Calendar overview 1842
Hamburg's old town is destroyed by the Hamburg fire .
|Battle of Gandamak in the First Anglo-Afghan War becomes a debacle for the British.|
|1842 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1290/91 (July turn of the year)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1834/35 (10/11 September)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1247/48 (beginning of the year April 14 or 15)|
|Buddhist calendar||2385/86 (Southern Buddhism); 2384/85 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||75th (76th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1204/05 (New Year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4175/76 (October 2nd/3rd)|
|Islamic calendar||1257/58 (New Year February 11th/12th)|
|Jewish calendar||5602/03 (September 4th/5th)|
|Coptic calendar||1558/59 (10/11 September)|
|Rumi Calendar (Ottoman Empire)||1257/58 (March 1)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2152/53 (April turn of the year)
Syria: 2153/54 (October turn of the year)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese calendar)||1898/99 (April)|
politics and world affairs
- January 1: During the First Anglo-Afghan War , British Major -General William George Keith Elphinstone signs the instrument of surrender with Afghan rebel leaders in Kabul . On January 6, the surviving British troops began withdrawing to the Chaiber Pass .
- January 13: Battle of Gandamak occurs during the First Anglo-Afghan War .
- April 7: The siege of Jalalabad ends during the First Anglo-Afghan War .
- June 17: British diplomats Charles Stoddart and Arthur Connolly are beheaded in Bukhara as alleged spies.
First Opium War
- August 29: The Treaty of Nanking between China and Great Britain is signed aboard HMS Cornwallis . This ends the first Opium War .
- January 17: An uprising by the conservative Cartists led by António Bernardo da Costa Cabral ends the phase of Setembrist governments in Portugal . Costa Cabral rules the country dictatorially (until 1846).
- December 3: The city of Barcelona is shelled for 12 hours by the Spanish military in an attempt to quell an uprising that has broken out. The bombardment was ordered by Regent Baldomero Espartero .
- May 16: A first caravan convoy of 100 settlers heads west from Missouri on the Oregon Trail over the Rocky Mountains .
- August 9: The Webster-Ashburton Treaty finally ends the Aroostook War and regulates the border between the American state of Maine and the British colony of New Brunswick .
- August 14: The Second Seminole War , waged by the US Army in Florida , ends with the almost total extermination of the Seminole Indians.
- October 19: Believing war against Mexico has broken out, US Navy officer Thomas ap Catesby Jones occupies the city of Monterey , California. When the rumors turned out to be false, he withdrew the following day. This and a similar incident a short time later in San Diego led to a sharp note of protest from the Mexican Secretary of State to the United States under President James K. Polk .
- November 8: William C. Bouck wins the New York gubernatorial election .
- December 19: The US recognizes the independence of Hawaii .
- The Texas Archive War erupts in the Republic of Texas .
- December 28: British explorer and navigator James Clark Ross discovers the Danger Islands , a group of seven smaller islands off the Antarctic Peninsula .
- January 1: The Rheinische Zeitung is founded in Cologne as a newspaper of bourgeois liberalism . The publisher is the Cologne bookseller Joseph Engelbert Renard . On October 15, Karl Marx takes over the editorial management of the new newspaper.
- February 21: John James Greenough receives the first US patent for a sewing machine in the United States . It is also intended for leather processing.
- May 14: The weekly magazine The Illustrated London News , founded by Herbert Ingram and Mark Lemon, appears for the first time. The first issue sold 26,000 copies.
- May 23: Briton John Bennet Lawes files a patent for his process for producing superphosphate , a fertilizer used in agriculture.
- September 12 to October 16: The first German industrial exhibition in the Deutschhaus Mainz is considered a milestone in German economic history . 75,000 people attend the four-week event, which features around 270 exhibitors. The exhibition is the first major event during Nikolaus Nack 's tenure as Lord Mayor of Mainz .
- 5 October: Josef Groll brews the first batch of beer using the Pilsner brewing method in Pilsen .
