Rudolf Schöll

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Rudolf Schöll (born September 1, 1844 in Weimar ; † June 10, 1893 in Munich ) was a German classical philologist who worked as a professor in Greifswald (1872–1874), Jena (1874–1876), Strasbourg (1876–1885) and Munich (1885-1893) taught. He is best known for his work in the field of Greek law as well as Greek speakers and historians.


Rudolf Schöll was born in 1844 as the second son of the director of the Weimar Art Institute, Adolf Schöll . His mother was Johanna geb. Henle, sister of the Göttingen anatomist Jakob Henle . The influence of the highly educated family introduced the young Rudolf Schöll to the literature of antiquity at an early age, because his father, a friend of the classical scholar Karl Otfried Müller , who died in Greece , dealt intensively with classical German, English and Greek literature.

Studied in Göttingen and Bonn

Rudolf Schöll began to study classical philology, German and history at the University of Göttingen after graduating in the summer semester of 1862 . Here he was particularly influenced by Ernst Curtius and Hermann Sauppe , under whose influence Schöll turned to Attic speakers and epigraphy. His fellow students included Wilhelm Dittenberger , Ulrich Köhler and Albert von Bamberg . In the summer semester of 1865, Schöll moved to the University of Bonn , where Otto Jahn and Friedrich Ritschl had no decisive influence on him, but supported him methodically. He turned to Greek law under the direction of the lawyer Eduard Böcking . His dissertation on the Twelve Tables Laws, with which he received his doctorate in November 1865, was still under the influence of his father Gustav Adolf Schöll: The first thesis ( Sophocles non docuit nisi tetralogias - " Sophocles only listed tetralogies ") he defended in conscious contradiction to his teachers in Bonn.

Stay in Italy

After completing his studies, Schöll completed the probationary year at the Wilhelmsgymnasium in Berlin from 1866 to 1867. Here he met the antiquarian and science organizer Theodor Mommsen , who had become aware of Schöll through his dissertation. He got him a job at the Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum and took him on a study trip to Verona in 1867. From then on Schöll turned entirely to the academic career.

He stayed in Italy longer than planned and used the time to do research. The Vienna Academy commissioned him by Mommsen mediation with the collation of a manuscript of Jerome . He got a job with the Prussian envoy to the Italian government in Florence, Count Guido von Usedom , as his daughter's private secretary and teacher. Even after the Count left the service in 1869, Schöll continued to work for him for a few months. During these years Florence was the capital of the newly established Italian Empire. Diplomats and scholars from all over the world met in the ambassador's house. During this time, the young Schöll developed a strong sense of politics. In 1868 he wrote an anonymous defense for the Italian general Alfonso La Marmora . The Italian Crown Prince also provided Schöll with the means for short study trips to Sicily and Greece. Only in 1870, after the death of his older brother, the military engineer Wilhelm Schöll (1843-1870), and the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War , did Schöll return to Germany.

First academic stations in Germany: Berlin, Greifswald, Jena

The diverse and broad material that Schöll had collected during his years in Italy, he used in the following years for his academic career. At Easter 1871 he completed his habilitation in Berlin and gave his inaugural lecture De orationibus in causa Socratis habitis scriptisve (“The speeches held and written about the process of Socrates”). His first courses reflected his academic profile: Introduction to the Study of Attic Orators, About the Laws and Courts of the Athenians, Interpretation of Thucydides, exercises on Xenophon's writing from the State of Athens . During this time he also wrote some essays, including the treatise Zur Thukydidesbiographie (1878), in which he turned against Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff's essay Die Thukydideslegende (1877).

As early as April 1872, Schöll accepted an appointment as associate professor at the University of Greifswald , where he worked with the professor Adolph Kießling on a friendly basis until Easter 1873 . In the summer of 1872 he traveled to Italy for the second time, where in Florence he collected material for his planned editions of the Corpus iuris civilis and Asconius . On July 7, 1873 he was promoted to full professor and traded as a candidate for appointment at various universities. At Easter 1874 he followed a call to Jena to succeed Conrad Bursian , and at Easter 1876 to Strasbourg to succeed his fellow student from Göttingen, Ulrich Köhler. Before that, he had made a second trip to Greece in the spring of 1875 with his teacher Sauppe and the archaeologists Otto Lüders and Carl Robert , during which he not only visited Athens, but also Corinth and the Argolis. Schöll was later made an honorary member of the Greek Philological Society in Constantinople .

