist (2000) p. 112.
- See Fränkel (1976) pp. 32-37 and Nünlist (2000) p. 111.
- First the question of the formulas was raised by Gottfried Hermann , De iteratis apud Homerum, Leipzig 1840 (translated in Joachim Latacz (ed.), Homer. Tradition und Neuerungen, Darmstadt 1979), later cf. W. v. Christ , repetitions in the same and similar manner in the Iliad, Munich 1880, pp. 221-272; Ernst Lentz , De versibus apud Homerum perperam iteratis, Leipzig 1881; Ernst Pfudel , The Repetitions in Homer, 1. Intended Repetitions, Liegnitz 1891; John A. Scott , Repeated verses in Homer, in: American Journal of Philology , Volume 32, Baltimore 1911, pp. 313-321; Julius Jüthner , On the repetitions in Homer, From the workshop of the lecture hall, Innsbruck 1914; Walter Arend , The typical scenes in Homer (= Problemata, Volume 7), Berlin 1933 a. Arie Hoekstra , Homeric Modifications of Formulaic Prototypes, Amsterdam 1965; see also “ Iliad and Homeric Question ”; to find in the last third cf. Milman Parry , L'Epithète traditional dans Homère, Paris 1928, p. 16; Milman Parry , Studies in the Epic Technique of Oral Verse-Making: I. Homer and Homeric Style, in: Harvard Studies in Classical Philology, Volume 41, Harvard 1930, pp. 73-147 u. Frankel (1976) p. 35; to fill in the caesuras cf. Nünlist (2000) p. 112.
- Edzard Visser , Homeric versification technique. Attempt at a reconstruction, Frankfurt am Main 1987; see. Latacz (2000b) pp. 56-57 et al. Fränkel (1976) p. 30.
- See Otto Seeck , The sources of the Odyssey, Berlin 1887, p. 287; C. Rothe, The meaning of repetitions for the Homeric question, Festschrift to celebrate the 200th anniversary of the Royal French Gymnasium 1890, pp. 123–168 u. Heitsch (1968) pp. 16-17.19-20.22; for formulas in Mycenaean times cf. Latacz (2000b) p. 54.
- Carl Eduard Schmidt , Parallelhomer, Göttingen 1885, p. 8.
- See Ludwig Friedländer , Two Homeric dictionaries, Yearbook for Classical Philology, Supplement Volume 3, 1857-1860, p. 747.
- See Diehl (1938) p. 12.
- See Latacz (2000b) pp. 45-51; Fränkel (1976) p. 37 u. Seeck (2004) p. 31; for an overview cf. Milman Parry , The Traditional Epithet in Homer, in: Milman Parry , The Making of Homeric Verse. The Collected Papers of Milman Parry. Edited by Adam Parry, Oxford 1971, pp. 1-190.
- See Fränkel (1976) p. 36.
- See Latacz (2000b) pp. 53-54 and Wachter (2000) pp. 65-66.
- See de Jong (2008) p. 157; Louise H Pratt , Lying and Poetry from Homer to Pindar, Ann Arbor (Michigan) 1993, pp. 12-17.
- Seeck (2004) p. 41; on the wrath of Achilles cf. Leonard Charles Muellner, The anger of Achilles: Menis in Greek epic, Ithaca 1996; most recently Raoul Schrott: “Translation error of the 'Iliad': Homer's goddess does not sing” , FAZ , October 27, 2015.
- Other beginnings have also been handed down, cf. Frankel (1976) pp. 24-25; a neo-analytical interpretation can be found in Kullmann (1955) pp. 167-192 (= Kullmann (1992) pp. 11-35) u. Wolfgang Kullmann , A pre-Homeric motif in the Iliasproömium, in: Philologus , Volume 99, Berlin 1955, pp. 167-192 u. Kullmann (1956) pp. 132-133 (= Kullmann (1992) pp. 36-37).
- Against the interpretation of Hom. Il. 4, 127-133 argues Fränkel (1977), pp. 12-13, with 17, 567-573; on "danger" cf. Fränkel (1977), p. 75, note 1 .; on "weather" cf. Frankel (1977), pp. 102-103; for parables in general cf. Hermann Fränkel , The Homeric Parables, Göttingen 1921; Dionys John Norris Lee , The Similes of the Iliad and the Odyssey Compared, Melbourne 1964; Carroll Moulton , Similes in the Homeric Poems, Göttingen 1977 a. Frankel (1976), pp. 44-49; for further literature cf. Fränkel (1977), pp. 123-124.
- See Fränkel (1977), pp. 98-99.106.
- See Fränkel (1977), p. 4.
- See Fränkel (1977), pp. 105, 111-112.
- See George P. Shipp , Studies in the Language of Homer, Cambridge, 1972.
