Hermann Staudinger

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Hermann Staudinger
Staudinger's grave in Freiburg's main cemetery

Hermann Staudinger (born March 23, 1881 in Worms , † September 8, 1965 in Freiburg im Breisgau ) was a German chemist and Nobel Prize winner .

Staudinger was an organic chemist and founded macromolecular chemistry ( polymer chemistry , chemistry of macromolecules ). He made important contributions to the structural elucidation of the macromolecules cellulose , starch , rubber and polystyrene . He discovered the substance group of ketenes and found a process for the preparation of diazomethane , a method of reducing carbonyl groups to methylene groups.


Hermann Staudinger was born as the son of grammar school professor Franz Staudinger and his wife Auguste Staudinger , née Wenck. He had two brothers and a sister. His father was a leading theorist of the cooperative movement and was known to leading social democrats, including August Bebel and Eduard Bernstein . With the latter, he had a lifelong friendship. The mother was a women's rights activist. Hermann Staudinger comes from a Staudinger line from Marburg , which can be traced back to around 1540. But he is not related to Julius von Staudinger , the author of the commentary on the BGB .

Before starting his studies, Hermann Staudinger learned the carpentry and joinery trade. The impetus for this teaching came from his father, who wanted to ensure that his children understood the world of the workers. His younger brother Hans Staudinger , who later became a top official in the Reich Ministry of Economics and the Prussian Ministry of Commerce and, after emigrating, professor of economics in New York , followed his father's wish.

After graduating from high school in Worms in 1899 , Staudinger, who initially wanted to become a botanist, studied chemistry at the University of Halle (Saale) , at the TH Darmstadt (with Wilhelm Staedel ) and at the LMU Munich . After two semesters at the TH Darmstadt, he passed the first association examination. In 1903 he received his doctorate under Jacob Volhard in Halle (dissertation: Addition of the malonic ester to unsaturated compounds ) and then worked as a scientific assistant in Strasbourg under Johannes Thiele until 1907 . Here he discovered the ketenes (diphenylketene) and their great reactivity in 1905 . They became the subject of his habilitation thesis (1907). Prior to this, Moses Gomberg (1900) had already received a great deal of attention for the discovery of triphenylmethyl radicals as examples of organic reactive intermediates.

Staudinger was then appointed to an extraordinary professorship at the Institute for Organic Chemistry in Karlsruhe . In 1912 he accepted an appointment at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich . Here he began his research on high molecular weight substances such as cellulose and rubber . Unlike most of his colleagues, during the First World War he refused to sign nationalist and cultural imperialist appeals such as the Manifesto of 93 and the Declaration of the University Professors of the German Reich , and unlike almost all of his colleagues - apart from Max Born and Albert - he refused Einstein - a collaboration in research and development of chemical weapons for the gas war during the First World War and rejected their use. Instead, he spoke out in favor of an immediate peace treaty after the United States entered the war. In 1917 he publicly drew attention to the impending defeat of the Central Powers due to material inferiority as a result of the decisive role of technology in the war (article Technology and War in the Zürcher Zeitung Friedens-Warte ) and at the end of 1917 wrote a letter to the top army command in which he called for a mutual agreement after the USA entered the war. In 1919 there was a controversial dispute between him and Fritz Haber about his leading role in the gas war on the German side.

In 1926, Staudinger accepted a call to the Institute for Organic Chemistry at the University of Freiburg . It was here that he made his groundbreaking work on macromolecular chemistry. Due to his pacifist past, there were problems with the appointment as the successor to Heinrich Wieland , who was called to Munich , many of the Freiburg ordinaries were against it, but the dean Friedrich Oltmann and others advocated Staudinger.

His first marriage was to Dora Staudinger (1886–1964). In 1928 he married the botanist Magda Woit in his second marriage .

