Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff

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Wilamowitz-Moellendorff (1902)

Enno Friedrich Wichard Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff , also Emmo Friedrich Wichard Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff (born December 22, 1848 at Gut Markowitz , Kujawien , Province of Posen ; † September 25, 1931 in Berlin ) was a German classical philologist . He taught and researched as a professor in Greifswald (1876–1883), Göttingen (1883–1897) and Berlin (1897–1921). With his edition projects, his renewal of text criticism and text interpretation, his influence on the Prussian appointment policy and his work as a science organizer, he was one of the leading representatives of his subject and had a lasting impact on the classical philology of the 20th century internationally. Through his work on many areas of Greek literature, his redefinition of the subject and, last but not least, his numerous students, he exerted a great influence on classical philology. As President of the Prussian Academy of Sciences , he initiated many academy projects, especially the Inscriptiones Graecae , which to this day list and publish all the ancient inscriptions discovered in Greece.


The Wilamowitz-Moellendorffs have the second part of their double name from Generalfeldmarschall Wichard von Möllendorff (1724-1816), who himself was childless and in old age adopted the Prussian Major Theodor von Wilamowitz (1768-1837) and thus indirectly his three sons. Hugo, Ottokar and Arnold bore the double name of Wilamowitz-Moellendorff from 1815 with royal permission .

Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff was the third of five children and the second son of the landowner Arnold von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff (1813–1888) and his wife Ulrike, née von Calbo (1820–1874). His siblings were the later President of the Province of Posen, Hugo von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff (1840-1905), the hussar Tello von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff (1843-1903) and the later Major Georg Wichard von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff (1852-1910). He still had a sister Maria, who however died early (November 16–24, 1847).


Gut Markowitz around 1860, Alexander Duncker collection

Wilamowitz (full name Enno [also: Emmo ] Friedrich Wichard Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff ) spent his childhood on his father's estate, Markowitz in Kujawia. Initially taught by a private tutor, he moved into the traditional Pforta state school as a tertiary in 1862 . There Wilamowitz also met the older Friedrich Nietzsche and, like him, became a top pupil. Wilamowitz was confirmed on February 28, 1864, but was more of an agnostic throughout his life .

The director of the state school, Karl Ludwig Peter , with whom Wilamowitz lived as an extraneer (external), and the teacher Wilhelm Paul Corssen sparked enthusiasm for classical studies in the student. Wilamowitz read Latin and Greek authors, especially the Greek tragedians attracted him. Carl Ludwig Peter advised his students also reading the Roman History of Theodor Mommsen , though he had even considered having a critical replica.

Studied in Bonn and Berlin

Wilamowitz (middle, with hat) with his fellow students (Bonn, summer semester 1869)

In September 1867 Wilamowitz left Schulpforta with the school leaving certificate and moved to the University of Bonn to study classical studies. Here he was strongly influenced by the representatives of the so-called Bonn School of Classical Philology Otto Jahn and Hermann Usener . Besides Wilamowitz attended lectures by art historian Anton Springer and three semesters dealt at the lecturer John Schmidt with Sanskrit . In his memoirs 1848–1914 , written in 1928, he expressed appreciative words about Schmidt . He also attended the events of the philologists Jacob Bernays and Friedrich Gottlieb Welcker . He also expressed praise for the ancient historian Heinrich Nissen , then a private lecturer, after attending one of his seminars.

During his studies in Bonn, Wilamowitz made friends with Hermann Diels , who was the same age , and got to know his younger fellow students Georg Kaibel and Carl Robert , with whom he later became a close friend. Wilamowitz met regularly with Diels, Robert and the later high school teachers Walther Engel and August Fritzsche in his Bonn apartment, where the students held a so-called contubernium ("tent community").

The increasing polarization between Bonn professors Otto Jahn and Friedrich Ritschl , which culminated in the so-called Bonn Philological War (1865), had divided a large part of Bonn's philology students into two camps. Many Bonn students had moved to Leipzig University with Ritschl , including Nietzsche and Erwin Rohde . After Jahn's death in September 1869, Wilamowitz moved with Diels to the Friedrich Wilhelms University in Berlin, which is also steeped in tradition, for the winter semester of 1869/1870 , where he was attracted by the philologist Moriz Haupt , a pioneer of modern textual criticism. Here Wilamowitz received his doctorate in the following semester with the dissertation Observationes criticae in comoediam Graecam selectae (“Selected text-critical observations on Greek comedy”) (July 20, 1870), the main reviewer of which was Haupt; He had passed his Rigorosum on July 14th.

War effort, travel and quarrel with Nietzsche

Title page of the book The Birth of Tragedy from the Spirit of Music
From right to left: Friedrich Nietzsche, Carl von Gersdorff and Erwin Rohde in October 1871

In the same month Wilamowitz began his service in the Prussian military as a one-year volunteer . In the Franco-Prussian War that had broken out a few days earlier , he was deployed as a guard regiment of the reserve battalion of the 2nd Guard Regiment. To his great disappointment, he did not get a chance to prove himself in battle. On July 20, 1871, a few months after the war ended, Wilamowitz's one-year military service ended and he returned to Berlin. At this time he came into personal contact with the famous historian Theodor Mommsen for the first time , who took a liking to Wilamowitz's work and, a few years later, commissioned him to publish the late Moriz Haupt's small writings . From August 1872 Wilamowitz, accompanied by Georg Kaibel, went on a one and a half year study trip through Italy and Greece, during which he copied numerous manuscripts.