- See Fränkel (1976) pp. 45-49.
- See Fränkel (1977), pp. 76-86
- See Fränkel (1977), pp. 86-88.
- See Fränkel (1977), pp. 89-96.
- See Fränkel (1977), pp. 96-97.
- See Fränkel (1977), pp. 116-119; on the parables in the Odyssey, cf. Fränkel (1976), p. 48.
- See William W. Minton : Invocation and Catalog in Hesiod and Homer. In: Transactions of the American Philological Association. Volume 93, 1962, 188-212; Charles Rowan Beye , Homeric Battle Narrative and Catalogs, in: Harvard Studies in Classical Philology, Volume 68, Harvard 1964, pp. 144-153; Tilman Krischer , Formal Conventions of Homeric Epic, Munich 1971, pp. 146–158 u. Edzard Visser , Formal Typologies in the Ship Catalog of the Iliad: Findings and Consequences, in: Hildegard LC Tristram (Ed.), New Methods in the Research of Epic, Tübingen 1998, pp. 25–44.
- Extensive arrangements can be found in Benedictus Niese , The Homeric Ship Catalog as a historical source, Kiel 1873; Felix Jacoby , The inclusion of the ship's catalog in the Iliad. Special edition from the meeting reports of the Prussian Academy of Sciences. Philological-historical class XXIV, 1932, pp. 572-617; Viktor Burr , ΝΕΩΝ ΚΑΤΑΛΟΓΟΣ. Investigations on the Homeric ship catalog, in: Klio supplement XLIX N. F. Heft 36, Leipzig 1944; Alfred Heubeck , Homerica I: On the plot of the ship catalog B 484-779, in: Gymnasium , Volume 56, Heidelberg 1949, pp. 242-248; Friedrich Forcke , catalog poetry in the B of the Iliad, in: Gymnasium, Volume 57, Heidelberg 1950, pp. 256–273; Günther Jachmann , A Study on the Homeric Ship Catalog, Rome 1955, p. 141; Günther Jachmann , The Homeric Ship Catalog and the Iliad. Scientific treatises of the working group for research of the state of North Rhine-Westphalia. Volume 5, Cologne and Opladen 1958 a. Edzard Visser , Homer's Catalog of Ships, Stuttgart a. Leipzig 1997; for an introduction cf. Lesky (1968) pp. 785-788.
- See Denys Lionel Page , History and the Homeric Iliad, Berkeley 1959, p. 118 u. Edzard Visser , Homer's Catalog of Ships, Stuttgart 1997.
- See Lesky (1968) p. 787 and Heitsch (2006) pp. 8-11; on the other hand Wolfgang Schadewaldt , Iliasstudien, Darmstadt 1966, p. 91, note 3; Wolfgang Schadewaldt, From Homer's World and Work. Essays and interpretations on the Homeric question, Stuttgart 4 1965, SS 77 note 2 and P. 91 note 2; Karl Reinhardt , lectures and essays, Godesberg 1948, p. 42 u. Gottfried Wolterstorff , On the ship catalog in the B of the Iliad, in: Gymnasium, Volume 62, Heidelberg 1953, pp. 13-18; on the missing in the manuscripts cf. West (2000) pp. 36-37.
- Ernst Heitsch , Ilias B 557/8, in: Hermes, Volume 96, Berlin 1969, pp. 641–660 (= Ernst Heitsch, Gesammelte Schriften I: Zum Frühgriechischen Epos, München / Leipzig 2001, p. 131) is dedicated to these verses -150).
- See West (2008) p. 183; on the question of the audience cf. Frederick M. Combellack , Homer the Innovator, in: Classical Philology, Volume 71, Chicago 1976, pp. 44-55 and others. Ruth Scodel , Pseudo-Intimacy and the Prior Knowledge of the Homeric Audience, in: Bruce Heiden , Arethusa, Volume 30.2 (The Iliad and Its Context), 1997, pp. 201-219.
- See Lamberton (1997) p. 42.
- The introduction of the Greek script is generally believed to date from around 800 BC. Set, cf. Deger-Jalkotzky (2008) p. 99; Gregory Nagy , An Evolutionary Model for the Making of Homeric Poetry: Comparative Perspectives, in: Jane Burr Carter , Sarah P. Morris and Emily Vermeule (Eds.), The Ages of Homer. A Tribute to Emily Townsend Vermeule, Austin 1995, pp. 163-179, internet source ; Rudolf Wachter : Alphabet. In: The New Pauly (DNP). Volume 1, Metzler, Stuttgart 1996, ISBN 3-476-01471-1 , Sp. 536-547.