Period of National Socialism and after

After Hitler came to power, Staudinger fell into disrepute due to a denunciation by Rector Martin Heidegger (the occasion included, among other things, his pacifist statements and essays during the First World War and afterwards, with Heidegger taking action against Staudinger in his new role as Rector), and it was initiated impeachment proceedings against him (see also Martin Heidegger and National Socialism , the Staudinger case). Staudinger remained in office, not least because of his scientific reputation and the importance of polymer research, which Staudinger himself referred to in his defense, but he was not allowed to travel abroad (instruction from 1937) and he had to sign a precautionary letter of dismissal in 1934, which activated it should be, if Staudinger were again politically unpleasant. Staudinger's request to found a Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Macromolecular Chemistry was also rejected in 1937 because of concerns about his political stance. His political stance was closely monitored by the Nazi functionaries and when he wanted to found his Institute for Macromolecular Chemistry with industrial funds in 1940, this was granted, whereby his good relations with Reich Commissioner and manufacturer Emil Tscheulin (President of the Chamber of Industry and Commerce in Freiburg ) helped.

A historians' commission headed by Bernd Martin , which was set up in Freiburg in 2012 to check street names and presented its report at the end of 2016, also examined Staudinger's role in National Socialism. A street and a school in Freiburg are named after Staudinger. As early as 1995, anti-Semitic statements by Staudinger were published by Martin. Staudinger had complained several times to the rector of the university and in 1942 to the Reich Ministry of Education in Berlin that too many " half-Jews " were studying at his institute. He was replied that this had been approved. He also saw criticism of his research from Jewish and other scholars from abroad, in particular from his competitors Hermann F. Mark and Kurt Heinrich Meyer , as part of a Jewish campaign against him. He tried to present this to the National Socialist rulers in order to win their goodwill and to get more funds for his own work. In 1937 he tried in vain to join the NSDAP and became a sponsoring member of the SS in 1935. His institute was promoted as a war important. According to Claus Priesner, however, there is no evidence of participation in poison gas research, as claimed in the discussion . On the other hand, there are statements by Jewish and “half-Jewish” scientists that he protected them. In 1933 he unsuccessfully campaigned for his Jewish assistant Ernst Trommsdorff to stay at the university and in 1942 enabled his “half-Jewish” student Ernst Bier, who had already been forbidden to continue his studies, to take his diploma. A panel discussion in the Staudinger School with Priesner, Martin and the SPD councilor Renate Kiefer did not come to a clear conclusion about his role at the time. Martin said: We cannot break the rod over him, but we cannot relieve him either . Priesner spoke out against renaming the school at the panel discussion. Martin advocated adding additional information to the street sign for Staudinger in a cautious manner, which was also the recommendation of the commission. Staudinger himself did not comment on his involvement in National Socialism after the war and downplayed the financial support of his institute and its war-important research in a report from 1945. In general, he was considered unencumbered.

The chemical institute was almost completely destroyed by the bombing on November 27, 1944 . It was not until 1947 that teaching could be resumed on a modest scale and Staudinger took an active part in the reconstruction despite his advanced age. His department for macromolecular chemistry, founded in 1940, was converted into a state research institute in 1951 and Staudinger headed it voluntarily for five years after his retirement in 1951. In the absence of sufficient financial support, it was initially housed in his private home. The Nobel Prize, awarded in 1953, led to better funding for his institute (the Fonds der Chemischen Industrie made DM 10,000 available directly). In 1956 he was adopted with an official university celebration on his 75th birthday. In 1957 he gave guest lectures in Japan, where he was also received by the Tenno , and at the invitation of Hermann Mark gave a lecture at his institute in Brooklyn, where it became clear, however, that Staudinger's research at his institute was no longer up to date Compared to Mark's school in the USA, it was founded on a broader interdisciplinary basis and in close connection with industry. The institute building, newly built for this purpose in 1962, is now called Hermann-Staudinger-Haus .

Scientific work

In 1905 Staudinger discovered diphenyl ketene by reacting 2-chloro-2,2-diphenylacetyl chloride with zinc . The simplest ketene arises from chloroacetic acid chloride and zinc. He later investigated the reaction of ketenes with alcohols under the influence of a basic catalyst. In Karlsruhe, between 1907 and 1912, he was also interested in a synthetic preparation of isoprene and 1,3-butadiene and in the polymerization of ketenes. Chemical companies later used ketene for the large-scale production of acid anhydrides ( acetic anhydride ).

In Karlsruhe, Staudinger also dealt with reactions of oxalyl chloride and with aliphatic diazo compounds.