Professor in Strasbourg and Munich

Schöll stayed in Strasbourg for nine years and worked in research and teaching with his colleague Wilhelm Studemund . In the spring of 1876 he married Else Locher. However, his career reached its peak in Munich , where he was called in 1885 after Conrad Bursian's death. It was here that his most important writings were written, and it was here that he had decisive teaching success. The Bavarian Academy of Sciences accepted him as a full member, and the University of Heidelberg awarded him an honorary doctorate from its law faculty in 1886. In Munich, Schöll also had lively dealings with artists and writers, including Franz von Lenbach and Paul Heyse .

But his happiness was overshadowed by private tragedies: his son had already died after giving birth in Strasbourg. His daughter, born in 1884, died in 1887 while Schöll was in Italy. From 1891 he developed a heart condition that soon made teaching impossible for him. He had to break off his last lecture in the summer semester of 1893 after a few weeks. He died peacefully in his sleep on June 10, 1893. His Strasbourg and Greifswald colleagues Studemund and Kießling had died only a few years or months before.

Obituaries were written on Schöll by his brother Fritz Schöll , Ernst Fabricius , Eduard Wölfflin , Wilhelm von Christ , Ludwig Traube and Adolf Michaelis .


Rudolf Schöll's name is associated with a few major publications. Many of his monographic projects were prevented by his untimely death. His earliest outstanding achievement was the edition of Asconius, which he planned and carried out together with Adolph Kießling (Berlin 1875). His edition of the novellas of Justinian , which appeared in four volumes during his lifetime (Leipzig 1880–1899), remained unfinished and without the planned prolegomena. His edition of the Commentaries of Proclus on Plato's Politeia (Berlin 1886) followed the only known text witness at the time, a late Renaissance manuscript. After Richard Reitzenstein found an older manuscript, it became obsolete: the new edition by Wilhelm Kroll appeared from 1899 to 1901 .

In addition to these editions, Schöll wrote smaller writings, mostly for external reasons: as a reaction to the publications of others, as a continuation of someone else's work or as a commemorative publication: he wrote commemorative publications or commemorative articles for Georg Friedrich Schömann (1873), his father (1875), Theodor Mommsen (1877), Hermann Sauppe (1879) and Ernst Curtius (1884).

In his teaching, Schöll represented classical studies on a broad basis: He read about Greek and Latin legal antiquities, Greek epigraphy and Greek history. He also gave methodological lectures on textual criticism. In his lectures and seminars he mainly dealt with the authors Lysias , Andokides and Thucydides , as well as Homer ( Odyssey ), Hesiod , Theognis , Pindar , Aeschylus , Euripides and Aristophanes . Occasionally he also read about Latin grammar and the speeches of Cicero , about Sallust , Terence and Horace .

Schöll's teaching success is particularly evident in his Strasbourg and Munich students, whom he instructed in the philological seminar. At his suggestion, numerous doctoral theses were written in Strasbourg in particular, but also in Munich. His students include Franz Boll , Julius Kaerst , Walther Judeich and Theodor Preger .

Fonts (selection)

  • Quaestiones fiscales iuris Attici , Berlin 1873
  • with Fritz Schöll : De synegoris Atticis commentatio , Jena 1875
  • with Adolph Kießling: Q. Asconii Pediani orationum Ciceronianarum quinque enarratio , Berlin 1875
  • as initiator: Satura philologica: H. Sauppio obtulit amicorum conlegarum decas , Berlin 1879
  • Iustiniani Novellae , five books, Leipzig 1880–1895 (completed by Wilhelm Kroll)
  • Procli commentariorum in rempublicam Platonis partes ineditae , Berlin 1886


Web links

Wikisource: Rudolf Schöll  - Sources and full texts

Individual evidence

  1. Wedge (1908) 140.
  2. Keil (1908) 141.
  3. Keil (1908) 143.