- The first leg of Scotland's West Highland Line from Glasgow to Edinburgh opens.
science and technology
- 16 March: The steamboat HMS Driver sets off from Liverpool on the first round-the-world steamship voyage .
- March 30: Crawford Williamson Long first uses ether as an anesthetic in the removal of a neck tumor in Jefferson , Georgia .
- May 25: The Austrian scientist Christian Doppler presents his treatise On the colored light of the double stars and some other celestial bodies in Prague , which predicts the Doppler effect .
- Autumn: The Prussian expedition to Egypt led by Karl Richard Lepsius begins. Among other things, the Lepsius pyramid list is created.
- The second volume of Maximilian zu Wied-Neuwied 's journey into the interior of North America in the years 1832 to 1834 with illustrations by Karl Bodmer is published.
- January 15: A cathedral building association is founded in Cologne to promote the Cologne Cathedral. Heinrich von Wittgenstein is elected the first president in February .
- May 15: The fountain hall in Bad Kissingen , designed by Friedrich von Gärtner , is inaugurated. It is the first engineering structure in Bavaria and one of the first buildings in Germany to be built entirely of cast iron .
- September 4th: More than 300 years after the interruption of the construction work, the foundation stone is laid for the further construction of the Cologne Cathedral .
- Annette von Droste-Hülshoff composed the poem Am Turme .
- The library of the Literary Society in Stuttgart is founded.
- Honoré de Balzac gives his novel the title La Comédie humaine ( The Human Comedy ).
music and theatre
- February 27: The violinist Ferdinand Laub gives his first concert at the age of 10.
- 3 March: The world premiere of Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy 's Symphony No. 3 (“Scottish Symphony”) takes place in Leipzig's Gewandhaus , conducted by the composer.
- March 9: Giuseppe Verdi's opera Nabucco , to the libretto by Temistocle Solera , premieres at the Teatro alla Scala di Milano in Milan. Verdi's third opera becomes a sensation, and he himself becomes the hero of Italian opera life. The prisoners ' chorus Va, pensiero after Psalm 137 becomes Verdi's most famous chorus.
- March 10th: The Posse with singing A joke he wants to make himself by Johann Nestroy is premiered at the Theater an der Wien .
- March 28: The Vienna Philharmonic , a newly founded concert orchestra made up of professional musicians, presents itself to the public for the first time with a concert in the Great Redoutensaal of the Vienna Hofburg under their conductor Otto Nicolai .
- April 2: The Philharmonic Symphony Society of New York is founded in New York at a meeting initiated by Ureli Corelli Hill . The New York Philharmonic is the oldest symphony orchestra in the USA and is now one of the "Big Five" of orchestras .
- May 19: The opera Linda di Chamounix by Gaetano Donizetti is premiered with great success with Eugenia Tadolini in the leading role at the Theater am Kärntnertor in Vienna.
- October 20: Richard Wagner's tragic opera Rienzi, the last of the tribunes , premieres at the Royal Court Theater in Dresden . The composer achieved his breakthrough with his third completed opera.
- 9 December: Ruslan and Lyudmila , an opera in five acts by Mikhail Ivanovich Glinka to a libretto by Nestor Kukolnik and others, based on Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin 's epic verse of the same name , premieres in Saint Petersburg.
- 31 December: The world premiere of the comic opera Der Wildschütz by Albert Lortzing takes place at the Stadttheater in Leipzig . The composer himself wrote the libretto based on the comedy Der Rehbock oder Die guiltlos Guilty Ones by August von Kotzebue .
- October 18: The Walhalla memorial near Donaustauf , initiated by the Bavarian King Ludwig I , is inaugurated.
- April 1: Pope Gregory XVI. promulgates the encyclical Inter ea , which deals with developments in some Swiss cantons.
- May 5th to May 8th: The Hamburg fire , which can only be brought under control after four days, destroys more than a quarter of Hamburg 's old town . 51 people are killed, the number of homeless is estimated at 20,000, the number of destroyed houses at around 1,700. Among other things, the town hall on the Trostbrücke burned down on May 5th and the Petrikirche on May 7th . For years, the Hamburg cityscape has been shaped by the destroyed areas and the makeshift apartments built on them. Planning for the redevelopment of the urban area began in May under the leadership of English engineer William Lindley .