- See Lilian H. Jeffery , Writing, in: Alan Wace (Ed.), A Companion to Homer, London 1963, pp. 555-559; on the other hand Latacz (2000a) p. 2; for notes cf. Seeck (2004) p. 46.
- On dictation cf. Albert Lord , Homer's Originality: Oral Dictated Texts (1953), in: Albert Lord, Epic Singers and Oral Tradition, 1991, pp. 38-48
- Richard Janko , The Iliad: A Commentary. Volume 4. Books 13-16, Cambridge 1992, pp. 37-38
- Uvo Hölscher , in: Gnomon 39, Munich 1967, p. 444; on the unitarian writing Joachim Latacz , main functions of the ant. Epos in Ant. Und Moderne, in: AU 34 (3), 1991, 12-13
- See Albert Leitzmann (ed.), Wilhelm von Humboldts Werke, Volume 7.2: Paralipomena, Berlin 1908, pp. 550–553.
- Heitsch (1968) p. 21.
- Seeck (2004) p. 46.
- See West (2008) p. 184.
- See West (2008) p. 183; see. also Fränkel (1976) pp. 24-27.
- See Heitsch (1968) pp. 81–83 and 82–83 notes 14–16.21 and GP Shipp , Studies in the Language of Homer, Cambridge 1953 / Amsterdam 1966, p. 143.
- The term “papyri” refers to ancient “books” in roll or codex form made of papyrus or parchment , and wooden and clay tablets are often also included; see. also Fränkel (1976) pp. 2-3.
- See West (2008) p. 185.
- See Lamberton (1997) p. 34; to interpolations in the 4th century BC Chr. Cf. West (2000) pp. 32-33; see. Stephanie West , The Ptolemaic Papyri of Homer (Papyrologica Coloniensia), Cologne / Opladen 1967.
- Latacz (1999); on the other hand, West (2000) p. 32 even cites several aristarchical copies.
- See Latacz (1999); see. diverging quotations from Plato and Aristotle.
- See West (2000) p. 34 and West (2008) p. 185.
- Cf. Günther Jachmann , Vom Frühhalexandrinischen Homertext, in: Nachrichten der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Göttingen, Philological-historical class, Göttingen 1949, pp. 167–224. u. Latacz (2000a) pp. 9-14; on Aristarchus' work cf. Adolf Römer , Aristarchy's Homerexegesis in its basic features, Paderborn 1924 a. Diehl (1938) pp. 1-3.
- Cf. Friedrich (1956) p. 46 note 2.
- On the dispute between the two schools, cf. Latacz (2000a) pp. 10-11 et al. P. 11 note 30; on Aristarchus' work cf. West (2000) pp. 32-33.
- See Hartmut Erbse , Scholia Graeca in Homeri Iliadem, Berlin 1969–1983 and Helmut van Thiel's work accessible online ; see. Latacz (2000a) p. 11.
- For example, Zenodotus already used the obelos ; Aristophanes of Byzantium introduced other signs of textual criticism (such as the asterisk ) and the ancient Greek diacritical signs to the best of our knowledge ; see. West (2000) pp. 31-32.
- Cf. Stephanos Matthaios : Viermännerkommentar. In: The New Pauly (DNP). Volume 12/2, Metzler, Stuttgart 2002, ISBN 3-476-01487-8 , Col. 206. On Philemon cf. West (2000) p. 33.
- For a description cf. West (2000) pp. 35-36.
- See West (2008) p. 187.
- See West (2008) p. 183; for an overview of the manuscripts cf. West (2008) pp. 187-190 u. West (2000) pp. 35-37.
- Donatella Coppini: Leonzio Pilato . In: Lexicon of the Middle Ages (LexMA). Volume 5, Artemis & Winkler, Munich / Zurich 1991, ISBN 3-7608-8905-0 , Sp. 1898.
- See West (2008) p. 190 and Martin Litchfield West, History of the Text, in: Joachim Latacz (Ed.), Homer's Ilias. Overall comment. Prolegomena, Munich / Leipzig 2000, pp. 35-37.
- See Latacz (2000a) p. 12; on Wolf's work cf. West (2000) p. 36.
- See West (2008) pp. 190–191.
- On Ameis-Hentze (-Cauer) s comment cf. Latacz (2000a) pp. 17.19-22; on Leafs comment cf. Latacz (2000a) p. 15.17.
- See Latacz (2000a) pp. 17-18; see “ Oral poetry theory ”.
- See Latacz (2000a) pp. 22-26.
- See West (2000) p. 38.
- West compares the last two (2008) pp. 193–194; see. also West (2000) pp. 35-37.
- Seeck (2004) p. 30.
- See also the remarks by Archibald Henry Sayce in Heinrich Schliemann : Troja. Results of my latest excavations. FA Brockhaus, Leipzig 1884, preface p. VII ff. ( Digitized version ).