At the ETH Zurich , Staudinger investigated the oxidation of benzylaldehyde with hydrogen peroxide to form peroxybenzoic acid (which he calls benzoyl hydrogen superoxide in his publication ) and proposed a reaction mechanism for this. The addition of oxygen to diphenylethene and ketenes formed high molecular weight peroxides and ketene oxides.

Ketenes easily add to double bonds (C = C-, C = N-, N = O-, N = N-), so that new four-ring syntheses became possible (e.g. β-lactams). Easily reactive carbenes were formed during the thermal decomposition of ketenes . Carbenes are also formed from diazomethane; Staudinger found a new method of preparing diazomethane from chloroform and hydrazine under basic conditions. The aliphatic compounds of the diazo compounds showed analogies to ketenes. The reaction of carbonyl compounds with hydrazine gave hydrazones . Under basic conditions, these could be converted into the corresponding hydrocarbons; this conversion was later referred to as the Wolff-Kishner reduction .

In Zurich he also produced artificial pepper, analyzed the aroma of coffee and isolated and analyzed pyrethrins (naturally occurring insecticides) with Leopold Ružička .

He also dealt with explosives. In a quarry near Zurich, he also undertook a memorable and unsuccessful attempt to synthesize diamonds : In a pressure vessel, he caused carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) and metallic sodium to explode, of which he wrote in his memoir that the blow had been heard as far as Paris. The underlying idea was that the chlorine atoms of the CCl 4 would combine with the sodium to form sodium chloride and the free carbon would take on a diamond structure under the pressure of the explosion. A demonstration experiment in lectures, which is prohibited today and which goes back to Staudinger, showed the explosive conversion of even small amounts of sodium and potassium with carbon tetrachloride. Staudinger also investigated the reactivity of nitroglycerin as a function of temperature.

At the beginning of Staudinger's work, there was no knowledge of the analytical detection and structure of macromolecular substances. Staudinger was able to show that macromolecular substances are composed of several thousand molecular segments, but are not aggregates or colloids. In macromolecules, the individual molecules are linked via bonds and not only, for example, via the weaker van der Waals forces (examples of this were known from colloid chemistry and the numerous complexes found by Alfred Werner ). Common terms at the time were secondary valences (Alfred Werner) and partial valences (Johannes Thiele). Staudinger was able to prove this with the synthesis of polyoxymethylene in 1927 and the determination of the molecular mass of macromolecules. Staudinger's further arguments were the high viscosity of macromolecules even at high dilution and Staudinger's attempts to hydrogenate and dehydrate, for example, rubber and polystyrene without completely destroying them, which spoke against the cohesion of weak forces such as the van der Waals forces.

Staudinger had already postulated in 1920 that there are huge molecules that could consist of more than 100,000 atoms. These molecules would have to be built up in a chain from the same units. Staudinger coined the term macromolecule in 1922 . The idea of ​​such macromolecules met with great resistance among chemists at the time. The argument reached its first climax on the occasion of Staudinger's farewell lecture in 1926 at the ETH Zurich before he moved to Freiburg. Heinrich Wieland , who brought him to Freiburg as his successor, rejected such large molecules for intuitive reasons alone. More importantly, the crystallographer Paul Niggli considered it fundamentally impossible that a molecule like this could be larger than its unit cell, which was determined in the context of X-ray crystallography. While this argument did not appeal to most chemists at the time, Fritz Haber and Richard Willstätter saw the need to clarify, for which they arranged a special meeting in the field of chemistry at the meeting of German naturalists and doctors in Düsseldorf in October 1926. Herman Mark refuted the objection of the crystallographers, but many chemists saw no need to assume the existence of such large molecules, but instead considered them to be aggregates of smaller units ( Max Bergmann , Hans Pringsheim , Paul Karrer , Kurt Hess ). Staudinger could not convince the approximately 300 listeners. It was argued that he had only worked on a few synthetic non-polar hydrocarbons, but polar molecules such as proteins and polysaccharides such as cellulose were something completely different, and that he would not have conclusively refuted the possibility of cohesion through association forces. Willstätter showed himself to be a supporter of the macromolecule thesis in his closing remarks.