In 1872 there was also a conflict with Friedrich Nietzsche. Nietzsche, who had been a professor in Basel since 1869, had published The Birth of Tragedy from the Spirit of Music in May 1872 , thereby sparking a public controversy. It was about the devaluation of Euripides , whom Nietzsche accused of destroying the tragedy. He set an intuitive, irrational element against the classical or historicist approach of the philological science of the time. The established philologists in Germany ignored Nietzsche's attack because they did not take his work seriously; Professor Ritschl, whom Nietzsche admired, also distanced himself from the script. The only public reprimand from the ranks of the philologists came from the young Wilamowitz, who wrote in May 1872 in Rudolf Schöll's pamphlet Zukunftsphilologie! said: "Mr. Nietzsche does not appear as a scientific researcher: the wisdom acquired on the path of intuition is presented partly in pulpit style, partly in a raisonnement that is only too related to the journalist [...]." On the polemic with Wilamowitz Nietzsche criticized the unclean scientific way of working from the perspective of philology, without going into the content of his theses, Nietzsche did not react. His friend Erwin Rohde, however, wrote a counter-writ with the title Afterphilology , in which he also only polemicized against Wilamowitz, and Richard Wagner wrote an open letter. In February 1873 Wilamowitz responded with a reply: Future Philology !, second piece. A reply to attempts to save Fr. Nietzsche's 'Birth of Tragedy' . This ended the dispute without an agreement. The professional world had followed the controversy with silence and shaking their heads. The zealous mutual accusations, mostly on the part of Wilamowitz and Rohde, were characterized by talking past one another and avoiding the core issues through polemics.

Following his inclination, Nietzsche finally turned away from classical philology, which Wilamowitz welcomed. It was not until decades later that Nietzsche's impact would manifest itself across disciplines, while Wilamowitz's anti-classical view had been supplanted by the “ third humanism ” since the 1920s . In his memoirs , written 50 years later, Wilamowitz particularly motivates the drafting of his counter- writings with the need to present Nietzsche's unfair approach from the philological point of view, as well as with Nietzsche's sharp polemics against Otto Jahn, who was admired by Wilamowitz, because of his critical review of Richard Wagner.

In April 1873 Wilamowitz became a corresponding member of the German Archaeological Institute in Rome . Here he strengthened his contacts with Kaibel and Robert and made friends with his colleague Friedrich Leo who later became a colleague from Göttingen . In addition, this was where his regular contact with Theodor Mommsen began, with whom he had a familiar, albeit tense, relationship throughout his life. The excitement caused by the layman Heinrich Schliemann at that time by the discovery of what he called the “ treasure of Priam ” was also echoed in Rome. In particular, the story of Schliemann's wife, who is said to have smuggled the treasure past the guards in her shawl, spurred the imagination and ridicule of the professional world. For the Christmas party of the German Archaeological Institute, Wilamowitz dressed up as Schliemann's wife and reenacted the scene to the general amusement. In later years he regretted this "undignified travesty".

Academic teaching

After his travels, Wilamowitz devoted himself to his habilitation in Berlin, which he achieved on July 30, 1875 with the Analecta Euripidea , dedicated to Theodor Mommsen . He gave his inaugural lecture on August 7th.


Wilamowitz in Greifswald (1878)

Wilamowitz turned down a call to the University of Breslau as associate professor. Instead, at Easter 1876 he went to the University of Greifswald to succeed Eduard Hiller in a position that was actually intended for Friedrich Nietzsche. He stayed in Greifswald until 1883.

On September 20, 1878, Wilamowitz married the 23-year-old Marie Mommsen (1855–1936), the eldest daughter of Theodor Mommsen, in Charlottenburg . Wilamowitz later wrote that "a new, better life began" with the marriage. The couple had three sons and four daughters: Dorothea (1879–1972), Adelheid (1881–1954), Gottfried Hermann (* / † 1882), Tycho (1885–1914), Hermann (1887–1938) and Hildegard (1892– 1989). Tycho's twin sister died a week after giving birth.

Wilamowitz felt uncomfortable in Greifswald for two reasons: the town and the university were small and, according to his terms, sleepy, and in the college he was isolated because of his sharp tone and his relentless criticism, especially since he had recommended himself to the ancient historian Otto Seeck , who Mommsen recommended , did not understand. His first major publications did not get the attention he wanted. In addition, Wilamowitz and his colleague Adolph Kießling edited the series Philological Studies , which appeared in thirty volumes from 1880 to 1925, and helped Mommsen to edit the fifth volume of Roman history . He also contributed to the journals Philologus and Hermes ; he and Mommsen determined the direction of the latter. After a dispute with the editor Emil Huebner (1881), Wilamowitz appointed his college friends Carl Robert and Georg Kaibel to be the new editors of Hermes .


Wilamowitz (left) and Hermann Sauppe in Göttingen, winter semester 1887/88. Sauppe was a friend of Otto Jahn.

The departure from Greifswald made possible a call to the University of Göttingen , which came to him in July 1883 through the action of the ministerial director Friedrich Althoff, who was friendly with Wilamowitz . In the winter semester of 1883, Wilamowitz moved to Göttingen as the successor to Ernst von Leutsch, who was retired . Wilamowitz obtained that Georg Kaibel was appointed as his successor to Greifswald.

As early as 1877, when the Göttingen chair for Classical Philology was vacant, Wilamowitz had been considered a candidate by the university management alongside Erwin Rohde and Karl Dilthey . However, because of the resistance on the part of Ernst von Leutsch against Wilamowitz's appointment, Dilthey was appointed to the chair. Since Leutsch and Sauppe could only contribute little to the apprenticeship due to their age and Dilthey was often sick, Wilamowitz tried to appoint competent colleagues. In 1889 Friedrich Leo and Wilhelm Meyer came to the university. The inadequacy of the ancient historian Christian August Volquardsen forced Wilamowitz to represent ancient history in teaching. After long efforts to get a transfer, Volquardsen was persuaded in 1897 to swap positions with the Kiel ancient historian Georg Busolt , who taught and researched in Göttingen until his death (1920).

Wilamowitz later often rated the Göttingen time as "the happiest time of my life". He got along very well with his colleagues, above all with Hermann Sauppe and Friedrich Leo, and with Julius Wellhausen , an Old Testament scholar who had been involved in Althoff's work in 1892 . In 1884 he dedicated his Homeric investigations to the latter, who had been his colleague in Greifswald . In Göttingen, Wilamowitz received several calls from other universities, all of which he rejected: in 1885 from Strasbourg , 1886 from Heidelberg and 1889 from Bonn (as the successor to the late Eduard Lübbert ). As early as 1880 Wilamowitz had been traded in Bonn's Philosophical Faculty as the successor to Friedrich Heimsoeth , who died in 1877 , but for financial reasons they decided in favor of Lübbert. In the academic year 1891/1892 Wilamowitz was Vice Rector of the University of Göttingen. On January 1st, 1892, he was elected as a full member of the Royal Society of Sciences in Göttingen , and after Hermann Sauppe's death in September 1893, he became the Society's secretary in 1894. Also in 1894 he was declared a full member of the German Archaeological Institute.