- Seeck (2004) p. 30.
- cf. Hasper (1867).
- s. especially Jean Baptiste Le Chevalier , Description of the Plain of Troy, Edinburgh 1791, whose theory found favor with some researchers until Schliemann's discoveries at Hisarlık. See also in detail John V. Luce : Celebrating Homer's Landscapes. Troy and Ithaca Revisited. Yale University Press 1998, p. 61 ff.
- See overview table in Dietrich Koppenhöfer: Troja VII - attempt at a synopsis including the results of 1995. In: Studia Troica. Volume 7, 1997, pp. 341-47, especially p. 346 Table 4. The estimates made by Blegen for the end of Troy VIIa are 1185 BC. And the transition from level SH III C medium to SH III C late (= approx. 1100/1080 BC). Koppenhöfer himself takes 1180 BC. B.C., but does not go into his argumentation on how he intends to reconcile the SH III C ceramic found in layer VIIa, because of its possible existence at that time - which is now considered to be certain - Sanders dated it 1185 BC. BC with reservation of a later end of Troy VIIa, as Koppenhöfer himself (ibid, p. 432) explained earlier.
- Penelope A. Mountjoy , Mycenaean Pottery - An introduction , 2nd edition 2001, p. 23 f.
- A detailed overview of this u. a. with Christoph Ulf (ed.): The new dispute over Troy. A balance sheet. CH Beck, Munich 2003 ISBN 978-3-406-50998-8 .
- to Taruiša Jörg Klinger : Taruiša. In: Michael P. Streck (ed.): Reallexikon der Assyriologie und Vorderasiatischen Aräologie . Volume 13, Walter de Gruyter, Berlin / Boston 2011-2013, ISBN 978-3-11-030715-3 , p. 468.
- For the first time Paul Kretschmer Alakšanduš, King of Viluša. Glotta 13, 1924, pp. 205-213
- For the first time Emil Forrer : pre-Homeric Greeks in the cuneiform texts of Boghazöi. , MDOG 63, 1924, p. 7. - online version , which in this publication also assumed a localization of Wilusa in western Asia Minor and has not yet linked it with Ilios
- Ivo Hajnal : Uiluša - Taruisa. Linguistic reviews of the contribution by Susanne Heinhold-Krahmer. in: Christoph Ulf (Ed.): The new dispute about Troy, a balance sheet. CH Beck, Munich 2003, pp. 169–173, who sees both “the possibility of a relative formal identity” and Wiluša – Ilios also a correspondence on a functional level.
- Frank Starke: Troy in the context of the historical-political and linguistic environment of Asia Minor in the 2nd millennium. , Studia Troica 7, 1997, pp. 447-487
- John David Hawkins: Tarkasnawa, King of Mira, Boğazköy sealings and Karabel. , Anatolian Studies 48, 1998, pp. 1-31.
- Susanne Heinhold-Krahmer: Has the identity of Ilios with Wiluša been finally proven? in: Studi micenei ed egeo-anatolici 45, 2004, pp. 29–57
- s. especially the list of researchers' opinions in favor of Joachim Latacz: Homer's Iliad. Studies on the poet, work and reception. (= Contributions to Classical Studies Volume 327). De Gruyter, Bonn / Boston 2014, pp. 500–502, ISBN 978-3-11-030636-1 .
- including Frank Kolb : crime scene >> Troy <<. History - Myths - Politics. Verlag Ferdinand Schöningh, Paderborn - Munich - Vienna - Zurich 2010, pp. 98ff .; Vangelis D. Pantazis: Wilusa: Reconsidering the Evidence. In: Klio . Volume 91, 2009, number 2, pp. 291-310 ( online ), which identifies Wiluša with Beycesultan ; Gerd Steiner: The Case of Wiluša and Ahhiyawa. Bibliotheca Orientalis 64, No. 5–6, 2007, Sp. 590–612 (accessed via De Gruyter Online): Location north or north-east of the Lukka countries
- especially Susanne Heinhold-Krahmer : Has the identity of Ilios with Wiluša been finally proven? Studi micenei ed egeo-anatolici 45, 2004, pp. 29-57.
- Seeck (2004) pp. 30–31.
- Wolf-Dietrich Niemeier : Greece and Asia Minor in the late Bronze Age. The historical background of the Homeric epics. In: Michael Meier-Brügger (Ed.): Homer, interpreted by a large lexicon. Files from the Hamburg Colloquium from 6.-8. October 2010 at the end of the lexicon of the early Greek epic (= treatises of the Academy of Sciences in Göttingen. New series volume 21). De Gruyter, 2012, p. 142 f.