- May 7: An earthquake kills 5,000 people in the city of Cap-Haitien alone. Other cities in the Caribbean were affected by the earthquake and subsequent tsunami.
- 8 May: Near Meudon , France, the Versailles rail accident occurs . At least 50 people die after an axle breaks in the first steam locomotive of a train carrying around 770 people. The second locomotive and three passenger cars push themselves into the wreck. The most prominent victims are the polar explorer Jules Dumont d'Urville with his wife and son.
- July 20: The highest mountain in the Pyrenees , Aneto , is climbed for the first time by the Russian ex-officer Platon de Tchihatcheff and his companions.
- August 8th: The 4,042 meter high Lauteraarhorn is climbed for the first time by a group of six mountaineers.
Historical maps and views
- Carl Engler , German chemist (died 1925) January 5:
- Clarence King , American geologist (died 1901) January 6:
- January 11: William James , American psychologist and philosopher (died 1910)
- January 12 Teobert Maler (d. 1917) Austrian photographer, discoverer and explorer of Mayan ruins
- January 13: Heinrich Hofmann , German composer (died 1902)
- January 15: Josef Breuer , Austrian physician, physiologist and philosopher (d. 1925)
- January 19: Charles Hopper Gibson , American politician (died 1900)
- January 20 Miklós Konkoly-Thege , Hungarian astronomer (died 1916)
- January 22: Henri Maréchal , French composer (died 1924)
- January 26: François Coppée , French writer (died 1908)
- January 28: Franziska Feifalik , Austrian hairdresser and confidante of Empress Elisabeth of Austria-Hungary († 1911)
- January 29: Alfred Friedrich Bluntschli , Swiss architect (died 1930)
- Karl August Deinhard , German naval officer (died 1892) February 2
- Carlos Walker Martínez , Chilean author and politician (died 1905) February 2
- Sidney Lanier , American poet (d. 1881) February 3:
- Georg Brandes , Danish writer (died 1927) February 4:
- Hugo Schuchardt , German Romanist (died 1927) February 4:
- Karl von Wedel , German general and diplomat (died 1919) February 5
- Mary Rudge , British world chess champion (d. 1919) February 6:
- Alexandre Ribot , French politician, Prime Minister (died 1923) February 7
- Josef Schantl , Austrian musician († 1902) February 8:
- February 11: Ludwig Barnay , actor and director († 1924)
- February 12: Julius Scharlach , German lawyer and entrepreneur († 1908)
- February 13: Heinrich Gradl , Sudeten German historian († 1895)
- February 18 Charles Emory Smith , American politician (died 1908)
- February 20: Joseph Victor Widmann , Swiss writer and journalist (d. 1911)
- February 21: Edmund Friedrich von Autenrieth , German civil engineer and university lecturer († 1910)
- February 23: Eduard von Hartmann , German philosopher (died 1906)
- February 24 Arrigo Boito , Italian writer and composer (died 1918)
- February 25 Karl May , German writer (died 1912)
- February 26: Hugo Bußmeyer , German composer (died 1912)
- February 26 Camille Flammarion , French astronomer and author (died 1925)
- February 28: Stephen Wallace Dorsey , American politician (died 1916)
- Rafael Guastavino , Spanish architect and builder (d. 1908) March 1:
- Wilhelm Jordan , German geodesist and mathematician († 1899) March 1:
- Frederick Gustavus Burnaby , British military, traveler and writer (d. 1885) March 3:
- James Sully , English psychologist (died 1923) March 3
- March 12: Cherubine Willimann , Superior General in Koblenz († 1914)
- March 13: Valentin Joseph Boussinesq , French mathematician and physicist (died 1929)
- March 14: Wilhelm Wilmanns , German scholar (died 1911)