Friedrich Althoff had been calling Wilamowitz's appointment as professor at Berlin University since 1895. His college friend Hermann Diels, who had been an associate professor at the university since 1882 and a full professor since 1886, supported these efforts. In addition to Wilamowitz's scruples about leaving Göttingen, the decisive opposition of the Berlin professors Ernst Curtius , Adolf Kirchhoff and Johannes Vahlen stood in the way. It was only after Curtius' death in July 1896 that Wilamowitz was able to make up his mind to accept the call to succeed Curtius in Berlin and to take up his professorship in the summer semester of 1897. He recommended Georg Kaibel to his chair in Göttingen - as in Greifswald in 1883.

Wilamowitz developed a lively scientific activity in Berlin. Following Mommsen's example, he worked as a science organizer and mediator between states. The terms of his chair negotiated by Althoff included the exemption from examinations, but also the establishment of the Institute for Antiquity, which Wilamowitz and Diels chaired, as well as regular public lectures that Wilamowitz held every Monday and Thursday and which were always well attended. In addition, a meeting took place every two weeks in his Westend apartment (Eichenallee 12 - here a neighbor of the parents of the philosopher Leonard Nelson ), at which Greek source texts were read cursory and which was known as "Graeca". In 1899 Wilamowitz joined the board of the German Archaeological Institute. The Prussian Academy of Sciences , which Wilamowitz had accepted as a corresponding member in 1891, elected him as a full member in 1899 after the death of Heinrich Kiepert . Wilamowitz played a leading role in the academy and took over its management in 1902.

Lithograph by Max Liebermann , which was created in 1915 as part of a series of portraits of Prussian patriots.

The death of his close friend Kaibel in 1901 represented a stroke of fate. Just two years later, Mommsen died very old. Despite these losses, Wilamowitz continued his work relentlessly. He gave guest lectures abroad in Oxford (1908) and Uppsala (1912). He turned down an American visiting professorship in the winter semester of 1912/1913 because he felt that the faculty there was inferior. In April 1913 he took part in the Third International Congress of Historians in London, and in the academic year 1915/1916 he held the post of rector of Berlin University.

Late years

The First World War was a decisive event for Wilamowitz . The strictly conservative son of a large landowner stood up for his Prussian fatherland with ardent patriotism. He held patriotic speeches that he made in 1915 also print, initiated in 1914, the Declaration of University Professors of the German Reich and signed the manifesto of the 93 . At the same time, his son Tycho fell on the Eastern Front. His attitude and activities partly cost him his reputation abroad. In 1915 his membership in the Paris Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres was revoked. Wilamowitz's attitude to war changed when he saw the dimensions of the modern war of extermination.

In 1917/1918 Wilamowitz belonged to the Prussian manor house . The collapse of the Wilhelmine Empire in 1918 and the death of his friends Diels and Robert (both in 1922) embittered him. At that time, his lectures had lost the pathos that had been typical of the past due to disappointment, and he barely gave any public lectures and speeches. He felt his retirement in 1921 was premature and unfair; he continued to hold lectures and seminars. His student Werner Jaeger (1888–1961), who had already turned away from Wilamowitz in many respects , became his successor at the chair . Nonetheless, Wilamowitz continued to give lectures at the university until his health no longer made it possible. In 1925 Wilamowitz gave lectures in Copenhagen. In 1928 the magazines Philologus, Hermes, Die Antike and Gnomon congratulated him on his eightieth birthday, and the Berlin students organized a torchlight procession in his honor.

Memorial plaque on Wilamowitz 'house in Westend

By 1927, Wilamowitz's health began to deteriorate rapidly. In September he gave his last lecture at the Göttingen Philologists' Meeting. His last major work is the Hellenic Faith , an alternative to Hermann Usener's god names (Bonn 1896). A kidney disease tied Wilamowitz to bed, so that he dictated the work to his daughter Dorothea, who had been married to the epigrapher Friedrich Hiller von Gaertringen since 1905, under the influence of painkillers . In 1929 Wilamowitz had to break off work; the work was published by the epigraphist Günther Klaffenbach . On July 17 and 18, 1931, he took part for the last time in the meetings of the German Archaeological Institute. Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff died on September 25th at the age of 83 after lying in a comatose state for several weeks. At his request, he was buried in the family grave of the Barons von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff in Möllendorf (today Wymysłowice , Kujawien-Pomeranian Voivodeship ), where his son Hermann brought the urn with his father's ashes, which together with his wife's for Son Tycho built a cenotaph resting. Up until a few years ago, the tomb was regularly tended by schoolchildren and students from the area.

Achievements and Importance

Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff influenced and determined classical philology in many ways. His merits can hardly be overestimated: He applied Friedrich August Wolf's thoughts on text history to Greek tragedy and bucolic ; He wrote numerous editions, commentaries and translations in the fields of tragedy, comedy, Plato, early Greek poetry and Hellenistic poetry. His Greek verse placed research in this area on new foundations that are still valid today. All in all, Classical Philology owes Wilamowitz the “discovery” of pre- and post-classical authors as the subject of research and the integration of knowledge and methods from archeology, papyrology, comparative linguistics, epigraphy and ancient history into its philological work.

Science policy and organization

As an advisor to the Ministerial Director Friedrich Althoff, he had a major influence on who was appointed to which position in the Prussian university service. So he steered the career of his friend Kaibel and prevented the academic career of the philologist Paul Cauer with a damning review . His expert work can be read in the collection of his letters to Althoff under the title Appointment Policy within Classical Studies in Wilhelmine Prussia (Frankfurt am Main 1989).