- For an overview cf. Alfred Heubeck , The Homeric Question, Darmstadt 1974; Eichhorn (1971) pp. 7-19; Lesky (1968) pp. 764-784; Friedrich (1956) pp. 78-83; P. 6 note 1; P. 80 note 1 and 2.
- See Porter (2004) p. 335; Seeck (2004) pp. 53–54 u. Porter (2004) pp. 325-336.
- Not with Wolf, cf. Friedrich August Wolf , Prolegomena ad Homerum, Leipzig 1795, chapter 30.
- See Friedrich August Wolf , Prolegomena ad Homerum, Leipzig 1795, Chapter 27, Internet source .
- See Diehl (1938) p. 15; see. Wolfgang Schadewaldt , Iliasstudien, Darmstadt ³1966, p. 32.
- Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff , The Iliad and Homer, Berlin 1916/1966, p. 322.
- For later analysts cf. West (2008) pp. 192-193.
- Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff , The Iliad and Homer, Berlin 1916/1966, p. 327.
- Seeck (2004) pp. 53–54.
- The most important neoanalytic researches are collected and supplemented in: Wolfgang Kullmann, Die Quellen der Ilias. Troischer Sagenkreis, Wiesbaden 1960.
- For an introduction cf. Wolfgang Kullmann, On the method of neoanalysis in Homer research, in: Wiener Studien NF 15, Vienna 1981, pp. 5–42 (= Kullmann (1992) pp. 67–99); for a list of Schadewaldt's most important writings, cf. Eichhorn (1971), p. 12 note 25; for Pestalozzi cf. Heinrich Pestalozzi, The Achilles as the source of the Iliad, Erlenbach-Zurich 1946.
- See Karl Reinhardt , The Ilias and their poet, Göttingen 1961; West (2000) pp. 27-28 and Martin Litchfield West , Iliad and Aethiopis, in: Classical Quarterly 53, 2003; for a Unitarian attempt to reconstruct the building history of the Iliad, cf. Eichhorn (1971) pp. 21-115, especially pp. 49-50 and 113-115; for an analytical attempt cf. Helmut van Thiel , Iliaden and Ilias, Basel / Stuttgart 1982.
- Seeck (2004), p. 55, u. Eichhorn (1971), p. 15: “One concern about the neo-analytical approach has to be raised. There is a risk of circular conclusions, which Schadewaldt also did not completely escape. "
- Seeck (2004), pp. 55–56, u. West (2000), pp. 28-29, 31.
- For an overview of Parry's work cf. Latacz (2000b) pp. 52-54; for Murko cf. Mathias Murko , in: Meeting reports of the Vienna Academy. Philological-Historical Class, Volume 173 No. 3, 1913; Volume 176 No. 2, 1913 and Volume 179 No. 1, 1915, as well as in New Yearbooks for Classical Antiquity. History and German Literature, Berlin a. Leipzig 119, pp. 273–296 - for an overview of his work cf. Joachim Latacz , Homer. Tradition and Innovation (= Paths of Research 463), Darmstadt 1979; for a general overview of the development of oral poetry theory about Gottfried Hermann and Heinrich Düntzer cf. Latacz (2000b) pp. 39-59.
- See Eichhorn (1971) p. 19 and Fränkel (1976) pp. 20-21.
- See Milman Parry , The Homeric gloss: a study in word-sense, in: Adam Parry , The Making of Homeric Verse: The Collected Papers of Milman Parry, Oxford 1971, pp. 240-250.
- As well as in Transactions of the American Philological Association, Vol. 67, 69 and 70, Charles Village (Baltimore); see. Heitsch (1968) pp. 19-20.
- Cf. Deger-Jalkotzky (2008) p. 99 speaks out against it.
- See Heitsch (1968) p. 72.
- Seeck (2004) p. 55 and Lesky (1968) p. 789; see. also Arie Hoekstra , Homeric Modifications of Formulaic Prototypes, Amsterdam 1965.
- See Franz Xaver Strasser . On the Iterata of the early Greek epic, Königstein im Taunus 1984.
- Heitsch (1968) p. 20.
- See Porter (2004) p. 324 and Winkler (2008) p. 283: “Only the gods know who Homer was. All educated people know that Homer had probably the greatest influence on Western culture. ”; see. Marcus Manilius Astronomica 2, 8-11.
- See Latacz (2008) p. 16.
- For an overview cf. Lesky (1968) pp. 762-763.
- For works with similar content, cf. Kullmann (1955) pp. 184-187 (= Kullmann (1992) pp. 28-30).
- On the question of whether the Iliad or Aithiopis are older, cf. Lesky (1968), pp. 759-762 et al. Heitsch (2006) pp. 17–32 and 17 note 19.