- March 18: Stéphane Mallarmé , French writer (died 1898)
- March 23: Friedrich Ludwig Balthasar Amelung , Baltic industrialist, chess player and publicist († 1909)
- March 24: Gabrielle Krauss , Austrian opera singer (d. 1906)
- March 25: Jean Marie Charles Abadie , French ophthalmologist (d. 1932)
- March 25: Antonio Fogazzaro , Italian writer and poet (died 1911)
- March 29: Friedrich von Hellwald , Austrian popular science writer (d. 1892)
- Edmund Neupert , Norwegian pianist, composer and music teacher (died 1888) April 1:
- Domenico Savio , disciple of Don Bosco, Italian saint (died 1857) April 2
- Katharine Russell, Viscountess Amberley , British noblewoman and suffragette (d. 1874) April 3
- Édouard Lucas , French mathematician (died 1891) April 4:
- Francis Chaponnière , Swiss Protestant theologian and university teacher († 1924) April 6:
- Herman Greulich , Swiss politician, champion of Swiss women's suffrage (d. 1925) April 9:
- April 10: August Geib , German poet, bookseller and politician († 1879)
- April 20: John Murphy Farley , Archbishop of New York and Cardinal (d. 1918)
- April 21 Charles Follen Adams , American poet (died 1918)
- April 21 Alberto Errera , Italian political economist (died 1894)
- April 29 Karl Millöcker , Austrian operetta composer († 1899)
- April 29: Paul Soleillet , French traveler to Africa (died 1886)
- Janet Monach Patey , English singer (d. 1894) May 1:
- Felix Victor Birch-Hirschfeld , German physician († 1899) May 2:
- Philipp von Nathusius-Ludom , Prussian politician and editor-in-chief of the "Kreuzzeitung" († 1900) May 4:
- Felice Cavallotti , Italian politician, journalist, writer and translator (died 1898) May 6:
- Henry C. Warmoth , American politician (d. 1931) May 9:
- May 12: Jules Massenet , French composer (died 1912)
- May 13: Arthur Sullivan , English organist, conductor and composer (died 1900)
- May 13 Giuseppe Terrabugio , Italian organist, composer and church musician (died 1933)
- May 15: LC Hughes , American politician (died 1915)
- May 15: Ludwig Viktor of Austria , youngest brother of Emperor Franz Joseph I († 1919)
- May 17: August Thyssen , German industrialist (died 1926)
- May 23: Emmanuel Gallard-Lépinay , French marine painter (died 1885)
- May 23: Maria Konopnicka , Polish poet (died 1910)
- May 24: Rudolf von Buol-Berenberg , German politician and President of the Reichstag (died 1902)
- May 26: Evald Rygh , Norwegian Minister of Finance (died 1913)
- May 27 – Amancio Alcorta , Argentine politician and legal scholar (died 1902)
- Christoph Blumhardt , Württemberg theologian and pastor of Pietism († 1919) June 1:
- Norbert Hanrieder , Austrian dialect poet and priest († 1913) June 2:
- Eugen Bracht , German painter and professor (died 1921) June 3:
- Georg Franzius , German hydraulic engineer (died 1914) June 5:
- Adolf Bayersdorfer , German art historian and composer of chess problems († 1901) June 7
- June 10: Gustav Hartmann , German entrepreneur (died 1910)
- June 10: Adolf Stoltze , German journalist and local poet († 1933)
- June 11: Carl von Linde , German engineer, inventor and founder of Linde AG (died 1934)
- June 12: Friedrich Eduard Bilz , German naturopath (died 1922)
- June 12: Rikard Nordraak , Norwegian composer (d. 1866)
- June 18: António Mendes Bello , Archbishop of Lisbon and cardinal (d. 1929)
- June 19: Carl Zeller , Austrian jurist and composer († 1898)
- June 21: Richard Kahle , German actor (died 1916)
- June 24 – Ambrose Bierce , American writer and journalist (died 1914)
- June 25 Eloy Alfaro , Ecuadorian military and politician (died 1912)
- June 25: Heinrich Seidel , German engineer and writer (died 1906)
