Emil Fischer

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Emil Fischer (1902)

Hermann Emil Fischer (born October 9, 1852 in Euskirchen , † July 15, 1919 in Berlin ) was a German chemist and professor of organic chemistry . His scientific work includes the synthesis of phenylhydrazine , which he used for the synthesis of indole and to elucidate the stereochemistry of sugar molecules . He also synthesized various stereoisomers of sugars. The Fischer projection that he introduced is a method for clearly mapping the spatial structure of chiral sugar compounds. He pioneered the synthesis of diethyl barbituric acid ( Veronal ® ).

Fischer also researched the chemical structure of uric acid , xanthines , caffeine and other natural products, and showed that these are derived from a nitrogenous base with a bicyclic structure that he called purine . The Nobel Committee awarded him the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1902 for his work on the chemistry of sugars and purines .

As a further class of substances, he examined the amino acids and proteins and synthesized smaller peptides . His work on enzymes and the metabolism of sugar stereoisomers by yeast led to the formulation of the lock and key principle between enzyme and substrate by Fischer. Finally, he researched the substance class of lipids and depside . His research forms the basis of organic chemistry and biochemistry.

As the successor to August Wilhelm von Hofmann at the University of Berlin , Fischer was committed to promoting science in Germany and was instrumental in founding the Kaiser Wilhelm Society and the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Chemistry and the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute. Institute for Physics in Berlin-Dahlem involved. In addition, Fischer was elected President of the German Chemical Society several times .

Numerous well-known chemists emerged from his scientific school, including Karl Freudenberg , Burckhardt Helferich , Phoebus Levene , Walter Abraham Jacobs , Hermann Leuchs , Ludwig Knorr , Max Bergmann and the later Nobel Prize winners Otto Diels , Otto Warburg and Karl Landsteiner .


Origin and family

Emil Fischer grew up in Euskirchen as the lastborn and only son next to five sisters of Laurenz Fischer (1807-1902) and his wife Julie Poensgen (1819-1882), aunt of the Düsseldorf industrialist Carl Poensgen . In February 1888 he married Agnes Gerlach (about 1861-12 November 1895) in Erlangen , daughter of the local anatomy professor Joseph von Gerlach . The couple had three children: the future chemist Hermann Fischer (December 16, 1888– March 9, 1960), Walter (July 5, 1891– November 4, 1916) and Alfred (October 3, 1894– March 29, 1917).


Emil Fischer at the LMU Munich (1877)

Emil Fischer obtained his Abitur in 1869 as a Primus at the Bonn high school . At first he wanted to study mathematics and physics, but this was rejected by his father, who viewed the subjects as too abstract and breadless art. Fischer broke off a commercial apprenticeship and then from Easter 1871 studied chemistry at the University of Bonn , among others with August Kekulé . He himself cited “complete lack of talent” as the reason for the termination, some biographers cite health reasons, but it also seems to have been linked to a father-son conflict. His father, who was a successful entrepreneur in the timber business and who was aiming for a commercial career for his only son, is said to have said afterwards: "The boy is too stupid to be a businessman, he should study".

From the fall semester of 1872 Fischer studied in Strasbourg , where he received his doctorate from Adolf von Baeyer on the acylation of phenolphthalein dyes with Ueber Fluorescëin and Phtalëin-Orcin in 1874 , after he had to abandon his first doctoral thesis because an important apparatus had broken while experimenting. During his studies one of his lecturers, the chemist Friedrich Rose, was so impressed by his analytical skills that he commissioned the young student to analyze the water of a mineral spring in Upper Alsace . With a thesis on hydrazines he received his habilitation in Munich in 1878 , and was appointed professor of analytical chemistry there in 1879 . After a stopover in Erlangen (1882-1884) he took over the management of the institute in Würzburg (1885-1892) in 1885 . His cousin Otto Fischer took over the chair in Erlangen. Based on plans by Emil Fischer, the new building at Pleicherring 11 (today Röntgenring) with an attached service villa was built in Würzburg. In 1892, however, he followed the highly endowed call to Berlin as the successor to the unexpectedly deceased August Wilhelm Hofmann . Arthur Hantzsch was succeeded in Würzburg in 1893 after Theodor Curtius had turned down an offer in 1892 .