Before Staudinger's theses, the word polymer was in use, but completely different theses on the binding and size of these polymers were in circulation. According to a theory by Carl Dietrich Harries in Kiel (1910), which was widespread at the time, rubber, for example, consisted of ring-like aggregates of isoprene dimers. This was based on the theory of Johannes Thiele, who assumed that partial valences develop between the unsaturated bonds, which should have a strong force effect on other individual molecules. It was assumed that the single molecules in polymers do not lose their independence. G. Schröter therefore rejected Staudinger's constitutional formulas about the polymeric diphenylketene (ring compound of four carbon atoms). In 1920 Staudinger gave a detailed experimental justification for his ring formula.

With regard to more complex polymerizations that result not only in dimers but also in macromolecules, Staudinger wrote in 1920:

If one wants to get an idea of ​​the formation and constitution of such high-molecular substances, one can assume that primarily a union of unsaturated molecules has occurred, similar to the formation of four- and six-membered rings, but for some kind of, possibly steric, reason the four- or six-membered ring did not take place, and now numerous, possibly hundreds of molecules accumulate until a state of equilibrium between the individual large molecules, which may depend on the temperature, concentration and the solvent, has been established.

In the article, Staudinger also specified chain-like molecular structures for paraformaldehyde , polystyrene and rubber . In the following years, Staudinger looked for methods to determine the constitution of macromolecular molecules. An important polymer for his investigation was initially paraformaldehyde. The free terminal hydroxyl groups could be converted to methyl ethers with sulfuric acid esters. It was also possible to shield the end groups with acetic anhydride. The content of hydroxyl groups could be related to the molecular mass, so that the molecular weights of the macromolecules could be estimated.

Staudinger and his colleagues later also examined cellulose, using viscosity measurements for this purpose. According to studies by Staudinger and H. Eilers, the difference between cellulose and starch is based on the type of binding (starch α-glycosidic, cellulose β-glycosidic). With Elfriede Husemann , Staudinger discovered chain branches and spherical starch molecules. With Herman F. Mark and Kurt Heinrich Meyer from IG Farben, he had heated arguments about the structure of cellulose and other polymers as macromolecules before his view prevailed. Due to the persecution by the National Socialists, Mark first emigrated to Austria and then to the USA, where he set up centers for polymer research, while Staudinger could not leave Germany in the 1930s and was thus hampered in his publicity.

Staudinger was also able to make some fundamental discoveries about the structure of rubber. J. Fritschi and Staudinger reduced the rubber under pressure and obtained hydro-rubber. Staudinger put forward the thesis that rubber is present in linear chains of isoprene units and stated the chemical structure and the average chain length of rubber. Regarding the polymer structures of rubber and gutta-percha , Staudinger discovered that there must be differences in the configuration of the double bonds present in the polymer. However, from the density of the polymers, he concluded that rubber must contain trans and gutta-percha cis double bonds. Today we know that it is the other way around.

Institute for Macromolecular Chemistry at the University of Freiburg, Hermann-Staudinger-Haus
Memorial plaque " Historic sites of chemistry " in the Hermann-Staudinger-Haus

Staudinger also developed a method to determine the molecular weight of macromolecules from the viscosity of a solution (see Mark-Houwink equation , also called Staudinger-Kuhn equation, Staudinger index ). At the beginning of the 1930s, the macromolecule model had also become increasingly popular for natural substances such as rubber and cellulose and was presented in textbooks by Staudinger (1932) and Mark and Meyer (1930). Improvements in X-ray crystallography and end group determination and the industrial success of new plastics such as nylon and chloroprene rubber also contributed to this.

In the Staudinger reaction ( name reaction ) named after him in 1919 , azides are converted into amines with triphenylphosphine to form an intermediate triphenylphosphanimine . Another name reaction named after him is the Staudinger ketene cycloaddition .

In addition to the complex structures of macromolecules, he also taught his students techniques for analyzing complex mixtures of individual substances in his textbook, first published in 1923. “Staudinger analyzes” were feared for generations during their studies. Today, modern instrumental analysis is used for this.

Honors and memberships

The Staudinger School in Worms, the Staudinger Comprehensive School in Freiburg, the Hermann Staudinger Realschule in Konz and the Hermann Staudinger Gymnasium Erlenbach are named after him. The Hermann Staudinger Prize for Macromolecular Chemistry is named after him, as is the “Staudinger Durrer Prize” from ETH Zurich .