- Seeck (2004) pp. 27–29 gives an overview of these stories.
- On the question of when the Iliad was written, see “ #Dating ”.
- Cf. Carl Rothe , The importance of repetitions for the Homeric question, Festschrift to celebrate the 200th anniversary of the Royal French Gymnasium 1890, pp. 271–291.
- Emphasis on honor in the Iliad and on property in the Odyssey (ethization and democratization), cf. Diehl (1938) pp. 135-136 and Roland Herkenrath , The ethical structure of the Iliad and Odyssey, Paderborn 1928, pp. 351-259.
- Diehl (1938) p. 133, however, interprets this as follows: “Certainly the intervention of the gods does not take place in the Odyssey to the same extent, with the same magnificence, not in such extensive epiphanies as in the Iliad. The Odyssey poet cannot be obliged to design everything exactly like the Iliad. For them, major Olympic scenes are characteristic. ”; see. Kullmann (1985) pp. 1-23 (= Kullmann (1992) pp. 243-263) and Kullmann (1987) p. 18 (= Kullmann (1992) p. 334).
- See Fränkel (1976) p. 6 and 8th.
- See Joachim Latacz , Homer. The First Poet of the Occident, Munich / Zurich ³1997, pp. 87–88.
- See Johann Wilhelm Kohl , De Chorizontibus, Gießen 1917; Johann Wilhelm, The Homeric Question of Chorizonten, New Yearbooks for Classical Antiquity, Leipzig 1921, pp. 208–209 u. Diehl (1938) p. 1.
- E.g. Albert Gemoll , The Relationship between Iliad and Odyssey, in: Hermes, Volume 18, Berlin 1883, pp. 34–96; Alexander Shewan , Does the Odyssey imitate the Iliad ?, in: The Classical Quarterly , Volume 7, Cambridge 1912, pp. 234-242 u. Knut Usener , observations on the relationship between the Odyssey and the Iliad, Tübingen 1990, Internet source .
- See Diehl (1938) p. 13.
- Cf. Diehl (1938) pp. 129-130.
- See Clay (1997) pp. 489-507.
- See Clay (1997) p. 489.
- See Thomas W. Allen , William R. Halliday et al. Edward E. Sikes (Ed.), The Homeric Hymns, Oxford 1936, pp. 96-109; on the other hand Richard Janko , Homer, Hesiod and the Hymns: Diachronic Developement in Epic Diction, Cambridge 1982, p. 200.
- See Clay (1997) pp. 494-498; see also #Lecture .
- See Mario Cantilena , Ricerche sulla dizione epica I: Per uno studio della formularità degli Inni Omerici, Rome 1982.
- See Lamberton (1997) p. 35.
- On the question of which texts are older, see " #Dating ".
- See Rosen (1997) pp. 463-464
- See Rosen (1997) pp. 463-488.
- See Martin Litchfield West , The Hesiodic Catalog of Women. Its Nature, Structure, and Origins, Oxford 1985.
- See Hunter (2004) p. 239; Bierl (2008) pp. 210-211 u. West (1995) pp. 206-207; see " #Dating ".
- See Rosen (1997) pp. 473-477 and Hugh Gerard Evelyn-White , Hesiod, The Homeric Hymns, and Homerica, Cambridge (Massachusetts) 1914, internet source .
- See Kullmann (1985) p. 20 (= Kullmann (1992) p. 260) writes: “Tragedy, as a genre which so obviously follows the views of the world found in the Iliad , seems to preclude the view of simply taking the Odyssean conception of the gods to be the more advanced one. ".
- See Ioannis Perysinakis , Sophocles' Philoctetes and the Homeric Epics. An Anthropological Approach, in: Metis, Volume 9-10, Paris 1994-1995, pp 377-389.
- See Bernard MW Knox , The Heroic Temper, Berkeley 1964, pp. 50-53.
- See Kullmann (1987) pp. 7-22 (= Kullmann (1992) pp. 319-338).
- See Kullmann (1985) pp. 20-23 (= Kullmann (1992) pp. 260-263).
- See Kullmann (1987) pp. 13-14 (= Kullmann (1992) pp. 328-329).
- See Lamberton (1997) p. 33.
- See Simon Goldhill , The Invention of Prose, Oxford 2002, pp. 11-13.
- See " Ship Catalog and Catalog of the Trojans ".
- Cf. Hdt. 2, 116-117.
- See “ #Archaik ”, subsection “Homeric Hymns”.
- Cf. Barbara Graziosi , Inventing Homer: the Early Reception of Epic, Cambridge / New York 2002, pp. 120–123.
- See Lamberton (1997) p. 36.
- Cf. Plat. rep. Book 9-10, 595a-602c.