Use for the First World War

Obituaries in 1919 by Hermann Wichelhaus , Ludwig Knorr and Carl Duisberg
Fischer's mission in World War I from the point of view of Arthur von Weinberg
Fischer's rehabilitation from the American Chemical Society

After the outbreak of the First World War , Emil Fischer was one of the first to sign the Manifesto of 93 An die Kulturwelt! of October 4, 1914, which presented the illegal invasion of German troops in Belgium as justified, obviously untruthfully denied the horrors of war by German troops in Belgium, accused the western opponents of the war that they “ally with Russians and Serbs and offer the world the disgraceful spectacle, Mongols and to incite Negroes on the white race ”, and asserted,“ Without the so-called German militarism, German culture would have long since been wiped out of the face of the earth. ”For his reference made at the beginning of the war together with Walther Rathenau to the military economic necessity of saltpetre production, he received however, a reprimand for meddling in internal military affairs.

During the war, Fischer was one of the large number of German Nobel Prize winners and other top researchers who largely geared their work to the requirements of the military. In October 1914, the Prussian War Minister Erich von Falkenhayn had commissioned Walther Nernst and the artillery expert in the Supreme Army Command, Major Michelis, to "increase the projectile effectiveness" using ammunition that did not contain fatal irritants. Fischer, like other scientists and representatives from industry, such as Carl Duisberg , who holds a doctorate in chemistry and a long-time acquaintance of Fischer and, as Bayer's CEO, one of the most powerful German chemical industrialists, was soon called in. From mid-1915, this group was unofficially called the “Monitoring and Examination Commission for Blasting and Shooting Attempts”, or “Nernst-Duisberg Commission” for short.

Fischer was able to see himself in agreement with his colleagues on the opposing side: on October 22, 1914, he sent Duisberg a letter to the editor from The Times in which the Briton William Ramsay , who had received the Nobel Prize for Chemistry two years after him, told his country's chemical companies offered to take over the job of a younger chemist so that he could go to the front. From this, Fischer concluded: "He will not be surprised that his friends in Germany also act in the same way."

After the shooting of substances that only acted as irritants had not had sufficient effect on the front, von Falkenhayn turned to Fischer on December 18, 1914 and warned “something” “which permanently incapacitates people”. Fischer did not distance himself from this, but only saw technical problems: he explained to the minister how he reported to Duisberg a few days later how difficult it was to find substances that were still deadly in the strong dilutions in the battlefield. Despite his skepticism, Fischer carried out preliminary investigations with hydrogen cyanide, similar to Nernst, at the end of 1914. At Nernst's request, he even “produced anhydrous hydrocyanic acid” for this purpose. The preliminary tests were not convincing for either.

In the following weeks Fritz Haber began to assert himself as the organizer and coordinator of the forces of the military, science and industry, and he was the driving force behind the first in April 1915 in the Second Battle of Flanders by blowing off chlorine gas, contrary to Fischer's assumption but several thousand soldiers on the other side were killed. Fischer clearly saw nothing wrong with this either. Rather, he advised his son Hermann on July 13, 1915:

“But if you should go bad, there would be the possibility of placing you in one of the two regiments that practically practice Haber's stinking method. Herr Haber was with me the other day and is ready to take you; he can achieve this quickly by means of the command. There are a number of chemists and physicists in his current regiment in the east. B. Professor Weisenheimer, Professor Hahn, Dr. Westphal, Professor von Baeyer etc., so a very nice company. "

In the following years, the "Haber Office" was to attract more and more top scientists, material and financial resources and political support for research, testing and mass production of chemical warfare agents. Fischer, on the other hand, was not directly active in this area, apart from his early and unsuccessful attempt with hydrogen cyanide, even if some authors claim this without giving details and he was soon on various war criminals lists of the Entente along with Haber and Nernst, for example .