Publications (selection)

  • Die Ketene , Verlag Enke, Stuttgart 1912.
  • Instructions for qualitative organic analysis , Verlag Springer, Berlin 1923, 7th edition Berlin 1968
  • Tables for the lectures in general and inorganic chemistry , Verlag Braun, Karlsruhe 1927.
  • with Günther Rienäcker : Tables for general and inorganic chemistry , Verlag Braun, Karlsruhe, 3rd edition 1944, 4th edition 1946, 5th edition 1947.
  • The high molecular weight compounds, rubber and cellulose , Verlag Springer, Berlin 1932.
  • with Wilhelm Vieweg , Richard Röhrs : Advances in chemistry, physics and technology of macromolecular substances , Verlag Lehmann, Munich 1939.
  • Organic colloid chemistry , Vieweg Verlag, Braunschweig 1940.
  • From the revolt of the technical slaves , Verlag Chamier, Essen-Freiburg 1947.
  • Macromolecular chemistry and its importance in protoplasm research , Springer Verlag, Vienna 1954.
  • Work memories . Hüthig Verlag, Heidelberg 1961.
  • with Hermann Franz Mark , Kurt Heinrich Meyer : Theses on the size and structure of macromolecules. Causes and backgrounds of an academic dispute . Verlag Chemie, Weinheim 1980, ISBN 3-527-25838-8 .


  • Elfriede Husemann (Ed.): Staudinger Festband . Hüthit, Heidelberg 1956.
  • Adolf Steinhofer: Hermann Staudinger . In: Chemistry in our time 1965, pp. 122–126.
  • Magda Staudinger: The scientific work of Hermann Staudinger. Collected works sorted by subject area . Hüting & Wepf, Basel 1969.
  • Paul Walden: History of organic chemistry since 1880 , Springer, Berlin 1972, ISBN 3-540-05267-4 .
  • Claus Priesner : Hermann Staudinger and macromolecular chemistry in Freiburg . In: Chemie in our Zeit 21, 1987, pp. 151-160.
  • Stephan Diller, Wilhelm Füßl, Rudolf Heinrich: Catalog of the scientific estate of Hermann Staudinger (1881-1965) . Deutsches Museum, Munich 1995, ISBN 3-924183-27-9 .
  • Ute Deichmann : Escape, join in, forget. Chemists and biochemists during the Nazi era .: Wiley-VCH, Weinheim 2001, ISBN 3-527-30264-6 .
  • Claudia Krüll: The Haber - Staudinger controversy about the use of chemical weapons in World War I , in: News sheet of the German Society for the History of Medicine, Natural Science and Technology , Volume 27, 1977, pp. 32–33.
  • Claudia Krüll: Hermann Staudinger. Departure into the age of macromolecules . In: Kultur & Technik, Volume 2, 1978, Issue 3, pp. 44-49.
  • Claudia Krüll: Hermann Staudinger. The age of plastics . In: Kurt Fassmann u. a. (Ed.): The greats of world history. Vol. XI: Einstein to King. Zurich: Kindler 1978, pp. 222–241.
  • Claus Priesner: H. Staudinger, H. Mark and KH Meyer. Theses on the size and structure of macromolecules. Causes and reasons for an academic dispute , Weinheim: Verlag Chemie, Weinheim 1980.

