University of Strasbourg

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University of Strasbourg
founding March 22, 1538 (grammar school)
June 1, 1566 (academy, foundation)
May 1, 1567 (academy, opening)
August 14, 1621 (university)
May 1, 1872 (new foundation)
January 1, 2009 (association)
Sponsorship state
place Strasbourg , Grand Est , France
president Michel Deneken
Students 52.114
Employee 10,477
including professors 2,782
Annual budget € 536 million (2019)
Networks Eucor , LERU

The University of Strasbourg ( Université de Strasbourg in French ) emerged from a Lutheran high school in the city of Strasbourg , which was founded in 1538 and converted into an academy in 1566 , and in 1621 was given the status of a full university . At the time of its founding, Strasbourg was still part of the Roman-German Empire . In the centuries that followed, the university shared the eventful history of the city and Alsace .

Although Strasbourg had belonged to France since 1681, the university remained essentially a German university until the French Revolution in 1789. Only then was it integrated into the French higher education system. As a result of the Franco-Prussian War of 1870/71, it came back under German rule with Alsace and Lorraine . It was re-established as Kaiser-Wilhelms-Universität in 1872 and expanded considerably in the following decades.

After the end of the First World War in 1918 it was re-established as a French university and, after the German victory over France in 1940, again as a German-language university. This Imperial University of Strasbourg existed from 1941 until the end of 1944, when Allied troops recaptured Alsace. Reconstruction as a French university began in early 1945. Divided into three independent universities according to subject areas in 1971, it was reunited in 2009. In 2019 the University of Strasbourg had 52,114 students.


Old University

high school

Johannes Sturm - first rector of the Strasbourg grammar school

The Lutheran Reformation found supporters early on in Strasbourg . Strasbourg was a center of book printing and printers were open to the new ideas and helped spread them. In 1529 the city council abolished Holy Mass for good and in 1530 the city declared itself at the Reichstag in Augsburg to the new faith in the form of the " four-city confession ". Another intellectual movement that had gained a foothold in Strasbourg and on the Upper Rhine was humanism , which emanated from Italy and brought about a rediscovery of ancient traditions and works. In nearby Schlettstadt there had been an important humanist school for years, which was mainly shaped by Jakob Wimpfeling . From 1514 to 1529 Erasmus of Rotterdam lived and worked in Basel, not far away. Representatives of both intellectual currents - reformers and humanists - attached great importance to education. The Reformers emphasized the importance of individual Bible reading and scriptural interpretation, and the humanists tried to make the writings of ancient, pre-Christian authors public. In many territories that had become Lutheran, the general school system took off.

Strasbourg also felt the need to set up a school for higher education. Since 1528 there were three higher schools in the city, that of Alt St. Peter, with the subjects Greek , Latin , music and religion, the one in the Carmelite convent and the one in the Dominican monastery. The latter was in the highest esteem because it also held public lessons in Latin, Greek and Hebrew . The city councilor Jakob Sturm von Sturmeck and the reformer Martin Bucer founded a higher theological school in the early 1530s, which was financed by numerous donations and foundations from southern Germany. Martin Bucer, Wolfgang Capito and Caspar Hedio taught at the school . Since the three schools mentioned above could not always guarantee the desired quality of education, the plan was made in 1536 with the consent of the three school principals ( Scholarchen ) Jakob Sturm von Sturmeck, Nicolaus Kniebs and Jacob Meier, the higher schools of Strasbourg to become a common institution, to merge a grammar school. Johannes Sturm was elected rector of the future grammar school , who then arrived in Strasbourg in 1536 from the University of Paris. The following year the school's future curriculum was discussed. In a small pamphlet De litterarum ludis recte aperiendis ("About the right opening of schools") Sturm presented his ideas in February 1538 and the city council authorized the little scholars on March 7, 1538 to set up the school according to these ideas. The abandoned Dominican monastery (later: Kollegium zu St. Wilhelm, Collegium Wilhelmitanum ) was designated as the school building and the school was officially opened on March 22, 1538. The core of the teaching staff were the canons of St. Thomas , which enabled the school from the beginning received a denominational (Lutheran) character. In the first section (usually 10 years) the curriculum provided for lessons in grammar , rhetoric and dialectic (the classic trivium ). In the second section (four years) the subjects were Greek, Hebrew, logic , ethics , mathematics , physics , history , jurisprudence , theology and music .