In principle, however, Fischer advocated the use of chemical warfare agents and therefore promoted related areas of war research and war economy as much as possible. He was able to fall back on long-term contacts, especially on his good relationship with Duisberg. As early as 1904, he tried to win Fischer over to an interest group of large German chemical companies. For decades, Fischer was also a prominent member of the German Chemical Society , Duisberg of the Association of German Chemists . In addition, Fischer had already tried in 1905 with Nernst and Wilhelm Ostwald to initiate the establishment of a chemical Reichsanstalt analogous to the existing Physikalisch-Technische Reichsanstalt (PTR) by means of a memorandum and founded an association for this purpose in 1908. Fischer now used these and other long-term collaborations and contacts for war research.

This included, for example, securing sufficient quantities of explosives and thus of its precursor, saltpeter . In close cooperation with Duisberg, he pushed ahead with an agreement with companies such as Bayer, BASF and Hoechst immediately after the outbreak of war , which was then signed in mid-January 1915. The Berliner Illustrirte Zeitung praised: “Emil Fischer is a far-sighted advisor to the war raw materials department.” To stabilize the explosives, he developed aniline-urea derivatives. In the coking plants that processed local coal, he encouraged the installation of gas scrubbers that extracted toluene and benzene , thus reducing the dependence on imported crude oil for the production of the explosive TNT and on fuel for the military vehicle fleet. Natural rubber that had previously been imported was increasingly being replaced by synthetic methyl rubber thanks to his research .

Overall, during the First World War, Fischer was active in countless state, scientific and industrial bodies and institutions. These included some whose task and composition were kept secret as far as possible, such as the Kaiser Wilhelm Foundation for War Technology (KWKW), founded in 1916, in which Fischer presided over Technical Committee I, which deals with raw materials for ammunition, with traffic and nutritional issues. Haber (Technical Committee II - Chemical Warfare Agents) and Nernst (Technical Committee III - Physics) belonged to the boards of the remaining five specialist committees of KWKW. In contrast, bodies such as the “Nutrient Committee” and the “War Committee for Substitute Feed”, of which Fischer was also a member, were not directly connected with military issues.

The last few years

At the end of the war, Fischer was one of the few top scientists who made it clear that he regretted supporting the 1914 appeal. The war is "a bad deal that has to be liquidated". In various letters he made it clear that he suffered mentally from the foreseeable defeat of Germany and the feared decline of German science. In addition, there were repeated personal blows of fate: Fischer's wife died early in 1895, six months after the birth of the third child, of meningitis as a result of sinusitis . In addition, there was the early death of two sons: Walter, who, according to the father's account, was weakened by illnesses in his youth and released early from military service in 1910 because of "heart problems", developed manic-depressive illness by 1913 at the latest. Finally, in 1916, he committed suicide in a closed institution. Alfred died in 1917 of a typhus infection which he contracted during his training as a doctor in a hospital.

Duisberg asserted in an obituary that Fischer had “a surprising turnaround after the collapse of the German Empire. He found the strength for new life and ascent in the research activity that he immediately started again with. The work and its success made him cheerful and happy again ”. During a session just 10 days before his suicide , he was said to have been “one of the happiest among us”.

However, at the end of World War I, Fischer's health was not only limited by his age, poor food supplies during the war years, and hard work. According to his own account, he had already had his first illness known as " gastritis " before he was 18 years old, which was to be repeated throughout his life and was the reason for several long absences from work. After all, in his opinion, his many years of unprotected handling of phenylhydrazine had "led to chronic poisoning, which occurred in the fall of 1891 and manifested itself in very annoying disorders of the intestinal activity, namely in nighttime colic and diarrhea." In the spring of 1918 he fell ill with one "Inflammation of the gallbladder" and "pneumonia". In mid-July 1919, after an examination, the surgeon August Bier told him that he had "colon cancer". In view of the diagnostic possibilities at the time, the true nature and cause of this disease must remain open. In any case, in the following three days Fischer sorted his papers, gave his son Hermann a larger amount, transferred the remaining assets of the Academy of Sciences to the promotion of young scientists and, in the presence of his son and the housekeeper, put an end to his life by taking cyanide .