Web links

Commons : Hermann Staudinger  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Manfully against the mainstream: The life of Hermann Staudinger. Retrieved July 24, 2019 .
  2. Thomas T. Tidwell, The first century of Ketenes (1905-2005): the birth of a family of reactive intermediates, Angewandte Chemie, Int. Edition, Volume 44, 2005, pp. 5778-5785.
  3. ^ Hans Georg Tilgner: Research - Search and Addiction . Books on Demand 2000, ISBN 978-3-89811-272-7 .
  4. Staudinger even tried to become a Swiss citizen in the middle of the war in 1917, which he only succeeded in 1919.
  5. Claus Priesner, Hermann Staudinger and the macromolecular chemistry in Freiburg , Chemistry in our time, 1987, issue 5, p. 154
  6. ^ Hugo Ott: Martin Heidegger. On the way to his biography . Frankfurt / M. - New York: Campus 1988, pp. 201-213.
  7. Priesner, Chemistry in Our Time, 1987, p. 154
  8. Bernd Martin: The dismissal of Jewish teachers at the Freiburg University and the efforts to reintegrate them after 1945 , Freiburg University Gazette, issue 129, September 1995, pp. 7–46.
  9. Guido Deußing, Markus Weber, Das Leben des Hermann Staudinger, k-online, 2012, part 3
  10. Uta Deichmann, fleeing, participating, forgetting. Chemists and biochemists during the Nazi era. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH 2001
  11. Can a school be named after an anti-Semite? , Badische Zeitung, October 2, 2016. Martin suspected that he was involved in poison gas research. In the commission report under his leadership from 2016, however, it says: Whether Staudinger was involved in the further development of poison gases cannot be clearly proven , commission report on the renaming of Staudingerstrasse .
  12. School named after Nazi man? , SWR Aktuell, October 6, 2016
  13. Guido Deußing, Markus Weber, Das Leben des Hermann Staudinger, k-online, 2012, part 3
  14. ^ Hermann Staudinger: Pacifist, Nazi, Protector of Jews, Anti-Semite? Badische Zeitung, April 7, 2017
  15. ^ Freiburg street names: Staudingerstrasse , recommendations of the commission headed by Martin. As a supplement to the street name, they suggested: strong adaptation after denunciation to the National Socialist regime by defaming Jewish colleagues and students.
  16. Staudinger, Report on the Influence of National Socialism on the Teaching Activities of the Chemical Institute, 1945
  17. Guido Deussing, Markus Weber, The Life of Hermann Staudinger, Part 4
  18. ^ H. Staudinger, On the Knowledge of the Ketenes. Diphenylketen , Liebigs Annalen der Chemie , Volume 356, 1907, pp. 51-123, here p. 87.
  19. H. Staudinger, About the auto-oxidation of organic compounds I. About the auto-oxidation of aromatic aldehydes , reports of the German Chemical Society , Volume 46, 1913, pp. 3530-3535.
  20. ^ H. Staudinger, About autoxidation of organic compounds, III .: About autoxidation of the asymm. Diphenyl-ethylene , reports of the German Chemical Society, Volume 58, 1925, pp. 1075-1079.
  21. H. Staudinger, K. Dyckerhoff, HW Klever, L. Ruzicka, About auto-oxidation of organic compounds, IV .: About auto-oxidation of ketenes , reports of the German Chemical Society, Volume 58, 1925, p. 1079.
  22. ^ H. Staudinger, On aliphatic diazo compounds and ketenes , Helvetica Chimica Acta , Volume 5, 1922, p. 87.
  23. ^ T. Seilnacht, Hermann Staudinger
  24. Dietrich Braun, The long way to the macromolecule. Polymer research before Hermann Staudinger , Chemistry in Our Time , Volume 46, Issue 5, 2012, p. 2.
  25. Herman Mark, From the early days of macromolecular chemistry, Die Naturwissenschaften , Volume 67, 1980, pp. 477-483.
  26. Thiele, On the Knowledge of Unsaturated Compounds. Theory of unsaturated and aromatic compounds , Liebigs Annalen der Chemie , Volume 306, 1899, pp. 87-142, here p. 92.
  27. ^ H. Staudinger, On Polymerization , Reports of the German Chemical Society , Volume 53, 1920, p. 1073.
  28. H. Staudinger, Ketene, XXXI: About cyclobutanedione derivatives and the polymeric ketenes , reports of the German Chemical Society, Volume 53, 1920, p. 1085.
  29. H. Staudinger, E. Suter, Ketene, XXXII .: Cyclobutane derivatives from diphenyl ketene and ethylene compounds , reports of the German Chemical Society, Volume 53, 1920, p. 1092.