- June 29: Josef Labor , Austrian composer and pianist (d. 1924)
- June 30: Johannes Gad , German neurophysiologist († 1926)
- June 30: William Smithe , Canadian politician (died 1887)
- Julius Falkenstein , German physician and traveler to Africa (died 1917) July 1:
- Charles Chaillé-Long , American traveler to Africa (died 1917) July 2
- Albert Ladenburg , German chemist (died 1911) July 2:
- Hermann Cohen , German philosopher of Jewish faith (died 1918) July 4:
- Sebastiano Turbiglio , Italian philosopher (died 1901) July 7
- July 11: Alfred von und zu Liechtenstein , Austrian politician (died 1907)
- July 13 Bronisław Markiewicz , Polish priest and founder of a religious order (died 1912)
- July 13: Paul Friedrich Meyerheim , German painter and graphic artist (died 1915)
- July 16: Norbert Schrödl , German painter of Austrian descent (died 1912)
- July 17 Georg von Schönerer , Austrian landowner and politician (died 1921)
- July 18: Louis Debierre , French organ builder (died 1920)
- July 19: Frederic T. Greenhalge , American politician (d. 1896)
- July 25 Daniel Paul Schreber , German lawyer and author (died 1911)
- July 26: Berthold Delbrück , German linguist (died 1922)
- July 26 Alfred Marshall , British political economist (died 1924)
- July 30: Vojtěch Hřímalý , Czech composer, conductor and violinist (died 1908)
- Ferdinand Keller , German painter (died 1922) August 5:
- August 13 Albert Sorel , French writer (died 1906)
- August 14: Jean Gaston Darboux , French mathematician (died 1917)
- August 14: George K. Nash , American politician (d. 1904)
- August 17: Hugo Egmont Hørring , jurist and politician, Prime Minister of Denmark († 1909)
- August 20: Franz Gustav Arndt , German landscape and genre painter (d. 1905)
- August 21: Paulus von Braun , German theologian (died 1924)
- August 23: Osborne Reynolds , British physicist (d. 1912)
- August 25: Gustav von Görtz , Austro-Hungarian major general and chamberlain († 1903)
- August 25: Benoit Oppenheim the Elder , German banker (died 1931)
- August 25: Édouard Louis Trouessart , French zoologist (died 1927)
- August 26: Heinrich Irenaeus Quincke , German internist (d. 1922)
- August 28: Heinrich Heydemann , German archaeologist (died 1889)
- August 29: Wilhelm Rimpau , agronomist and seed breeder (d. 1903)
- August 31: Josef Riehl , Austrian engineer, significantly involved in the development of Tyrol († 1917)
- Dora Rappard , Swiss missionary (died 1923) September 1:
- John W. Daniel , American politician (died 1910) September 5:
- Johannes Hermann Zukertort , Polish chess player (d. 1888) September 7:
- Elliott Coues , American surgeon, historian, ornithologist and author (d. 1899) September 9
- September 13: Ödön Mihalovich , Hungarian composer (died 1929)
- September 13: Jan Puzyna de Kosielsko , Cardinal and Bishop of Kraków (died 1911)
- September 15: Carl Diercke , German cartographer (died 1913)
- September 20: James Dewar , British chemist and physicist (died 1923)
- September 20: Diomede Falconio , Roman Catholic archbishop and cardinal (died 1917)
- September 21: Abdülhamid II , Ottoman Sultan (died 1918)
- September 25: Franz Darpe , German high school professor, philologist and historian († 1911)
- September 30: Auguste-René Dubourg , Archbishop of Rennes and Cardinal (d. 1921)
- Charles Cros , French poet and inventor (died 1888) October 1
- Anton Pössenbacher , German furniture manufacturer († 1920) October 6th:
- Emil Claar , German actor, writer and director († 1930) October 7:
- George Montague Wheeler , American explorer (d. 1905) October 9
- October 12: Adolf Marschall von Bieberstein , German politician, foreign minister, ambassador († 1912)