Emil Fischer's grave of honor in the New Wannsee Cemetery

Emil Fischer was buried in the New Wannsee Cemetery. The city of Berlin had a representative grave complex built for him on the north wall of the cemetery. The five-meter-long grave wall made of shell limestone is adorned with a relief designed by Fritz Klimsch , which shows a kneeling couple carrying a large bowl with handles. By decision of the Berlin Senate , the last resting place of Emil Fischer (grave location Li AT 39) has been dedicated as an honorary grave of the State of Berlin since 1956 . The dedication was extended in 2016 by the now usual period of twenty years.

Scientific work

Fischer was a master in elucidating the structure of natural substances . Fischer owed the discovery of phenylhydrazine to a coincidence as an internship assistant in Strasbourg. Brown intermediates were obtained in the diazotization carried out by a trainee. Fischer examined the reaction with sodium sulfite and obtained the yellow phenylhydrazine. He wrote his first treatise on phenylhydrazine in 1875. He later wrote extensive treatises on this compound. With phenylhydrazine, Fischer was also able to differentiate between aldehydes and ketones and characterize them as phenylhydrazones.

Sugar chemistry

With phenylhydrazine he was able to derivatize the free carbonyl group of sugars, and later in 1891 he clarified the configuration of D -glucose, D- mannose and D -arabinose. The conclusion to elucidate the structure of the sugars is known as the Fischerscher proof.

The determination of the sugar molecules was facilitated by several discoveries:

  • 1. Phenylhydrazine as a detection reagent for aldehydes and ketones (E. Fischer 1875)
  • 2. Chain extension by one carbon unit using cyanohydrin ( Kiliani 1885, E. Fischer and O. Piloty )
  • 3. Reduction of the lactone bond with sodium amalgam (Emil Fischer 1889)
  • 4. Separation of sugars by enzymes and alkaloids and determination of the absolute configuration at the asymmetric carbon atom
  • 5. Development of a method of breaking down sugars around one carbon atom according to A. Wohl

When investigating the spatial shape of sugar molecules, Fischer found that sugar crystallizes out in the presence of acetone (acetal formation). The crystalline acetone compounds in sugar led to a better spatial understanding of the sugar molecules. Of great importance for stereochemistry was the theory of the asymmetric carbon atom according to the theory of Jacobus Henricus van't Hoff and Joseph Achille Le Bel. Also, the Walden inversion ( Paul Walden ) at the optically active carbon atom was detected in sugar chemistry.

Based on the many findings, he was able to carry out a total synthesis of optically active sugars of the mannitol series and edit the nomenclature.

Only with an exact stereochemistry of the sugars were they converted by plant and animal bodies, so that Fischer formulated the lock and key principle (1894).

Through his work on the stereochemistry of sugars and the optical rotatory power of sugar solutions, he was able to give Van 't Hoff's theory of chirality adequate space in organic chemistry. The Fischer nomenclature and a three-dimensional molecular representation method ( Fischer projection ) were named after Fischer .

Amino acids, peptides

From 1900 Emil Fischer also investigated peptide synthesis . At that time only 14 amino acids were known, by 1907 there were already 19. The amino acid proline was obtained from casein by Fischer .

About 100 peptides were produced in Fischer's group. In later years his student E. Abderhalden improved peptide synthesis significantly.

In 1902, at the meeting of German naturalists and doctors in Karlsbad, he was the first to propose, independently and simultaneously with Franz Hofmeister, a structure of proteins from amino acids with peptide bonds . At the same time he introduced the name peptide.

Fischer was the first to study spider silk (1907). He found that it was made up of amino acids, but very different from silk made from silkworms.

More discoveries

Other important contributions from his working group were the Fischer indole synthesis (1883) and the Fischer oxazole synthesis named after him, as well as the synthesis of the natural substances caffeine (1897) and theobromine . Fischer and B. Helferich later synthesized nucleosides and nucleotides . While researching uric acid, Fischer discovered the nucleic acid building block purine as a base in 1884 .