As a science organizer, Wilamowitz tried to work together at home and abroad. He initiated the lexicon project Thesaurus Linguae Latinae , led by Friedrich Leo , which has been creating a comprehensive lexicon of the ancient Latin language since 1894. At the Prussian Academy of Sciences, he pushed through the continuation of the edition of the Corpus Inscriptionum Graecarum , which was gradually expanded into the large-scale Inscriptiones Graecae project . Wilamowitz also actively participated in the commission for the publication of the Corpus scriptorum ecclesiasticorum Latinorum , where he resolutely emphasized the philological part of the project. From 1926 he was co-editor of the philological review organ Litteris of the Vetenskapssocieteten i Lund . He also contributed to the collection of the fragments of the pre-Socratics .


In his lectures and lectures, Wilamowitz developed his talent to cast a spell over the audience with his charisma, his eloquence and his infectious enthusiasm for antiquity. Of his numerous students, the following should be mentioned in particular: Werner Jaeger , Eduard Fraenkel , Hermann Fränkel , Paul Friedländer , Johannes Geffcken , Alfred Gercke , Felix Jacoby , Paul Maas , Max Pohlenz , Karl Reinhardt , Wolfgang Schadewaldt , Eduard Schwartz and Ludwig Traube . In the Anglo-Saxon region, Wilamowitz conveyed the idea of ​​classical philology as an established science to Gilbert Murray in Great Britain and Basil Lanneau Gildersleeve in the United States, and can therefore be considered a founding father of this discipline, at least in the United States. Some of his students had to emigrate during the National Socialist era and strengthened classical philology in the USA and Great Britain, including Eduard Fraenkel, Hermann Fränkel, Jacoby, Jaeger and Maas.

Science understanding and research

Wilamowitz was an internationally respected representative of historicism in his field. He saw all ancient studies interwoven into one unit: he regarded philology as a science of history, and archeology, as Eduard Gerhard put it, as "monumental philology". In doing so, he identified philology not in terms of a method , but in terms of its subject matter : the aim of ancient studies is to visualize all of Greco-Roman antiquity on the basis of texts and other documentary evidence; Individual phenomena are analytical, overall developments are to be researched synthetically.

The view of his subject also determined Wilamowitz's understanding of literature. He explained the works of antiquity “from the cultural and socio-historical conditions of their time of origin and, in the sense of a comprehensive ancient science, also used the archaeological material sources for the text interpretation”.

His research on Greek literature covered the fields of epic poetry, tragedy and Hellenistic poetry. In his discussion of the Homeric Question , Wilamowitz took the view that the great epics Iliad and Odyssey came from different authors. He identified various editors who, in his opinion, brought the Odyssey into the text form in which it was handed down to modern times through Alexandrian philology.

Wilamowitz earned a great merit with his treatment of Hellenistic poetry. The Hellenism as a historical epoch of Droysen formulated. Wilamowitz tried to gain a general understanding of the era and its literature. His rejection of the traditional understanding of classical music led him to consider the interpretation of Hellenistic poetry as a continuation of classical poetry of the 5th century BC. To discard. He illustrated the peculiarity of Hellenistic poetry with various terms. Particularly noteworthy in this context is the classification as “baroque” literature. Wilamowitz resorted to Jacob Burckhardt's expansion of the term “baroque”, which he did not reserve for a specific literary epoch, but used it as a general term for a cultural and literary phenomenon. The learned “artifacts” of Hellenistic poets, who Wilamowitz found “alien to life”, received a critical judgment.

Wilamowitz dealt with the Greek metric from the 1870s. In addition to a few essays, he published a Commentariolum metricum in two small quarto volumes in 1895 . His large monograph Greek Verse Art from 1921 is a collection and revision of his older essays on the subject. In it he presented the state of metrical research of his time, the history and properties of metrics as well as all types of verse and stanzas. The work is still of fundamental importance today and was reprinted unchanged in 1958, 1975 and 1984. Wilamowitz himself did not expect this success. In the preface to the work he wrote: “... I doubt whether the success will justify the risk. Because this book is a tough cake, and if you once found something like raisins in the textual critical treatment of numerous verses, nowadays textual criticism is out of fashion. ”The book of 630 pages is divided into three sections. The first introduces the relationship between Greek and modern verse and poetry and prose, deals with the metrical theories of the ancient Greeks and concludes with an overview of Greek metrics. The second section consists of individual investigations into various meter readings , the construction of stanzas and stanzas that are unevenly constructed. The third section contains metrical analyzes of individual songs (including Pindar , Sophocles , Euripides and Aristophanes ) and closes with a detailed register.

Efforts to strengthen and popularize the subject

In the reforms of grammar school education carried out by the Prussian school conferences in December 1890 and June 1900 , Wilamowitz saw a defeat for humanistic education, he continued to oppose Gottfried Friedrich Aly against the lowering of the old language requirements and also wanted to stick to the Latin school essay. His Greek Reader (1902) was used in many places and had several editions.

He worked hard to convey the subject of classical studies to the broadest possible circle of interested non-experts. In addition to the public lectures, his translations, in which he also saw a national duty, served this purpose. His two requirements for a translation were that it should be at least as easy to understand for the modern reader as the original for the ancient reader and that the poetic form of the translation did not have to correspond exactly to that of the original, but should be meaningfully modeled on it. Wilamowitz thus broke away from the classicist tradition and brought an unusual modernity to the texts. This approach also met with isolated but severe criticism; he was accused of being trivial and lacking in style. Above all, Friedrich Gundolf (from the circle around the poet Stefan George ) and Rudolf Borchardt turned against his translation and explanation of Plato's works , which Borchardt criticized as “instinct of this great technician” and Gundolf with the predicate “Plato for maids”. Wilamowitz's numerous translations of tragedies intended for a wide audience were no longer published after his death.

During his time in Berlin, Wilamowitz arranged a series of performances in Berlin (with guest performances in Vienna). After his death, his translations only appeared on the stage a few times: on the occasion of the Olympic Games in 1936, the Orestie des Aeschylus was performed in Berlin , the Hiketiden des Euripides in Essen in 1955 , and in 1978, 1979 and 1981 in Cologne, Düsseldorf and Mülheim an der Ruhr Cyclops of Euripides. In connection with the stage performances, Wilamowitz's confession is interesting that he himself is not a theater fanatic: “I was not very tempted to go to the theater, it was seldom satisfactory, and it was also not possible because of the waste of time”.