- For quotations from Homer in Plato cf. George Edwin Howes , Homeric quotations in Plato and Aristotle, in: Harvard Studies in Classical Philology, Volume 6, Harvard 1895, pp. 153-237 and others. Jules Labarbe , L'Homère de Platon, Liège 1949.
- See Latacz (2000a) p. 4.
- See Latacz (2000a) pp. 6-8.
- See Latacz (2000a) pp. 5-6; Seeck (2004) p. 47 u. West (2000) p. 29.
- See Latacz (2000a) pp. 7-9.
- See Latacz (2000c) p. 1497.
- For quotations from Homer in Aristotle cf. George Edwin Howes , Homeric quotations in Plato and Aristotle, in: Harvard Studies in Classical Philology, Volume 6, Harvard 1895, pp. 153-237.
- See Phillip DeLacy , Stoic Views of Poetry, in: American Journal of Philology, Volume 69, Baltimore 1948, pp. 241-271.
- Cf. Anthony A. Long , Stoic Readings in Homer, Lamberton / Keaney 1992, pp. 64-65 and Glenn W. Most , Cornutus and Stoic Allegoresis: A Preliminary Report, in: Rise and Decline of the Roman World , Volume 2.36.3, Berlin 1989, pp. 2014–2065.
- See Lamberton (1997) p. 51.
- For the activities of other Alexandrians see " #Alexandrians and late antique tradition ".
- For Callimachus and the Iliad cf. Hans Herter , Callimachos and Homer. A contribution to the interpretation of the hymn to Artemis, in: Xenia Bonnensia, Bonn 1929, pp. 50-105; Antonios Rengakos , Homeric Words at Callimachos, in: Journal for Papyrology and Epigraphik, Volume 94, Cologne 1992, pp. 21–47 and. Antonios Rengakos, The Homertext and the Hellenistic Poets, Stuttgart 1993.
- Lamberton (1997) p. 49 and Bierl (2008) p. 213 contradict this.
- See John Frederick Carspecken , Apollonius Rhodius and the Homeric epic, in: Yale Classical Studies, Volume 13, Yale 1952, pp. 33-143; Malcolm Campbell , Echoes and Imitations of Early Epic in Apollonius Rhodius, Leiden 1981; Virginia Knight , The Renewal of Epic. Responses to Homerin the Argonautica of Apollonius, Leiden 1995; Antonios Rengakos , The Homertext and the Hellenistic Poets, Stuttgart 1993 a. Antonios Rengakos, Apollonios Rhodios and the ancient Homer declaration, Munich 1994.
- Cf. Apollonios von Rhodos, Die Fahrt der Argonauten. Greek / German. Edited, translated and commented on by Paul Dräger , Stuttgart 2002, pp. 585–586.
- Cf. Apollonios von Rhodos, Die Fahrt der Argonauten. Greek / German. Edited, translated and commented by Paul Dräger , Stuttgart 2002, pp. 586–587.
- See Lamberton (1997) p. 45 and P. 45 note 20.
- See Farrell (2004) p. 263 and P. 263 note 25 for more examples.
- Cf. Georg Nikolaus Knauer , Die Aeneis und Homer: Studies on Virgil's poetic technique with lists of Homer quotations in the Aeneis, Göttingen 1964.
- See Harich-Schwarzbauer (2008) p. 248.
- See Farrell (2004) pp. 263-266.
- See Hunter (2004) p. 251.
- Cf. Günter Glockmann , Homer in der early Christian Literatur bis Justinus, Berlin 1968.
- Cf. for Hellenism Henri I. Marrou , Histoire de l'éducation dans l'antiquité, Paris 6 1965, pp. 246–247 and Teresa Morgan , Literate Education in the Hellenistic and Roman Worlds, Cambridge 1998, pp. 69-71.105-115; for Rome cf. Stanley Frederick Bonner , Education in Ancient Rome, Berkeley 1977, p. 213; for further information and references cf. Farrell (2004) pp. 267-271 et al. Remarks.
- Lamberton (1997) pp. 46–47 gives an overview of this work.
- See Lamberton (1997) pp. 45-46.
- See here. epist. Ad Pammachium de optimo genere interpretandi 57, 5, Internet source .
- On the author cf. Andreas Beschorner , Investigations on Dares Phrygius, Tübingen 1992, Internet source .
- Cf. Jan F. Kindstrand , Homer in the second Sophistik, Uppsala / Stuttgart 1973 a. Froma Zeitlin , Visions and revisions of Homer, in: Simon Goldhill , Beeing Greek under Rome: Cultural Identity, the Second Sophistic, and the Development of the Empire, Cambridge / New York, pp. 195–266.