In the chemical industry, the phenylhydrazine, discovered by Fischer in 1875 as an assistant to Baeyer, was used for the production of medicines and dyes. The antipyrine , a first important drug of the chemical industry was a condensation product of phenylhydrazine and Essigester and was by his student Ludwig Knorr been developed. The production of the dye tartrazine became possible with phenylhydrazine.

Fischer and his nephew Alfred Dilthey synthesized diethyl barbituric acid ( Veronal ® ). Veronal and phenobarbital were used as sleeping pills until the 1980s.

In 1894 he discovered the principle of asymmetric induction on brucine (a chiral center determines the chirality of the neighboring carbon atom).

Teacher, sponsor and organizer

In 1900 he inaugurated a large new building for the Organic Institute of the Berlin Friedrich Wilhelms University . Fischer demanded serious scientific and correct work from his students, he wished for highly talented young chemists more scientific freedom. The cooperation between science and industry was very important to him. Together with Adolf von Harnack , he was instrumental in founding the Kaiser Wilhelm Society in 1911, of which he was a member of the Senate until his death. Towards the end of the German Empire, anti-Semitism also increased among scientists. Fischer was one of the few who did not agree. When asked why he was not anti-Semitic given the large number of Jewish competitors, he countered:

"We Rhinelander are not so stupid that we have to become anti-Semites and, if I had a tendency to do so, I just had to think of my teacher Adolf von Baeyer."

Fischer turned out to be a nonconformist in another area as well: Initially, he did not consider it sensible for women to study because they would later generally turn to the household and family. Later, however, he changed his mind and, as one of the first leading professors, advocated the admission of women to the course and made it possible, for example, for Hertha von Siemens to work in his private laboratory, and Lise Meitner for the (initially failed) work in the institute's laboratory .

His introductory organic lecture was immortalized didactically by one of his former students, Hans Beyer, in the textbook for organic chemistry and is still part of the basic canon of organic chemistry.


Memorial plaque in Erlangen
Fischer's cramped chem. Institute in Würzburg
Berlin memorial plaque at his institute, Hessische Strasse 1, in Berlin-Mitte
Name of the historical lecture hall in Berlin
Emil Fischer memorial in the front garden of the Max Planck Institute for Cell Physiology (today's building of the archive of the Max Planck Society ) in Berlin-Dahlem
Monument to Emil Fischer on Robert-Koch-Platz in Berlin-Mitte

In 1898 Fischer received the Leopoldina's Cothenius Medal .

In 1902 he received the Nobel Prize for Chemistry "in recognition of the extraordinary service he has earned through his work in the field of sugar and purine groups". In 1904 he was elected to the National Academy of Sciences , 1908 to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and 1909 to the American Philosophical Society . From 1900 to 1915 he was a corresponding member of the Académie des sciences in Paris. He was an honorary member of the experimental and educational institute for brewing .

Even today in his home town are Euskirchen the Emil-Fischer-Gymnasium as well as in Berlin, Leverkusen and Leuna , which Emil Fischer Street, in Erlangen, the Emil Fischer Center (headquarters of the Institute of Biochemistry, of Pharmacy and Food Chemistry and for Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology) as well as the Emil Fischer Graduate School and in Schwarzheide another high school named after him.

In 1921 Fritz Klimsch created a sandstone monument for Fischer, which was erected near Fischer's former place of work, the I. Chemical Institute of the Friedrich Wilhelms University (today Humboldt University) on Hessische Strasse. This sculpture was destroyed in World War II. In 1952 Richard Scheibe created a bronze replica that was set up in the front garden of what was then the Max Planck Institute for Cell Physiology (dissolved in 1972) on Garystrasse in Dahlem . A second cast was made of this sculpture in 1995, which found its place on Robert-Koch-Platz in Berlin-Mitte .

The lecture hall of the former Chemical Institute of the Humboldt University bears the honorary name of Emil Fischer lecture hall.

In Erlangen, a memorial plaque was erected on the house in which he worked from 1882 to 1885. At the Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg there is an Emil Fischer Center, in which several chairs from the field of life sciences have come together.