Scientific historical research into his work

Research on the work, personality and reception of Wilamowitz was initiated in the 1970s by William M. Calder III . He has published several correspondence from Wilamowitz and other writings and organized congresses on Wilamowitz and his contemporaries. Calder also drew from the preparatory work of the Wilamowitz daughter Dorothea († 1972) and her husband, Friedrich Freiherr Hiller von Gaertringen, who began to collect letters, poems and memories of the deceased after Wilamowitz's death. With an advertisement in the Gnomon , they called on students and friends of the deceased to contribute to the collection. Calder's publications, however, meet with criticism because of his judgments about people, his view of the political and social conditions in Germany in the Wilhelmine era and the Weimar Republic, as well as his biographical approach. Examples of Wilamowitz researchers in Germany are: Paul Dräger , Stephan Heilen , Rudolf Kassel , Robert Kirstein and Wilt Aden Schröder .

Soon after Wilamowitz's death, the classical philologist and specialist historian Otto Kern began a Wilamowitz biography, which, however, remained unfinished and unpublished after his death (1942). It was rejected by the deceased's family at the time because of its panegyric style, but is valuable because of the documents cited.


Rudolf Dührkoop : Portrait photo of Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff; Heliogravure (around 1905)

As befits his origins, Wilamowitz, the son of a noble Prussian landowner, was extremely conservative. "Wilamowitz-Moellendorff's character was shaped by the tension between conservative rigidity and boyish impartiality", states Hans-Albrecht Koch in the German Biographical Encyclopedia and points out the significant fact that the "scientifically most informative" memories 1848-1914 with the Outbreak of the First World War ends. Wilamowitz defined himself as a citizen of the Wilhelmine Empire and could not make friends with the Weimar Republic, which he perceived as a “cowardly ochlocracy ”. He often drew parallels between the emergence of Athens in the 5th century BC. And the German Empire, and pathetic undertones penetrated into his scientific monographs.

Wilamowitz often came into conflict with the politically active Mommsen, who was decidedly liberal. From the 1890s onwards there was an increasing alienation between the two, which is depicted in the collection of letters From the friend a son (letters from 1872 to 1903). The title alludes not only to Wilamowitz's marriage to Mommsen's daughter, but also to the change in their relationship.

Wilamowitz was a staunch opponent of anti-Semitism , against which he found harsh words in public. This circumstance later brought him into disrepute among the National Socialists, who accused him of “Judging” ancient studies by indiscriminately promoting his Jewish students. Wilamowitz also always saw his Prussian identity in the light of his Polish origins. The name Wilamowitz means “Wilhelmssohn”, and Wilamowitz-Moellendorff's ancestors were always on good terms with the Polish population of their lands. After his death (on the occasion of his 85th birthday on December 27, 1933) his widow wrote to his Jewish student Paul Friedländer: “I grant him that he has not lived through this year. Until then I had still said that he would be able to change a lot, make a lot more bearable for us. But he would have faced the desert of this year, especially the war against the non-Aryans, and then these murders at the universities, and both would have taken him very much. "

In addition to political conservatism, Wilamowitz was open to new ideas from his students at all ages. Werner Jaeger, for example, assigned an entirely new role to the ancient languages ​​in his system of classical studies. Wilamowitz's reaction to the dissertation of his pupil Wolfgang Schadewaldt (1924), in which Schadewaldt largely refuted the Euripides research of his teacher, became a catchphrase: “Always ready to relearn”.

Wilamowitz also used to compare his closest relatives with ancient figures: the mother he idealized was his Sappho , his father first Theseus , later Amphitryon . The biographical correspondences between the philosopher and state theorist Plato , who is revered by Wilamowitz, and the philologist, Margherita Isnardi Parente pointed out in an essay in 1973.


Fonts (selection)

The years and numbers of the new editions indicate to what extent a work has retained its importance to this day. For the full texts available online, see Wikisource .

  • To what extent are the conclusions of the surviving Greek tragedies satisfying? An aesthetic attempt [1867] . Edited by William M. Calder III, Leiden 1974.
  • Observationes criticae in comoediam Graecam selectae (Dissertation Berlin 1870), Berlin: Schade 1870.
  • Analecta Euripidea (habilitation thesis Berlin 1875), Berlin: Borntraeger 1875.
  • From Kydathen , Berlin 1880.
  • Antigonos von Karystos , Berlin: Weidmann 1881. 2nd edition 1966.
  • Homeric investigations , Berlin: Weidmann 1884.
  • Aristoteles and Athens , Berlin: Weidmann 1893. 2 volumes. ( Digitized and full text in the German Text Archive Vol. 1, digitalized and full text in the German Text Archive Vol. 2) 3rd edition 1985.
  • Introduction to the Attic tragedy (Euripides Herakles explains, vol. 1). Berlin: Weidmann 1889. ( Digitized and full text in the German text archive )
  • The text history of the Greek lyric poets , Berlin: Weidmann 1900. 2nd edition 1970.
  • Speeches and lectures , Berlin: Weidmann 1901. 4th, revised edition 1925–1926.
  • Greek reader , Berlin: Weidmann 1902. 2 volumes.
  • The text history of the Greek bucolic , Berlin: Weidmann 1906.
  • Introduction to the Greek tragedy , Berlin: Weidmann 1907. Unchanged reprint from Euripides Herakles, Volume 1, Chapters 1-4. 1st edition.
  • Paul Hinneberg (editor): The culture of the present . The following volumes are from Wilamowitz:
    • The Greek and Latin literature and language , Berlin: Teubner 1907. 2nd improved and increased edition. 3rd greatly improved and increased edition 1912. Reprint 1995.
    • State and Society of Greeks and Romans , Berlin: Teubner 1910. 2nd edition 1923. Reprint 1979.
  • Sappho and Simonides: Studies on Greek Poets , Berlin: Weidmann 1913. Reprint 1966, 1985.
  • Aeschylus: Interpretations , Berlin: Weidmann 1914. 2nd edition Zurich / Dublin 1967.
  • Speeches from the war , Berlin: Weidmann 1915.
  • The Iliad and Homer , Berlin: Weidmann 1916. 3rd edition 1966.
  • The Greek and Platonic State Thought , Berlin: Weidmann 1919. Edited with three other writings by Luciano Canfora : Tra scienza e politica: quattro saggi (Antiqua 18)
  • Plato. Life and works / supplements and text criticism , Berlin: Weidmann 1919. 2 volumes. 2nd edition 1920, 3rd edition 1929, 4th edition 1948, 5th edition 1969, reprint 1992.
  • Greek verse art. Berlin: Weidmann 1921. 3rd edition 1975.
  • History of philology. Berlin / Leipzig: Teubner 1921; 3rd edition Leipzig 1927; Reprints: ibid 1959; Stuttgart / Leipzig 1998.
    • History of Classical Scholarship. Translated from the German by Alan Harris. Edited with Introduction and Notes by Hugh Lloyd-Jones , London 1982
  • Hellenistic poetry in the time of Callimachos , Berlin: Weidmann 1924. 2 volumes. 2nd edition 1973.
  • The homecoming of Odysseus: New Homeric investigations , Berlin: Weidmann 1927.
  • Memoirs 1848–1914 , Leipzig: Koehler 1928.
    • English translation by George Chatterton Richards: My recollections, 1848–1914 , London 1930.
  • Cyrene . Berlin: Weidmann 1928.
  • The faith of the Hellenes , 2 vols. Berlin: Weidmann 1931-1932. 2nd edition, Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft 1955, reprints 1959, 1984, 1994.
  • Small writings , edited by Paul Maas and others with the support of the Prussian Academy of Sciences. Berlin: Weidmann 1935–1972. 6 volumes.
  • Friedrich Hiller von Gaertringen (Ed.): ΕΛΕΓΕΙΑ [ELEGEIA] , Berlin 1938