Sturm took great care in training his students. However, it became apparent from the outset that especially the school classes in the second section, which Sturm valued as particularly valuable, suffered from a chronic shortage of students. Instead of attending these school classes, many students preferred to go straight to a university in another city in order to acquire a real academic degree (e.g. Magister) there. In retrospect, Sturm complained in 1566 “... that the school did not, as at universities, had justice, as it is called, to make students, bacealaureos and magistros, and first and foremost to recover and bring such gradus to other high schools”.


Seal of the Republic (= Free Imperial City) Strasbourg (probably from 1567)

In 1566, the leading teachers of the grammar school applied to the city to divide the school into school classes. The first 8 classes should continue to exist as a particular school. The graduates of the upper classes, on the other hand, should no longer be called “pupils” but “students” and, after successful completion, acquire the degrees of bachelor and master's degree. Sturm had originally aimed to convert the upper school classes into a full university, but was unable to prevail against the other teachers, so an agreement was reached on the establishment of an academy. At the Reichstag in Augsburg in 1566, the representatives of the city of Strasbourg applied for an imperial privilege to establish an academy. After negotiations with the Imperial Vice Chancellor Ulrich Zasius and payment of a fee of 500 guilders , Emperor Maximilian II signed the relevant document on June 1, 1566. In a memorandum, Sturm set out exactly his ideas about the individual academy offices. He wrote about the position of rector:

“But the rector should be such a man who, with all necessary excellent knowledge and experience of the languages, also with seriousness and gravitationalism, does not only receive his authority from the students, but also from the professors, and who does not admit that Some barbaries enter the school through wicked habit and obscure books that are not thrown into the corner of Aristotle , Plato , Cicero , Demosthenes as the right origins and wells of the philosophers and good faith, and against it the newen pimped and rasped Epitomici and newe scriptores hefur are drawn. "

- Johannes Sturm : Memorandum after the Academy was founded in 1566

In contrast to Sturm’s ideas, however, the new academy was still organizationally connected to the lower classes of the grammar school. The academy was officially opened on May 1, 1567.

The year of training lasted from June to May, interrupted by the vintage holiday ( Feriae vindemiales ) in October. Academic titles (baccalaureates and masters of philosophy and liberal arts ) were awarded in April each year .

In the second half of the 16th century, the academy was gripped by disputes over Lutheran orthodoxy. From 1578 onwards there was a dispute about the concord formula . The Academy Rector Sturm continued to adhere to the more open confession after Martin Bucer's coinage, while the theologian Johannes Marbach took a Lutheran-Orthodox standpoint. Marbach was supported in the dispute by Johannes Pappus . The dispute took on more and more personal features and finally Sturm's opponents got him to be removed from his post as rector. Sturm then initiated a lawsuit before the Reich Chamber of Commerce in Speyer , but could not achieve his reinstatement until his death in 1589. Melchior Junius was elected to succeed Sturm in the rector's office .

For the academy, the problem became increasingly apparent, from which its predecessor, the grammar school, had already suffered. Many students at the academy moved to other university cities to do a doctorate in theology, law or medicine at the universities there, which was not possible at the academy. Finally, the city council followed a request from the academy professors and submitted a request to the Reichstag in Regensburg in 1594 that the academy should receive full doctoral rights in future. The strict Roman Catholic Emperor Rudolph II granted this privilege in part, but excluded the Lutheran theological faculty from it. In protest, the other faculties decided not to make use of the newly granted rights. After lengthy negotiations, the city succeeded in having Emperor Ferdinand II grant the privilege of converting the academy into a full university on February 5, 1621. The privilege was part of a larger negotiation package in which the city of Strasbourg undertook to pay a larger sum of money, as well as to leave the Protestant Union and to end the support of Frederick V of the Palatinate . In return, Ferdinand promised that he would receive the privileges of Strasbourg and not burden the city with garrisons or troop marches. The founding of the university was officially celebrated on August 14, 1621 in a solemn act in the presence of numerous guests.