The Society of German Chemists awards the Emil Fischer commemorative coin every two years for extraordinary services in the field of organic chemistry .

In 1976 the lunar crater Fischer was named after him and Hans Fischer .

The Berlin Upper School for Nutrition and Food Technology has been called the Emil Fischer School since 1993 .

On July 12, 2010 , a Berlin memorial plaque was unveiled in Berlin-Mitte , Hessische Strasse 1 .

On October 7, 2014, The Division of the History of Chemistry of the American Chemical Society honored Emil Fischer's publication Ueber the Conformation of Dextrose and Its Isomers as a revolutionary future and trend-setting publication in 1891 with the "Citation for Chemical Breakthrough Award". His Würzburg institute at that time was named a Historic Site of Chemistry.


His estate is at the University of Berkeley and with microfilm copies in the archive of the Max Planck Society.


  • Günther Bugge: The book of the great chemists. Verlag Chemie, Weinheim 1974, ISBN 3-527-25021-2 , p. 408.
  • Max Bergmann (Ed.), Emil Fischer: From my life. Written in the unlucky year of 1918 . Berlin, Julius Springer, 1922. Version freely available online (mostly without footnotes) , complete version , printed editions, etc. a. 2011 ISBN 978-3-86195-530-6 , 2013 ISBN 978-1-4840-2319-8 .
  • Emil Fischer: From my life , Springer 1922, archive
  • Karl Freudenberg:  Fischer, Hermann Emil. In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 5, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1961, ISBN 3-428-00186-9 , p. 181 f. ( Digitized version ).
  • Benjamin Harrow: Emil Fischer , Science New Series , Vol. 50, No. 1285 (Aug. 15, 1919), pp. 150–154 (obituary in Science)
  • Dörthe Kähler: The Nobel Prize Winner. Emil Fischer in Berlin. A journey of discovery. rainStein Berlin 2009, 277 p .; Collaboration: Dr. Andrea Tran-Betcke; Drawing by A. Witsch-Bakhet; ISBN 978-3-940634-09-2 . A reading book for walkers, the curious and lovers.
  • Klaus Koschel: The development and differentiation of chemistry at the University of Würzburg. In: Peter Baumgart (Ed.): Four hundred years of the University of Würzburg. A commemorative publication. Degener & Co. (Gerhard Gessner), Neustadt an der Aisch 1982 (= sources and contributions to the history of the University of Würzburg. Volume 6), ISBN 3-7686-9062-8 , pp. 703–749; here: pp. 722–725.
  • Frieder W. Lichtenthaler: Emil Fischer's proof of the configuration of sugars: an appreciation after a hundred years . In: Angewandte Chemie . tape 104 , no. 12 , 1992, pp. 1577–1593 , doi : 10.1002 / anie.19921041204 .
  • Georg Lockemann: History of Chemistry. Volume 2, Walter de Gruyter & Co., Berlin 1955, p. 72.
  • Horst Remane : Emil Fischer. Leipzig 1984.
  • Klaus Roth , Simone Hoeft-Schleeh: The chemical masterpiece: Emil Fischer's structure elucidation of glucose , Chemistry in our time, Volume 36, 2002, No. 6, pp. 390-402.
  • Barbara I. Tshisuaka: Fischer, Emil. In: Werner E. Gerabek , Bernhard D. Haage, Gundolf Keil , Wolfgang Wegner (eds.): Enzyklopädie Medizingeschichte. De Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2005, ISBN 3-11-015714-4 , p. 402 f.
  • Paul Walden : History of organic chemistry since 1880. Springer Verlag 1972, ISBN 3-540-05267-4 .