- October 13 Antonio Pasculli , Italian oboist (died 1924)
- October 19: John L. Mitchell , American politician (d. 1904)
- October 24: Josef Nešvera , Czech composer (died 1914)
- October 26: Julius Jacob the Younger , German painter (died 1929)
- October 26: Vasily Vereshchagin , Russian battle painter (died 1904)
- October 28: Louis Luçon , Archbishop of Reims and Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church (d. 1930)
- October 29: Gerhard Bunnemann , mayor and honorary citizen of the city of Bielefeld († 1925)
- October 29 Thomas Somerscales , British painter (died 1927)
- Amelia Bailey , Australian singer (d. 1932) November 5:
- Eugen Gura , Austrian opera singer († 1906) November 8:
- November 11: William R. Webb , American educator and politician (d. 1926)
- November 12: John William Strutt , English physicist, Nobel laureate (d. 1919)
- November 13: Marie Karchow-Lindner , German actress, journalist and patron († 1914)
- November 16 Hannibal Sehested , Danish politician (died 1924)
- November 17: Themistokles von Eckenbrecher , German landscape and marine painter (died 1921)
- November 17: Julius Pohlig , German engineer and pioneer in cable car construction (died 1916)
- November 19: Vincenz Czerny , German surgeon (died 1916)
- November 24: Heinrich Bohner , German evangelical missionary (died 1905)
- November 24: Charles A. Busiel , American politician (d. 1901)
- November 24: Joseph Anton Friedrich August von Hövel , German politician and government president († 1917)
- Phoebe Hearst , American philanthropist, promoter of women's education (died 1919) December 3
- Ellen Swallow Richards , American chemist and ecologist (d. 1911) December 3
- Franz Xaver Wernz , German General of the Order († 1914) December 4:
- Wilhelm Rühlmann , German organ builder (died 1922) December 6:
- Otto Ammon , German anthropologist (died 1916) December 7
- Alphonse Louis Nicolas Borrelly , French astronomer (died 1926) December 8:
- Pyotr Kropotkin , Russian anarchist, geographer and writer (died 1921) December 9:
- December 11: William Gosse , naturalist and explorer (d. 1881)
- December 14: Victor Langer , Hungarian composer (died 1902)
- December 15: Armes Beaumont , Australian singer (d. 1913)
- December 15 Karl Stieler , German lawyer and writer (died 1885)
- December 16: Melitta Otto-Alvsleben , German singer († 1893)
- December 16: Friedrich Julius Rosenbach , German physician (died 1923)
- December 17: Sophus Lie , Norwegian mathematician (died 1899)
- December 18: William Anderson , British surgeon (died 1900)
- December 18 Nathan B. Scott , American politician (died 1924)
- December 26: Laura Gonzenbach , Swiss-Sicilian writer and storyteller († 1878)
- December 30: Osman Hamdi Bey , Turkish painter, archaeologist and museum founder († 1910)
- December 31 Giovanni Boldini , Italian portrait painter (died 1931)
Exact date of birth unknown
- Heinrich Aufhäuser , German banker (died 1917)
- Gabriel Desmoulins , French composer, organist and music teacher (died 1902)
- Alberto Giovannini , Italian composer and music teacher (died 1903)
- Cesare Rossi , Italian composer (died 1909)
January to March
- Charles Berny d'Ouvillé , French painter (b. 1775) January 7:
- Arnold Friedrich von Mieg , German politician (b. 1778) January 7:
- January 12: Johanna Stegen , Prussian patriot, heroic girl of Lüneburg (b. 1793)
- January 13: Wilhelm Traugott Krug , German philosopher (b. 1770)
- January 14: Nicolai Hinrichsen Angel , German instrument and organ builder (b. 1767)
- January 15: Karl Mohr , Hessian pastor and politician (b. 1769)
- January 16: Thomas Fearnley , Norwegian painter (b. 1802)