Critical editions and translations

  • Callimachi hymni et epigrammata , Berlin: Weidmann 1882. 2nd edition 1897.
  • Aeschylus Agamemnon Greek text and German translation , Berlin: Weidmann 1885.
  • Isyllos von Epidauros , Berlin: Weidmann 1886.
  • Euripides Herakles , Berlin: Weidmann 1889. 3 volumes. 2nd edition 1895. 3rd edition 1910. 4th edition 1959.
  • Euripides Hippolytus. Greek and German , Berlin: Weidmann 1891.
  • (with Georg Kaibel): Aristotelis Politeia Athēnaiōn , Berlin: Weidmann 1891. 3rd edition 1898.
  • Oresty: Greek and German , Berlin: Weidmann 1896.
  • Bakchylides , Berlin: Weidmann 1898.
  • Greek tragedies , Berlin: Weidmann from 1899. 14 volumes
  • The remains of the countryman von Menandros , Berlin: 1899.
  • Adonis / Bion of Smyrna. German and Greek , Berlin: Weidmann 1900.
  • The Timotheos papyrus found at Abusir on February 1, 1902 , Leipzig: Hinrichs 1903.
  • Bucolici graeci , Oxford: Clarendon Press 1905.
  • Wilhelm Schubart , Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff (editor): Epic and elegiac fragments , Berlin: Weidmann 1907.
  • Aeschyli tragoediae , Berlin: Weidmann 1914. Editio minor 1915.
  • Pindaros , Berlin: Weidmann 1922. 2nd edition 1966.
  • Menander: The Arbitration Court , Berlin: Weidmann 1925. Reprinted 1958.


  • Wilamowitz bibliography 1868 to 1929 . Edited by Friedrich Freiherr Hiller von Gaertringen and Günther Klaffenbach. Berlin 1929.
  • Michael Armstrong, Wolfgang Buchwald, William M. Calder III (eds.): Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff bibliography 1867–1990 . Reviewed and added to by Friedrich Freiherr Hiller von Gaertringen and Günther Klaffenbach. Weidmann, Hildesheim, Munich, Zurich 1991, ISBN 3-615-00062-5 .
  • William M. Calder III , Hellmut Flashar , Theodor Lindken (eds.): Wilamowitz after 50 years . Scientific Book Society, Darmstadt 1985, ISBN 3-534-08810-7 . (Contributions to the symposium from September 22 to 26, 1981 in Bad Homburg on the 50th anniversary of Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff's death)
    • Review: Rudolf Kassel , Göttingische Gelehre Anzeige 239, 1987, pp. 188–228 = Kleine Schriften , Berlin / New York 1991, pp. 534–578
    • For the lack of treatment of comedy see: Rudolf Kassel: Wilamowitz on Greek and Roman Comedy , in: Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 45, 1982, pp. 271-300 = Rudolf Kassel: Kleine Schriften , Berlin / New York 1991, p. 506 -533
  • William M. Calder III (ed.) Et al: Wilamowitz in Greifswald. Files from the conference for Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff's 150th birthday in Greifswald, 19. – 22. December 1998 . Hildesheim [u. a.] 2000 ( Spudasmata 81)
  • The dispute over Nietzsche's "Birth of Tragedy". The writings of E. Rohde, R. Wagner, U. v. Wilamowitz-Möllendorff. Compiled and introduced by Karlfried Gründer , Hildesheim 1969
  • Joachim Latacz : Fruitful nuisance: Nietzsche's 'Birth of Tragedy' and the Greek tragedy research . Basel 1998 (Basel University Speeches, 94th issue)
  • Cornelia Wegeler: "... let's say from the international scholarly republic" - classical studies and National Socialism. The Göttingen Institute for Classical Studies 1921–1962 . Vienna, Cologne, Weimar 1996, ISBN 3-205-05212-9 .
  • Klaus-Gunther WesselingWilamowitz-Moellendorff, Ulrich Friedrich Wichard von. In: Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL). Volume 13, Bautz, Herzberg 1998, ISBN 3-88309-072-7 , Sp. 1113-1160.