Frontispiece of the course
catalog of the Strasbourg Academy from 1578 (woodcut, unsigned).
The ascent into the academic world is allegorically portrayed as the storming of a fortress ( Arx palladis , "Citadel of Scholarship"). Outside there are vices and sins (fearfulness, ignorance, lust, arrogance, lust for pleasure, laziness, etc.). The three levels of the trivium (rhetoric, dialectic, grammar) lead into the outer fortress ring ( baccalaureati ). The levels of mathematics, physics and ethics lead into the inner ring ( Magistri ). Inside are the three towers of jurisprudence, medicine and theology. In the latter, a ruler sits on the throne with the flag Gloria ("fame").


From 1621 Strasbourg had a full university. In the Peace of Munster in 1648 after the Thirty Years War , parts of Alsace came under French rule. In 1681, Strasbourg was also forced to surrender to the French armies. King Louis XIV guaranteed the Alsatians considerable privileges. Not only were they allowed to use the German language unhindered, but they were also given freedom of religion - and this at a time when the Huguenots were violently persecuted and harassed in central France . Ultimately, Alsace was treated like a kind of German province of the King of France. The city of Strasbourg was largely guaranteed its privileges and the constitution of the university remained unaffected. The majority of the students continued to come from the Reich. One of the most prominent was Johann Wolfgang von Goethe , who studied law here in 1770/71 after his father had found that he spent too much time in Auerbach's cellar in Leipzig . In the second half of the 18th century in particular, however, the French cultural influence in Strasbourg and the Catholic population in Strasbourg gradually increased. In 1761 the university had 14 full professorships, 3 each for theology, law and medicine, and 5 for philosophy. Important university teachers in the 18th century were the historian Johann Daniel Schöpflin and the constitutional law teacher Christoph Wilhelm Koch . In 1738 the university founded the first theoretical and practical school for obstetrics. In 1773 the university observatory was opened. At least partly due to the political separation from the Reich, the university recruited its staff to a large extent from the local environment. From the opening of the university in 1621 to the revolution in 1789, 105 of a total of 129 professors were from Strasbourg. The University of Strasbourg was very popular with the sons of noble families from all over Europe. In the years 1785–1787, of 125 aristocratic students, 17 were Germans, 16 French, 23 English and Scots, 3 Italians, 11 Danes and Swedes, 5 Kurlanders ( Baltic Germans ) and Poles, 14 Russians and Livonians (Baltic Germans).

Before the French Revolution, the lectures were held in Latin and later also in German.

From the French Revolution to 1871

The great political upheavals that started in Paris as part of the French Revolution from 1789 onwards were initially cautiously observed by the people of Strasbourg and Alsace. In view of the political changes, the Alsatian dignitaries were initially careful not to lose their traditional special rights in the kingdom. As events progressed, however, the enthusiasm for the pathos and verve of the revolution also reached Alsace. This called into question the existence of the entire university, which many revolutionaries had a reputation for being an institution of the ancien régime . Most students left the university and their number was reduced from 1,788 to 1790 from 182 to 73. Although the French National Assembly in the Decree of September 26, 1791, first confirmed in principle, the continued existence of the old educational institutions, however, the university at the time was Jacobin reign of terror to a Main point of attack. Several professors were arrested, including the theologians Isaak Haffner and Johann Lorenz Blessig and the philologist Jeremias Jakob Oberlin . The properties of the St. Thomas foundations were confiscated by order of the Revolutionary Commissioners Louis Antoine de Saint-Just and Philippe-François-Joseph Le Bas , who were sent to Strasbourg, and the numerous precious metal works underneath (e.g. silver cups) were used to finance the Revolutionary War melted down. The aristocratic university constitution and the class autonomy of the city of Strasbourg in no way corresponded to the new ideas of a centralized revolutionary state, according to which the old ties to neighboring Germany should also be eliminated. In May 1794, the Jacobean mayor of Strasbourg, Pierre-François Monet , declared that every effort had to be made to eliminate the “hydra of Germanism” from the city ( “... detruire l'hydre du germanisme et toutes les institutions qui lui assurent encore une existence ... “ ). This particularly affected the university, which Monet characterized as "a spectacle of servility and Germanism in a free and French country" ( "spectacle etonnant de servilité et de germanisme dans un pays français et libre" ). In the face of the pressures, the university finally ceased teaching.