- See Kullmann (1988) p. 6 (= Kullmann (1992) p. 359); on the Iliad Latina cf. Marco Scaffai , Baebii Italici "Ilias Latina", Bologna 1982 a. Johannes Tolkiehn, Homer and Roman Poetry, Leipzig 1900, p. 96 ff .; on Homer in the Middle Ages, cf. also Hermann Dunger , The saga of the Trojan war in the adaptations of the Middle Ages and their ancient sources, Leipzig 1869 a. Ernst von Leutsch , For the explanation and clarification of the writers, 13. Homeros in the Middle Ages, in: Philologus, Volume 12, Berlin 1857, p. 367.
- See Kullmann (1988) p. 1 (= Kullmann (1992) p. 353).
- See Kullmann (1988) p. 8 (= Kullmann (1992) p. 362-363).
- See Greub (2008) p. 266.
- See Kullmann (1988) p. 13 (= Kullmann (1992) p. 369).
- See Kullmann (1988) p. 14 (= Kullmann (1992) p. 370-371).
- See James Bruce Ross , On the Early History of Leontius' Translation of Homer, in: Classical Philology, Volume 22, Harvard 1927, pp. 341-355 and others. Agostino Pertusi , Leonzio Pilato fra Petrarca e Boccaccio, Venice / Rome 1964.
- See Lamberton (1997) p. 48.
- See Cupane (2008) p. 251.
- See West (2008) p. 190 and Martin Litchfield West, History of the Text, in: Joachim Latacz (Ed.), Homer's Ilias. Overall comment. Prolegomena, Munich / Leipzig 2000, p. 37.
- See Cupane (2008) p. 252.
- See Cupane (2008) p. 254.
- See “ #Alexandrians and Late Antique Tradition ”.
- See Cupane (2008) p. 256.
- See Cupane (2008) p. 257.
- See Seidensticker (2008) p. 276.
- For the reception of the Iliad and Odyssey in the period from Dante to Goethe, cf. Georg Finsler , Homer in Modern Times. From Dante to Goethe. Italy. France. England. Germany, Leipzig / Berlin 1912.
- See “ #Iliad and Homeric Question ”.
- See William Hazlitt , Lectures on the English poets, 1818, 5, 16 and Percy Bysshe Shelley , A Defense of Poetry, 1818, Internet source .
- See Webb (2004) p. 301.
- See Webb (2004) pp. 302-310; see. Porter (2004) p. 338 note 71 and Hardwick (2004) p. 348 for further translations.
- On these and other modern English-language poems with reference to the Iliad (by, for example, Elizabeth Cook or Christopher Logue ) cf. Hardwick (2004) pp. 346-349.355-361.
- See Hardwick (2004) p. 345; the 2007 study by the “Casimirianum” high school in Coburg showed that only 4.5% of the citizens surveyed knew the Iliad or the Odyssey.
- See Snodgrass (1997) p. 565.
- See Snodgrass (1997) pp. 570-574.577.580-582 and West (1995) p. 205 and 205 note 12 and 13.
- See Klaus Fittschen , Investigations on the Beginning of the Legends Depictions among the Greeks, Berlin 1969.
- See Snodgrass (1997) pp. 578-579; see. also Luca Giuliani , Laocoon in the cave of Polyphemus. On the simple form of storytelling in images and text, in: Poetica, Volume 28, Hamburg 1996, pp. 1–42; Nikolaus Himmelmann , Reading Greek Art, Princeton 1998; Nikolaus Himmelmann, On Fine Art in the Homeric Society, Mainz 1969; Gudrun Ahlberg-Cornell , Myth and Epos in Early Greek Art: Representation and Interpretation, Jonsered 1992.
- See Franz Müller, The ancient Odyssey illustrations in their art historical development, Berlin 1913; Carl Robert , Archaeological Hermeneutics. Instructions for the interpretation of classical sculptures, Berlin 1919 a. Anthony Snodgrass , Homer and the Artists, Cambridge 1998.
- See Snodgrass (1997) pp. 580-581; for an overview of art objects with reference to the Iliad, cf. Blome (2008) pp. 196-207.
- See #Medieval and Byzantine Empire .
- See Timothy Webb , Homer and the Romantics, in: Robert Fowler (ed.), Parallel to Voss' translation of the Iliad, The Cambridge Companion to Homer, Cambridge 2004, pp. 291-293.
- See Hardwick (2004) p. 344.
- See Winkler (2008) p. 284; see. also Martin M. Winkler , The Trojan War on the Screen: An Annotated Filmography, in: Martin M. Winkler (Ed.), Troy. From Homer's Iliad to Hollywood Epic, Oxford 2006, pp. 202-215.
- See Winkler (2008) p. 285.
- Süddeutsche Zeitung of May 11, 2004, p. 13, Internet source .