Web links

Commons : Hermann Emil Fischer  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. a b c Max Bergmann (Ed.), Emil Fischer: From my life. Written in the unlucky year of 1918 . Berlin, Julius Springer, 1922. Version freely available online (mostly without footnotes)
  2. a b c d e f g h Dörthe Kähler (ed.), Andrea Tran-Betcke, Emil Fischer: The Nobel Prize Winner - Emil Fischer in Berlin. A journey of discovery . RainStein Library Publishing House, 1st edition 2009, ISBN 978-3-940634-09-2 .
  3. ^ Biographical data, publications and academic family tree of Hermann Emil Fischer at academictree.org, accessed on February 6, 2018.
  4. Hartmut Kaelbe and a. (Ed.): Europe and the Europeans: Sources and essays on modern European history . Franz Steiner Verlag, 2005, ISBN 978-3-515-08691-2 , p. 393.
  5. ^ German history in documents and images (DGDB): The call of 93 “To the cultural world!” (October 4, 1914) , PDF
  6. A. Hermann: Haber and Bosch: Bread from Air - The ammonia synthesis. In: Physics Journal. 21, 1965, pp. 168-171, doi: 10.1002 / phbl.19650210403 .
  7. a b Margit Szöllösi-Janze: Fritz Haber, 1868–1934: A biography . CH Beck, 1998, ISBN 978-3-406-43548-5 .
  8. Timo Baumann: Poison gas and saltpeter. Chemical industry, science and the military from 1906 to the first ammunition program in 1914/15 . Inaugural dissertation, Philosophical Faculty of the Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, 2008 (PDF; 3.6 MB), p. 258.
  9. Timo Baumann: Poison gas and saltpeter. Chemical industry, science and the military from 1906 to the first ammunition program in 1914/15 . Inaugural dissertation, Philosophical Faculty of the Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, 2008 (PDF; 3.6 MB), p. 262.
  10. Timo Baumann: Poison gas and saltpeter. Chemical industry, science and the military from 1906 to the first ammunition program in 1914/15 . Inaugural dissertation, Philosophical Faculty of the Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, 2008 (PDF; 3.6 MB), p. 312.
  11. ^ Dietrich Stoltzenberg: Scientist and industrial manager: Emil Fischer and Carl Duisberg . P. 80 in: John E. Lesch (Ed.): The German Chemical Industry in the Twentieth Century , Volume 18 of: Chemists and Chemistry , Springer, 2000, ISBN 978-0-7923-6487-0 .
  12. Timo Baumann: Poison gas and saltpeter. Chemical industry, science and the military from 1906 to the first ammunition program in 1914/15 . Inaugural dissertation, Philosophical Faculty of the Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, 2008 (PDF; 3.6 MB), p. 313.
  13. Timo Baumann: Poison gas and saltpeter. Chemical industry, science and the military from 1906 to the first ammunition program in 1914/15 . Inaugural dissertation, Philosophical Faculty of Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, 2008 (PDF; 3.6 MB), p. 314.
  14. Thomas Steinhauser u. a .: A hundred years at the interface of chemistry and physics: The Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society between 1911 and 2011 . Walter de Gruyter, 2011, ISBN 978-3-11-023915-7 .
  15. Ute Deichmann : Escape, Participate, Forget: Chemists and Biochemists in the Nazi Era . Verlag Wiley-VCH, 2001, ISBN 978-3-527-30264-2 , there in chap. 1.4 Jewish and non-Jewish chemists during the First World War , p. 39.
  16. Berliner Illustrirte Zeitung: Science and War ( Memento of the original from September 28, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. . Volume 24, No. 35 from August 29, 1915. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.nernst.de
  17. ^ Fritz Welsch: Studies on the history of the Academy of Sciences of the GDR , East Academy of Sciences of the GDR Berlin, Volume 12, Akademie-Verlag, 1986, ISBN 978-3-05-500099-7 , p. 44.