The Hôtel d'Académie in Strasbourg in 1836 (pen drawing by LA Perrin). The building was the seat of the Faculty of Natural Sciences until the move to the newly constructed building of the Physics Institute in 1882.

After the end of the terreur , academic traditions slowly revived. The former medical faculty was reopened on the 16th of Frimaire III (December 6th, 1794) as a medical-surgical special school, as there was a great need for military doctors due to the constant war situation. On 15 Brumaire XII (November 7, 1803) a Protestant academy (from 1808 Seminaire Protestant ) was ceremoniously opened in Strasbourg. Most of the professorships consisted of the former theological faculty. The law of 2nd Germinal XII (March 23, 1804) ordered the establishment of a law school in Strasbourg and 11 other cities in France. This law school began teaching on June 1, 1806. A Faculté des sciences and a Faculté des lettres were added later. A formal reopening of the university did not take place. It was replaced by the Napoleonic Université de France , the centralized organization of higher education that shaped the French university system for most of the 19th century. The new teaching establishment in Strasbourg was then called the Académie with faculties of theology, medicine, humanities, law and pharmacy. The old university autonomy and the cohesion of the individual faculties was largely lost. Overall, this centralization of the higher education system meant that the best minds in the country were constantly orienting themselves towards Paris, which was not conducive to local academic development. The most important scientist from this period was Louis Pasteur , who worked in Strasbourg from 1848 to 1854. Also of importance was Charles Frédéric Gerhardt , a native of Strasbourg and a student of Liebig , who, together with Charles-Adolphe Würtz , who was also a Strasbourg student and a student of Liebig , represented the theory of atomism .

During the pre-March period, many German emigrants lived in Strasbourg, as there was greater political freedom here. Georg Büchner began his medical studies in Strasbourg in 1831 (and finished it there after fleeing from Hessen-Darmstadt as a result of the confiscation of the " Hessischer Landbote "). At this time, after the Revolution, Napoleonic and Restoration periods , the natural sciences in particular were completely in French hands. At most, in theology and the humanities , there was still an ("old -") Alsatian and German influence.

Kaiser Wilhelms University

The beginnings

Franz von Roggenbach (1862), organizer of the (re) establishment of the university
Wilhelmine main building of the University of Strasbourg on Universitätsplatz, built 1879–1884

Alsace and parts of Lorraine with the city of Metz were ceded by France after the Franco-Prussian War of 1870/71 and became part of the newly founded German Empire as the " Reichsland Alsace-Lorraine " . Initially, the population of the Reichsland was mostly skeptical or even negative about the new authorities. Part of the educational elite and the vast majority of French academy professors left Alsace for France. The latter partly settled in nearby Nancy , whose university was expanded by the French government in the following years into a kind of "Strasbourg University in Exile". On the German side, the idea arose of founding an “imperial university” in Strasbourg, which would replace the French academy and which would at least in part tie in with the tradition of the old pre-revolutionary university. The liberal Baden politician Franz von Roggenbach , who was given far-reaching powers and comparatively generous financial commitments, was appointed to organize the founding of the university . Initially, the university was traditionally organized into four faculties: a Protestant theological, legal, medical and philosophical faculty. The latter also housed natural sciences and mathematics, which were later outsourced. The official Catholic Church had initially opposed the establishment of a Catholic theological faculty, but later agreed, so that from the winter semester of 1903/04 a Catholic theological faculty also existed.

During the siege and German bombing of Strasbourg - the city of printing - the city library in the former Dominican church was hit and one of the largest and oldest humanist libraries on the entire continent was burned. They wanted to make up for this loss with book donations from all over the Reich; The Prussian State Archives in Königsberg alone left 70,000 duplicates to the library . The new library was able to reopen on August 9, 1871. The university library (BNUS - Bibliothèque nationale et universitaire de Strasbourg ) is still one of the largest and best-stocked German-speaking libraries today .

On April 28, 1872, the university was awarded the deed of foundation in which it was declared the legal successor to the old university academic institutions in Strasbourg. The new university was directly subordinate to the Reich Chancellery in Berlin. The link to the old traditions was underlined by the fact that the university was reassigned the old faculty seals that had been in use at the academy since 1567 and later at the university. The new university was inaugurated on May 1, 1872, exactly 305 years after the old academy opened.