  30. H. Staudinger, About Ketene: XLVII. Message. On the constitution of dimeric ketenes, a contribution to the valence problem of organic chemistry , Helvetica Chimica Acta , Volume 7, 1924, pp. 3-8.
  31. H. Staudinger, On Polymerization , Reports of the German Chemical Society, Volume 53, 1920, p. 1081.
  32. In the case of rubber he had a forerunner in Samuel Pickles , who proposed a chain-like structure as early as 1910
  33. H. Staudinger, The chemistry of high molecular weight organic substances in the sense of Kekulé's structural theory , reports of the German Chemical Society , Volume 59, 1926, pp. 3019-3043.
  34. H. Staudinger, About high polymer compounds, 140th part: To the development of macro-molecular chemistry. At the same time answer to the reply by KH Meyer and A. van der Wyk , Reports of the German Chemical Society , Volume 69, 1936, pp. 1168–1185.
  35. ^ H. Staudinger, R. Singer, H. Johner, M. Lüthy, W. Kern, D. Rossidis, O. Schweitzer: About high polymer compounds. On the constitution of polyoxymethylenes , Liebigs Annalen der Chemie , Volume 474, 1929, p. 145.
  36. H. Staudinger, About the macromolecular chemistry , Zeitschrift für angewandte Chemie , Volume 49, 1936, pp. 801-813 ( doi: 10.1002 / anie.19360494503 ).
  37. H. Staudinger, O. Schweitzer, Über hochpolymerverbindungen, 40th part: Viscosity measurements on polysaccharides and polysaccharide derivatives , reports of the German Chemical Society, Volume 63, 1930, pp. 2317-2330.
  38. H. Staudinger, O. Schweitzer, About high polymer compounds, 48th part: About the molecular size of cellulose , reports of the German Chemical Society, Volume 63, 1930, pp. 3132-3154.
  39. Eilers, Staudinger, About high polymer compounds, 136th communication: About the construction of starch , reports of the German Chemical Society, Volume 69, 1936, pp. 819-848.
  40. Husemann, Staudinger, About high polymer compounds. Part 150. About the constitution of strength , Liebigs Annalen der Chemie, Volume 527, 1937, pp. 195-236.
  41. Claus Priesner : H. Staudinger, H. Mark and KH Meyer, theses on the size and structure of macromolecules. Causes and backgrounds of an academic dispute, Verlag Chemie, Weinheim 1980.
  42. Klaus Beneke, Hermann Franz Mark, co-founder of polymer science, University of Kiel (pdf, 2.54 MB)
  43. H. Staudinger, J. Fritschi, About isoprene and rubber. 5th communication. About the hydrogenation of rubber and about its constitution , Helvetica Chimica Acta , Volume 5, 1922, pp. 785-806.
  44. H. Staudinger, On the constitution of rubber (6th part) , reports of the German Chemical Society , Volume 57, 1924, pp. 1203-1208.
  45. HF Bondy, H. Staudinger, About isoprene and rubber. 14th communication. About the breakdown of rubber and gutta-percha , Liebigs Annalen der Chemie , Volume 468, 1929, pp. 1-57.
  46. H. Staudinger, About the macromolecular chemistry , Zeitschrift für angewandte Chemie , Volume 49, 1936, p. 804 ( doi: 10.1002 / anie.19360494503 ).
  47. H. Staudinger, About Isopren und Kautschuk, 20th part: About the colloid nature of rubber, gutta-percha and balata , reports of the German Chemical Society, Volume 63, 1930, pp. 921-934, here p. 927.
  48. H. Staudinger, About isoprene and rubber. Communication 36. About the constitution of rubber , magazine for applied chemistry , Volume 45, 1932, pp. 276-280 ( doi: 10.1002 / jlac.19314880109 ).
  49. ^ Jie Jack Li, Name reactions , 4th edition, Springer, 2009, Staudinger ketene cycloaddition , p. 521
  50. Instructions for organic qualitative analysis
  51. Holger Krahnke: The members of the Academy of Sciences in Göttingen 1751-2001 (= Treatises of the Academy of Sciences in Göttingen, Philological-Historical Class. Volume 3, Vol. 246 = Treatises of the Academy of Sciences in Göttingen, Mathematical-Physical Class. Episode 3, vol. 50). Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2001, ISBN 3-525-82516-1 , p. 232.
  52. ^ List of members since 1666: Letter S. Académie des sciences, accessed on March 4, 2020 (French).
  53. ^ Staudinger Durrer Prize on the website of the Department of Materials at ETH Zurich, accessed on December 5, 2013.