  18. Jost Lemmerich , Armin Stock: Nobel Prize Winners in Würzburg: Science Mile Röntgenring . Universitäts-Verlag Würzburg, 2006, ISBN 978-3-9811408-0-4 .
  19. Hans-Jürgen Mende u. a .: Berlin Mitte: the lexicon . Stapp Verlag, 2001, ISBN 978-3-87776-111-3 .
  20. ^ Hans-Jürgen Mende : Lexicon of Berlin burial places . Pharus-Plan, Berlin 2018, ISBN 978-3-86514-206-1 . P. 660. Wannsee town cemetery & church square and churchyard of St. Andreas . Description of the cemetery in the database of the Berlin State Monuments Office, accessed on May 19, 2019.
  21. Senate Department for Environment, Transport and Climate Protection: Honorary Graves of the State of Berlin (as of November 2018) (PDF, 413 kB), p. 21, accessed on May 19, 2019. Recognition and further preservation of graves as honorary graves of the State of Berlin (PDF , 205 kB). Berlin House of Representatives, printed matter 17/3105 of July 13, 2016, p. 1 and Annex 2, p. 3, accessed on May 19, 2019.
  22. Ber. German chem. Ges. 8 (1875), p. 589. ( digitized on Gallica )
  23. Ber. German chem. Ges. 8 (1875), p. 1005. ( digitized on Gallica )
  24. Frieder W. Lichtenthaler: Emil Fischer's proof of the configuration of sugars: an appreciation after a hundred years. In: Angewandte Chemie. 104, 1992, pp. 1577-1593, doi: 10.1002 / ange.19921041204 .
  25. Ber. German Chem. Ges. 17 (1884), p. 572. ( digitized on Gallica )
  26. Dear. Ann. d. Ch. 270 (1892), p. 64.
  27. Ber. d. Deut. Chem. Ges. 24 (1891), p. 2136.
  28. Ber. d. Deut. Chem. Ges. 23 (1890), p. 379.
  29. Ber. d. Deut. Chem. Ges. 27 (1897), p. 3211.
  30. Ber. d. Deut. Chem. Ges. 26 (1893), p. 730.
  31. Ber. d. Deut. Chem. Ges. 28 (1895), p. 1145; 48 (1915), p. 266 ( digitized on Gallica )
  32. Ber. d. Deut. Chem. Ges. 27 (1894), p. 3222; 40 (1907), p. 102.
  33. Ber. d. Deut. Chem. Ges. 27 (1894), p. 3222; 27 (1894), p. 2986.
  34. Ber. d. Deut. Chem. Ges. 36 (1903), p. 3982.
  35. Ber. d. Deut. Chem. Ges. 37 (1904), p. 2486.
  36. Ber. d. Deut. Chem. Ges. 40 (1907), pp. 1755, 1764.
  37. Ber. d. Deut. Chem. Ges. 64 (1931), p. 2070.
  38. ^ Theodor Wieland: History of Peptide Chemistry, in: Bernd Gutte (Ed.), Peptides, Academic Press 1995, p. 2
  39. Georg Lockemann: History of Chemistry. Walter de Gruyter & Co., Berlin 1955, p. 76.
  40. Ber. d. Deut. Chem. Ges. 47 (1914), p. 210.
  41. Ber. d. Deut. Chem. Ges. 47 (1914), p. 3193.
  42. E. Fischer and A. Dilthey: About C-dialkylbarbituric acids and about the ureid of dialkylacetic acids . In: Justus Liebigs Annalen der Chemie 335 , 334-368 (1904). doi : 10.1002 / jlac.19043350303 - From my life, p. 197 ff .
  43. New building Hessische Straße 1 100 Years of the Chemical Institute ( Memento of the original from March 9, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.  @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www2.hu-berlin.de
  44. ^ Lothar Jaenicke: Emil H. Fischer (1852 - 1919) - Großkophtha der Bioorganik. In: BIOspektrum, 2002, 8. 725–727.
  45. see overview of the winners of the medal between 1864 and 1953
  46. ^ Information from the Nobel Foundation on the 1902 award ceremony for Emil Fischer (English) .
  47. Member History: Emil Fischer. American Philosophical Society, accessed August 5, 2018 .
  48. ^ List of members since 1666: Letter F. Académie des sciences, accessed on November 13, 2019 (French).
  49. ^ Emil-FischerCentrum on the FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg homepage .
  50. ^ Emil Fischer in the Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature of the IAU (WGPSN) / USGS
  51. Ber. German Chem. Ges. 24 , 1836 (1891). ( Digitized on Gallica )
  52. ^ Ceremonial colloquium in honor of Emil Fischer , Julius Maximilians University of Würzburg 2015. - Plaque 2014