Appointments, student numbers

14 of the 59 scientists appointed for the first time in the summer semester of 1872 were Alsatians. In the Protestant theological faculty, these made up the absolute majority (5 of 6 professorships), while in the other faculties those from abroad dominated. Of the 212 students enrolled in the first semester, around three quarters came from the "Altreich" and a small number from Switzerland or Austria. About a quarter of the students came from the Reichsland, most of them from Lower Alsace . The newly appointed include well-known scientists such as constitutional lawyer and economist Gustav von Schmoller , physicians Friedrich Daniel von Recklinghausen , Felix Hoppe-Seyler , pharmacologist Oswald Schmiedeberg , anatomist Wilhelm von Waldeyer , chemist Adolf von Baeyer , and zoologist Eduard Oscar Schmidt et al. a. m. The attempt to appoint the ancient historian Theodor Mommsen , who was already world-famous at the time, to Strasbourg failed despite very generous appointments - not because of lack of interest on the part of Mommsen, but because he no longer dared to undertake such a demanding task in rebuilding a university for reasons of age. The State Secretary in the Prussian Ministry of Education, Friedrich Althoff, had a considerable influence on the later appointment policy . What was noticeable about the newly appointed was the fact that almost all of them were of Protestant denomination, although more than three quarters of the Reich was Catholic. Even if the city of Strasbourg itself had strong Protestant traditions, the university was thus a kind of Protestant enclave in the predominantly Catholic imperial country and this made it difficult to accept it in larger sections of the population. This was also important against the background that the opposition to the new Prussian-German rule in the Reich was strongly supported by Catholic clergy.

With the initial number of 212 students in the founding year 1872, the new university was the third smallest of the 22 universities in Germany. Only Kiel and Rostock were even smaller. The number of students increased rapidly in the following years and in 1898 Strasbourg was 14th in Germany with just over 1000 students, and in 8th place in terms of teaching staff.

Visit of Kaiser Wilhelm I in the auditorium of the university (1886)

On May 2, 1877, Kaiser Wilhelm I first visited the university and granted the university the right to change the university name to Kaiser-Wilhelms-Universität Strasbourg . He thus complied with a request from the Rector and Senate.

In 1903 Else Gütschow was the first woman to receive her doctorate.


After the Armistice of Compiègne on November 11, 1918, the French military occupied Strasbourg in late November; In early December, French authorities banned the university from operating. The 1872 German employees and professors had to leave the Kaiser Wilhelm University, the pharmacologist Oskar Schmiedeberg was the last to stay until the end of 1918. A total of around 200,000 Germans were affected by this resettlement in Alsace . In Germany, the tradition of the University of Strasbourg was continued by the University of Frankfurt am Main .

French University

Auditorium of the main building where the first Council of
Europe meeting took place in 1949 .

On November 22nd, 1919, after the First World War and the Treaty of Versailles , with which Alsace and Strasbourg became part of France again, the French Université de Strasbourg officially started operations. The teaching operations have now been completely converted to French. Around Lucien Febvre and Marc Bloch , the Annales School of History arose in Strasbourg at this time .

After the outbreak of war , it was evacuated to Clermont-Ferrand at the beginning of September 1939 and continued with teaching and research under the same name.

Imperial University of Strasbourg

After the armistice between France and Germany in June 1940 and the occupation of Alsace and parts of France by German troops and security forces, a civil administration was set up for Alsace. The head of civil administration in Alsace, Robert Wagner , who also acted as Reich Governor for Baden , had drafts and plans drawn up for the establishment of a university in Strasbourg from July 1940. The University of Strasbourg was opened with a ceremony on (Sunday) November 23, 1941 in the atrium of the main university building. The French and American military marched into Strasbourg on November 23, 1944, most of the university members fled and the university's operations finally came to a standstill. The Reich University was not officially relocated to Tübingen until December 18, 1944 by order of the Reich Ministry of Science.

Modern times

Memorial plaque for the “reunification” of the university in 2009

After 1945 the French departments of the university returned to Strasbourg.