Biographical presentations and studies on individual aspects

  • Richard Harder : Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff † . In: Gnomon 7, 1931, pp. 557-560.
  • Karl Ludwig Reinhardt : Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff . In: The Great Germans . Volume 5, Berlin 1952, pp. 415-421.
  • Friedrich Solmsen: Wilamowitz in his Last Ten Years . In: Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies Volume 20 (1979), pp. 89–122 = Kleine Schriften III, 1982, pp. 431–464.
  • Robert L. Fowler: Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff . In: Classical Scholarship: A Biographical Encyclopaedia . Edd. by WW Briggs and William M. Calder III, New York, London 1990, pp. 489-522.
  • Włodzimierz Appel (Ed.): "Origine Cujavus". Contributions to the conference on the occasion of the 150th birthday of Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff (1848–1931) (= Xenia Toruniensia Volume 4). Wydawn. Uniwersytetu Mikołaja Kopernika, Toruń 1999, ISBN 83-231-1145-6 .
  • Paul Dräger : At the place of birth and on the grave of Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff. A documentation for his 150th birthday . In: Gymnasium Volume 106 (1999), pp. 97-151.
  • Hans-Albrecht Koch: Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, Ulrich von . In: German Biographical Encyclopedia . Volume 10, 1999, pp. 494-495.
  • Stephan Heilen : The man who wanted to force Wilamowitz to duel. New sources on a previously unclear point in memories . In: Rheinisches Museum für Philologie Volume 145 (2002), pp. 374–426
  • Markus Mülke (Ed.): Wilamowitz and no end. Scientific Colloquium Fondation Hardt, September 9th to 13th, 2002 (= Spudasmata. Studies on Classical Philology and its Border Areas. Volume 92). Olms, Hildesheim 2003, ISBN 3-487-11987-0 .
    • Review: Paul Dräger, Anzeiger für die Altertumswwissenschaft , Volume 57 (2004), Col. 197–202
  • Wilt Aden Schröder: Wilamowitz portraits. In: Philologus Volume 151 (2007), pp. 335-374
  • Stephan Heilen et al. (Ed.): In Pursuit of Wissenschaft. Festschrift for William M. Calder III on his 75th birthday (= Spudasmata. Studies on Classical Philology and its Border Areas. Volume 119). Olms, Hildesheim 2008, ISBN 3-487-13632-5 .
  • Walther Ludwig : Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff's unknown lecture “Introduction to Philology” . In: Studies in Philology and Musicology ( Treatises of the Academy of Sciences in Göttingen . New Part 7). de Gruyter, Berlin 2009, ISBN 3-11-021763-5 , pp. 53-102.
  • Josefine Kitzbichler, Katja Lubitz, Nina Mindt: Theory of the translation of ancient literature in Germany since 1800. de Gruyter, Berlin 2009, ISBN 978-3-11-020623-4 , pp. 196-235
  • William M. Calder III: Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, Ulrich von. In: Peter Kuhlmann , Helmuth Schneider (Hrsg.): History of the ancient sciences. Biographical Lexicon (= The New Pauly . Supplements. Volume 6). Metzler, Stuttgart / Weimar 2012, ISBN 978-3-476-02033-8 , Sp. 1312-1316.
  • Antonio Tibiletti: Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff. "The German Kujawiak" . Verlag Traugott Bautz, Nordhausen 2016 ( Studia Classica et Mediaevalia 11), ISBN 978-3-95948-096-3

Collections of letters

  • Mommsen and Wilamowitz. Correspondence 1872–1903 . Edited by Friedrich and Dorothea Hiller von Gaertringen, Berlin 1935
    • These Jürgen Malitz : gleaning for correspondence Mommsen-Wilamowitz . In: Quaderni di Storia Volume 17 (1983), pp 123-150
  • Letters from Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Möllendorff to Georg Finsler . 1953.
  • Selected correspondence, 1869-1931 . Napoli 1983.
  • The preserved letters from Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff to Eduard Schwartz . CH Beck, Munich 1986, ISBN 3-7696-1539-5 .
  • Appointment policy within classical studies in Wilhelmine Prussia . Klostermann, Frankfurt am Main 1989, ISBN 3-465-02200-9 .
    • Review: Edgar Pack: Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, Friedrich Althoff e gli studi classici in Prussia nell'epoca Guglielmina. A proposito di un libro recente . In: Quaderni di storia Volume 33 (1991), pp. 191-241; 34: 235-284 (1991). Cf. also Wilt Aden Schröder, Göttingische Gelehre Anzeige Volume 242, 1990, pp. 211-236.
  • The Prussian and the poet: the letters of Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff to Gilbert Murray . Weidmann, Hildesheim 1991, ISBN 3-615-00071-4 .
  • Further letters of Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff . Weidmann, Hildesheim 1994, ISBN 3-615-00099-4 .
  • Usener and Wilamowitz. An exchange of letters: 1870–1905 . 2nd Edition. Teubner, Stuttgart, Leipzig 1994, ISBN 3-519-07250-5 .
  • “Dear Prince”: the correspondence between Hermann Diels and Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff . Weidmann, Hildesheim 1995, ISBN 3-615-00173-7 .
    • Review: Wilt Aden Schröder: Comments on the Diels-Wilamowitz correspondence . In: Eikasmos Volume 8 (1997), pp. 283-308.
  • "Sed serviendum officio ...": the correspondence between Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff and Eduard Norden (1892–1931) . Weidmann, Hildesheim 1997, ISBN 3-615-00188-5 .
  • “The genius wildling”: Correspondence 1874–1878, 1900–1903. Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff and Max Fränkel . News from the Göttingen Academy of Sciences. Philological-historical class born in 1999, No. 5, Göttingen 1999.
  • William M. Calder III, Bernhard Huss: 'The Wilamowitz in Me': 100 letters between Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff and Paul Friedländer (1904–1931) . Los Angeles 1999
  • “A son from a friend”. Theodor Mommsen and Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, correspondence 1872–1903 . 2 volumes, Weidmann, Hildesheim 2003, ISBN 3-615-00285-7 .
    • Review: Paul Dräger in Göttingen Forum for Classical Studies Volume 9 (2006), pp. 1131–1144.

