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Insurgents shot by volunteer corps
The suppression of the Spartacus uprising in Berlin ends the November Revolution .
After the swearing-in of the first Reich President in Weimar: Reich President [Friedrich] Ebert, Reich Chancellor [Konstantin] Fehrenbach and the members of the government with a cheer for the Republic.
Friedrich Ebert is sworn in as Reich President.
Grave of the murdered Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg, 1919
Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht are murdered.
Maximilian Museum, Munich.  - Men with machine guns
The Munich Soviet Republic is crushed.
1919 in other calendars
Armenian calendar 1367/68 (turn of the year July)
Ethiopian calendar 1911/12 (September 11-12)
Baha'i calendar 75/76 (March 20/21)
Bengali solar calendar 1324/25 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)
Buddhist calendar 2462/63 (southern Buddhism); 2461/62 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )
Chinese calendar 76th (77th) cycle

Year of the Earth- Sheep 己未 ( until January 31st Earth-Horse 戊午)

Chuch'e ideology (North Korea) Chuch'e 8
Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam) 1281/82 (turn of the year April)
Dangun era (Korea) 4252/53 (October 2/3)
Iranian calendar 1297/98 (around March 21)
Islamic calendar 1337/38 (September 25-26)
Japanese calendar Taishō 8 ( 大 正 元年);
Koki 2579
Jewish calendar 5679/80 (September 24/25)
Coptic calendar 1635/36 (September 11-12)
Malayalam calendar 1094/95
Minguo calendar (China) Year 8 of the Republic
Rumi Calendar (Ottoman Empire) 1334/35 (March 1)
Seleucid era Babylon: 2229/30 (turn of the year April)

Syria: 2230/31 (turn of the year October)

Suriyakati Calendar (Thai Solar Calendar) 2461/62 (April 1)
Tibetan calendar 1665
Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar) 1975/76 (April)


Politics and world events

Peace negotiations after the world war

Sinking SMS Derfflinger

German Empire / Free City of Danzig

Rosa Luxemburg (1915)
Wikisource: Opening Address  - Sources and Full Texts
First cabinet meeting of the Scheidemann cabinet on February 13, 1919 in Weimar. From left: Ulrich Rauscher , Press Officer of the Reich Government, Robert Schmidt , Nutrition, Eugen Schiffer , Finance, Philipp Scheidemann , Reich Chancellor, Otto Landsberg , Justice, Rudolf Wissell , Economy, Gustav Bauer , Labor, Ulrich von Brockdorff-Rantzau , Foreign Affairs, Eduard David without Portefeuille, Hugo Preuss , Inneres, Johannes Giesberts , Post, Johannes Bell , Colonies, Georg Gothein , Schatz, Gustav Noske, Reichswehr
Cabinet Gustav Bauer
The proclamation of the constitution of the German Reich in the Reichsgesetzblatt on August 14, 1919
Logo of the Arbeiterwohlfahrt

Austro-Hungarian successor states

Polish-Soviet War

Front line February and October 1919
  • February: The first unplanned clash between Polish units and the Red Army occurs after both sides have previously taken action against Ukrainian nationalists. The Polish-Soviet War begins.
  • March: The Red Army begins a successful offensive on Vilna and Grodno , formally part of Lithuania, but ethnically mostly Polish. At the same time, Poland attacks along the Memel and takes the small towns of Pinsk and Lida in Belarus.
  • April 19 : A Polish advance drives the Soviets out of Vilnius.
  • July 17 : A truce is signed in the Polish-Ukrainian War .
  • August 28th : Poland uses tanks for the first time to capture Babrujsk .
  • Due to its technical superiority, the Polish army can compensate for the numerical disproportion to the Soviet army: Poland had 230,000 soldiers on its eastern border in 1919, while the Red Army comprised a total of 2,300,000 soldiers, many of whom, however, were tied up in the civil war in their own country. The situation of the young Soviet power, which is bound in a multi-front war and also suffers from famine and revolts, is difficult as a result. By the beginning of 1920, however, the Soviet troops had smashed most of the White Armies in the civil war .

The successor states of Russia

Occupying powers in Latvia in June 1919:
  • Baltic State Army
  • Latvian Red Army
  • Latvian Ulmanis Army
  • Estonian Army
  • Great Britain and Ireland

    The first Dáil Éireann, January 1919. Front row, left to right: Laurence Ginnell, Michael Collins, Cathal Brugha, Arthur Griffith, Éamon de Valera, Count Plunkett, Eoin MacNeill, WT Cosgrave and Kevin O'Higgins


    Greece / Anatolia

    Greek soldiers take over their posts in Izmir.

    Other events in Europe

    Gustave Ador
    News about the Sette Giugno in Malta

    United States of America



    Students gather in Beijing during the May Fourth Movement
    • May 4th : After the provisions of the Versailles Treaty became known, student riots broke out in China , which led to the May 4th Movement . China sided with the Allies in World War I and hoped for the repeal of the Unequal Treaties and non-recognition of the Twenty-One Demands of Japanof 1915. These hopes are not fulfilled by the treaties, because the Allies concluded secret agreements with Japan during the war, which included that they would support the Japanese claims in China if Japan remained on the side of the Allies in return. In addition, neither France nor the United Kingdom are prepared to give up their extraterritorial privileges and leases in China.




    International organizations




    • October 28th : John A. Miller receives a patent for his underfriction wheels . The wheels of a roller coaster are held firmly on the route by these wheels reaching under the rail . This makes it possible to construct steeper descents, hills with more airtime and more inclined curves than with only side friction roller coasters and this enables the development of modern roller coasters.

    Postal services

    Business start-ups and liquidations

    • Creation of the Danone company in Barcelona by Isaac Carasso
    • Foundation of the company "Mechanical Trikotwarenfabriken Gebr. Mayer KG", later TRIGEMA


    science and technology


    Charles Godefroy flies through the Arc de Triomphe .

    Natural sciences


    Teaching and Research

    • University of Vienna : Admission of women as regular students at the law and political science faculty


    Visual arts


    Photomontage: Signing of the founding agreement of United Artists; v. l. To the right: DW Griffith , Mary Pickford , Charlie Chaplin and Douglas Fairbanks , two lawyers in the background


    Music and theater

    Fritz Kortner as Friedrich (right) returning from the war in the world premiere of Toller's Die Wandlung




    Minor accidents are listed in the sub-articles of Catastrophe .


    Nobel Prizes

    A Nobel Prize in Chemistry was not awarded.







    Eva Duarte de Perón, called Evita (around 1947)








    Exact date of birth unknown


    January February

    Hugo Blümner
    Theodore Roosevelt, 1904
    Karl Liebknecht , ca.1911
    * 03. Februar: Marie Therese von Österreich-Este, letzte bayerische Königin (* 1849)

    March April

    Ernest von Koerber

    May June

    Lyman Frank Baum
    Henry John Heinz
    John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh

    July August

    Emil Fischer, 1902
    Andrew Carnegie
    Louis Botha, before 1915

    September October

    Adelina Patti
    Alfred Deakin

    November December

    Exact date of death unknown

    Web links

    Commons : 1919  - Collection of Pictures, Videos and Audio Files

    Individual evidence

    1. Saskia Etschmaier: The blood-red summer of the USA. In: orf.at . August 11, 2019, accessed January 24, 2020 .