In 1971 the University of Strasbourg was divided into three parts:

  1. Strasbourg I ( Université Louis Pasteur ) - Natural Sciences
  2. Strasbourg II ( Université Marc Bloch , 1998) - Languages ​​and Humanities
  3. Strasbourg III ( Université Robert Schuman , 1987) - Law, Political and Social Sciences

The three universities were reunited on January 1, 2009. Then there was the Institut universitaire de la formation des maîtres (IUFM) Strasbourg. The first president after reunification was the pharmacologist Alain Beretz, former head of the Université Louis Pasteur . At the beginning of 2009, the Université unique de Strasbourg (Unistra) had 42,000 students and 5,200 employees. Ten years later - in 2019 - it had 52,000 students and 10,400 employees.

The University of Strasbourg is affiliated to the European Confederation of Universities on the Upper Rhine (EUCOR) with the University of Karlsruhe , the University of Basel , the University of Upper Alsace and the Albert Ludwig University of Freiburg . It is the only one in France to have two state-funded theological faculties ( Catholic and Protestant ) because of the special canonical status of the former Reichsland Alsace-Lorraine, which is still valid today .


The Gallia , formerly Germania , is the seat of the central student aid organization CROUS
The National and University Library on the Place de la République , the former Kaiserplatz


Listed main building of the Robert Schuman University
Le Bel Institute of the Louis Pasteur University
Mathematical University building


  • Gustav C. Knod: The old registers of the University of Strasbourg. 1621-1793 . 2 volumes and register volume. Trübner, Strasbourg 1897–1902. ( Digital copies )
  • Françoise Olivier-Utard: Uni Université idéale? Histoire de L´Université de Strasbourg de 1919 à 1939 . Strasbourg 2015
  • Stephan Roscher: The Kaiser Wilhelms University of Strasbourg 1872–1902. (= European university publications. Series 3: History and its auxiliary sciences, Volume 1003). Lang, Frankfurt am Main a. a. 2006, ISBN 3-631-31854-5 . (also dissertation at the University of Frankfurt am Main 1991).
  • Ulrike Rother: The theological faculties of the University of Strasbourg. Its legal basis and its state church status from the beginning to the present. (= Legal and political publications of the Görres Society. N. F. Volume 84). Schöningh, Paderborn u. a. 2000, ISBN 3-506-73385-0 . (also dissertation , University of Freiburg im Breisgau 1996)
  • Herwig Schäfer: Legal teaching and research at the University of Strasbourg 1941–1944. (= Contributions to the legal history of the 20th century. Volume 23). Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen 1999, ISBN 3-16-147097-4 . (At the same time dissertation University of Freiburg im Breisgau 1997/98 under the title: Legal teaching and research at the Law and Political Science Faculty of the Reich University of Strasbourg 1941-1944 ).
  • Anton Schindling: Humanistic University and Free Imperial City. High school and academy in Strasbourg 1538–1621. (= Publications of the Institute for European History Mainz, Volume 77). Steiner, Wiesbaden 1977.
  • Bernd Schlueter: Reich Science. Constitutional law, state theory and science policy in the German Empire using the example of the University of Strasbourg. (= Studies on European Legal History. Volume 168). Vittorio Klostermann, Frankfurt am Main 2004, ISBN 3-465-03299-3 . (also dissertation HU Berlin 2001).
  • Otto Warth : The college building of the Kaiser Wilhelms University in Strasbourg . Kraemer, Kehl 1885, (digitized version) .