Web links

Commons : Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff  - Album with pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Paul Dräger : At the birthplace and grave of Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff. A documentation for his 150th birthday. In: Gymnasium 106, 1999, pp. 97–151. Włodzimierz Appel (Ed.): "Origine Cujavus". Contributions to the conference on the occasion of the 150th birthday of Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff (1848–1931) (= Xenia Toruniensia. 4). Toruń 1999.
  2. See: The Great Germans , Volume 5, p. 416.
  3. ^ German foreign dictionary by Hans Schulz and Otto Basler, Volume 5
  4. ^ Otto Kern : Hermann Diels and Carl Robert . Leipzig 1927, p. 33.
  5. See the chapter in his autobiography Recollections 1848–1914. IV. War , Berlin 1928, pp. 105–126.
  6. a b c German Biographical Encyclopedia , Volume 10 (1999), p. 494.
  7. The dispute over Nietzsche's "Birth of Tragedy". The writings of E. Rohde, R. Wagner, U. v. Wilamowitz-Möllendorff [sic]. Compiled and introduced by Karlfried Gründer, Hildesheim 1969; Joachim Latacz , Fertile Annoyance: Nietzsche's 'Birth of Tragedy' and Graecist Tragedy Research (= Basler Universitätsreden. 94th issue). Basel 1998.
  8. Memoirs 1848–1914 , p. 148.
  9. Detailed description in William M. Calder III: Wilamowitz on Schliemann . In: Philologus 124 (1980), pp. 146-151.
  10. Wilamowitz, Memoirs 1848–1914 , p. 178.
  11. ^ A b Paul Dräger : A family celebration in the Wilamowitz house (June 28, 1925). In: Eikasmos 19, 2008, pp. 397-450.
  12. ^ Paul Dräger: The ambivalent friendship: Wilamowitz and Adolf Kießling. In: Wilamowitz in Greifswald. Hildesheim 1998, pp. 216-261.
  13. ^ Paul Dräger, Otto Kern : Wilmowitz in Greifswald. In: Eikasmos 14, 2003, pp. 331-392.
  14. On the Greifswald time cf. Wilamowitz, Recollections, pp. 178–197, and William M. Calder III [u. a.] (Ed.): Wilamowitz in Greifswald. Files from the conference for Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff's 150th birthday in Greifswald, 19. – 22. December 1998 (= Spudasmata . 81). Hildesheim [u. a.] 2000.
  15. Jochen Bleicken : The development of the ancient history in Göttingen. In: Carl Joachim Classen (Hrsg.): The classical antiquity at the Georg-August-Universität Göttingen: A lecture series on its history. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1989, p. 117, note 44.
  16. Wilamowitz, Memoirs 239
  17. a b Appointment Policy within Classical Studies in Wilhelmine Prussia (Frankfurt am Main 1989) p. 112 f. Note 475.
  18. Cf. Wilt Aden Schröder, Wilamowitz-Bildnisse, Philologus 151, 2007, 335–374.
  19. a b Compare the obituary in Gnomon 7 (1931), pp. 557-560. For example, see the first published lecture: UvW-M .: Homer's Ilias (lecture WS 1887/1888 Göttingen) , edited and commented by Paul Dräger, Hildesheim [u. a.] 2006, 2nd, supplemented edition 2008; therein pp. 17–30: Wilamowitz as a teacher . Reviews: Edith Foster, Bryn Mawr Classical Review 2007-02-35 ( online ); Herbert Bannert, Wiener Studien 120, 2007, pp. 297-300; William M. Calder III, Classical Review Volume 58, 2008, pp. 302-304. See also Walther Ludwig : Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff's unknown lecture “Introduction to Philology” . In: Studies on Philology and Musicology ', Göttingen 2009 (Treatises of the Academy of Sciences, New Series: Volume 7). Pp. 53-102.
  20. See: The Great Germans , Volume 5, p. 418.
  21. ^ History of the Greek Language , published in 1928 by the Weidmann bookstore.
  22. D. Alfred Fischer: Speech at the coffin of Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, ed. by Paul Dräger, Eikasmos 11, 2000, 381-400.
  23. ^ A b c Gerhard Jäger: Introduction to Classical Philology , Munich 1975, p. 25 f.
  24. Wolfhart Unte : Wilamowitz as a scientific organizer . In: Wilamowitz after 50 years . Darmstadt 1985, pp. 720-770.
  25. ^ Enumerations by RL Fowler, in: Classical Scholarship - A Biographical Encyclopedia , 1990, p. 511. Friedrich Solmsen , Wilamowitz in his Last Ten Years . In: Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies , Volume 20 (1979), pp. 92-92. Walther Ludwig , Würzburger Jahrbücher , New Series, Volume 12 (1986), p. 232. Joachim Latacz , Reflections of Classical Philologists on Classical Studies from 1900–1930 . In: Hellmut Flashar , Ancient Studies in the 20s: New Questions and Impulse , Stuttgart 1995, pp. 41–64.
  26. Wolfgang Schindler : The archeology in the context of Wilamowitz 'conception of ancient science . In: Wilamowitz after 50 years , Darmstadt 1985. p. 244.
  27. ^ Wilamowitz, Hellenistic poetry in the time of Callimachos , two volumes, Berlin 1924. Second edition 1973
  28. ^ Greek verse art , Berlin 1921, preface, p. IX
  29. Victor Stegemann: Aly, Friedrich . In: Neue Deutsche Biographie , Volume 1, pp. 235–236.
  30. Uvo Hölscher : The chance of discomfort. On the situation of classical studies , Göttingen 1965, p. 26 f.
  31. Memoirs 1848–1914 , p. 246.
  32. Paul Dräger published the chapter on the Greifswald era in 2003. See also Otto Kern: My teachers. Memories. Hg. And come. by Michael Hillgruber , Hildesheim 2008
  33. See: The Great Germans , Volume 5, p. 417.
  34. See: The Great Germans , Volume 5, p. 415.
  35. ^ William M. Calder III, Bernhard Huss: 'The Wilamowitz in Me': 100 letters between Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff and Paul Friedländer (1904–1931) . Los Angeles 1999, p. 193 (No. 100).
  36. ^ Closing words from Wilamowitz's review of Wolfgang Schadewaldt, monologue and self-talk , Berlin 1926 = KS I 466.
  37. Margherita Isnardi Parente, Rileggendo il Platon di Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff In: Annali della Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa. Classe di lettere e filosofia 3rd Ser. 3 (Florence 1973), 147-167.
This article was added to the list of excellent articles on May 10, 2008 in this version .