Web links

Commons : University of Strasbourg  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  3. ^ The Reformation in Alsace in the 16th century. Musée virtuel du Protestantisme, accessed on September 16, 2016 .
  4. a b c d e f g h i j Dr. August Schricker (Senate Secretary): ON THE HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF STRASBURG - FESTSCHRIFT FOR THE OPENING OF THE UNIVERSITY OF STRASBURG on May 1st, 1872. CF SCHMIDT's university bookshop FRIEDRICH BULL 1872.
  5. Supplication and requesting a detailed report by the Rector, the visitors and professors of the schools in order to raise imperial freedom to make all students, Baccalaureos and Magistros - memorandum, presented to the city magistrate on May 6th 1566, signed by Johann Sturm (Rector) , Johann Marbach , Cunradus Dasypodius (Visitator), Leonardus Hentschus, Melchior Speccerus - today probably kept in the archive of St. Thomas, Strasbourg; freely in modern German: "... that the school does not, like the universities, have the right to award academic degrees (baccalaureate and master's degree) and that students therefore have to acquire such degrees at other high schools". Quoted in Schricker, p. 13.
  6. ^ Theobald Ziegler : History of Pedagogy . Tp Verone Publishing, April 18, 2016, p. 81 ( online via - first edition: CH Beck'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Munich 1909).
  7. Steffen Siegel: Tabula: Figures of the order around 1600. Walter de Gruyter, 2009, ISBN 978-3-05-004563-4 , p. 217. (
  8. Journal des débats et des décrets, Volume 24. Retrieved on August 21, 2016 (French, L'Assemblee nationale décretè que tous les établissements d'instruction et d'éducation existans à présent dans le Royaume, continueront d'exister sous le régime actuel et suivant les mêmes lois qui les régissent .
  9. ^ Daniel Schönpflug: The way into the Terreur: Radicalization and conflicts in the Strasbourg Jacobin Club (1790–1795). R. Oldenbourg-Verlag, Munich 2002, ISBN 3-486-56588-5 .
  10. ^ Sylvie Gueth: La constitution des bibliothèques publiques dans le Département du Bas-Rhin 1789–1803. Université des Sciences Sociales Grenoble II, Institut d'Etudes Politiques, 1991 (PDF)
  11. ^ Friedrich Wieger: History of medicine and its educational establishments in Strasbourg from 1497 to 1827. Strasbourg 1835.
  12. ^ Décret portant établissement d'Ecoles de santé à Paris, à Montpellier et à Strasbourg. December 6, 1794, accessed on August 21, 2016 (French, date according to the revolutionary calendar: 16 frimaire to 3, archived on ).
  13. ^ René Voltz: L a Physique à Strasbourg: regards sur le passé (1621-1918): L'UNIVERSITE NAPOLEONIENNE (19 ème siècle). (PDF) (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on August 9, 2012 ; Retrieved on August 21, 2016 (French).
  14. Stephan Roscher: The Kaiser-Wilhelms-Universität Strasbourg 1872-1902 (=  European university publications : Series III: History and its auxiliary sciences . Volume 1003 ). Verlag Peter Lang, Frankfurt am Main 2006, ISBN 3-631-31854-5 , p. 49-56 .
  15. Roscher, p. 61ff.
  16. Roscher, p. 66.
  17. Roscher ( opus cit. ) Determined the denomination of 49 newly appointed. 48 of them were Protestants and one Catholic
  18. Roscher, p. 61ff.
  19. Roscher, p. 114; which in 1898 were four largest universities in terms of student numbers: Berlin 4882, Munich 4028, Leipzig 3174, Bonn 1975.
  20. ^ The Kaiser Wilhelms University of Strasbourg. Their creation and development. Represented on behalf of the Strasbourg Scientific Society in Heidelberg by Otto Meyer, Berlin a. Leipzig, 1922, p. 16 and especially p. 28: “The deed of foundation was ... amended by the Imperial Ordinance of June 22, 1877, which stipulates that the university should henceforth bear the name Kaiser-Wilhelms-Universität Strasbourg . "
  21. Report on the foundation festival of the university on May 2, 1877 in the presence of His Majesty the Emperor Wilhelm I. 1877.
  22. Bernd Schlueter: Reich Science. Constitutional law, state theory and science policy in the German Empire using the example of the University of Strasbourg . Vittorio Klostermann, Frankfurt am Main 2004, p. 497.
  23. See memorial plaque Palais Universitaire de Strasbourg-10 août 1949
  24. Bernd Schlueter: Reich Science. Constitutional law, state theory and science policy in the German Empire using the example of the University of Strasbourg . Vittorio Klostermann, Frankfurt am Main 2004, p. 501.
  25. Herwig Schäfer: Legal teaching and research at the University of Strasbourg 1941–1944 . Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen 1999, pp. 17-18.
  26. Herwig Schäfer: Legal teaching and research at the University of Strasbourg 1941–1944 . Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen 1999, pp. 30-31.
  27. ^ Schäfer: Legal teaching and research at the University of Strasbourg 1941–1944. Pp. 240-243.
  28. ^ History. University of Strasbourg, accessed August 21, 2016 .