- January 17: Joseph Maria von Fraunberg , Bishop of Augsburg and from 1824 to 1842 Archbishop of Bamberg (b. 1768)
- January 19: Heinrich Anton Hoffmann , German violinist and composer (b. 1770)
- January 19: Joseph Jérôme Siméon , French jurist and politician (born 1749)
- January 25: Bernhard Christoph Faust , German physician, founder of the theory of sun construction (b. 1755)
- January 27: Adolph von Vagedes , German architect and town planner and poet (b. 1777)
- January 29: Nathan Fellows Dixon , American politician (b. 1774)
- Carl Dörr , German draftsman, graphic artist, painter and musician (b. 1777) February 2
- Théodore Simon Jouffroy , French publicist and philosopher (born 1796) February 4
- Colin Robertson , Scottish fur trader and politician in present-day Canada (b. 1783) February 4:
- Johann Franz Krieger , German actor (b. 1802) February 7:
- Johann Diederich Gries , German translator (b. 1775) February 9:
- Andreas Marschall , Hungarian piano maker (b. 1783) February 9:
- February 16: Johann Nepomuk Schaller , Austrian sculptor (b. 1777)
- February 17: Otto von Haugwitz , German translator and poet (b. 1767)
- February 19: Louis-Charles Caigniez , French playwright (b. 1762)
- February 21: Vojtěch Živný , Bohemian pianist, violinist, teacher and composer (born 1756)
- Christian Philipp Koehler , German civil servant (b. 1778) March 1:
- Ludwig Friedrich Heyd , German pastor and author (b. 1792) March 6:
- Constanze Mozart , wife of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (b. 1762) March 6:
- Paul Friedrich , Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (b. 1800) March 7:
- Christian Theodor Weinlig , composer and choir director in Dresden and Leipzig (b. 1780) March 7:
- March 12: Maximilian Joseph Pozzi , German sculptor (b. 1770)
- March 13: Emanuel von Friedrichsthal , Austrian travel writer (b. 1809)
- March 15: Luigi Cherubini , Italian composer (b. 1760)
- March 20: Jacob Auch , German watchmaker, instrument maker and constructor of calculating machines (b. 1765)
- March 21: Ignaz Anton Demeter , Archbishop of Friborg (b. 1773)
- March 23: Stendhal , French writer (b. 1783)
- March 28: Johann Wilhelm von Anns , German merchant and politician (b. 1766)
- March 29: Kaspar Heinrich von Sierstorpff , German forester and statesman, founder of the baths in Bad Driburg (b. 1750)
- March 30: Élisabeth Vigée-Lebrun , French painter (b. 1755)
- March: Juan Ángel Arias , Supremo Director of Honduras (b. 1800)
April to June
- Shah Shujah , Shah of Afghanistan (b. 1780) April 5:
- Johann Anton André , German composer and music publisher (b. 1775) April 6:
- Henrik Anker Bjerregaard Norwegian jurist and poet (b. 1792) April 7
- April 11: Sándor Csoma , Hungarian explorer, founder of Tibetology (b. 1784)
- April 13: Wilhelm August Lampadius , German chemist (b. 1772)
- April 14: Alejandro María de Aguado , French banker (b. 1784)
- April 20: Bon-Adrien-Jeannot de Moncey , French general and Marshal of France (b. 1754)
- 21 April: Karl Adalbert von Beyer , abbot of Hamborn and auxiliary bishop in Cologne (b. 1764)
- April 21: Bertrand Clausel , French general and Marshal of France (b. 1772)
- April 23: William George Keith Elphinstone , British general (b. 1782)
- April 25: David Assur Assing , German physician, poet and editor (b. 1787)
- April 26: Georg Andreas Reimer , German publisher (b. 1776)
- April 28: Elijah Paine , American politician (b. 1757)
- April 30: St. Giuseppe Benedetto Cottolengo , Italian priest and founder of the order (b. 1786)
- André Stein , German piano maker (b. 1776) May 6:
- Jules Dumont d'Urville , French navigator and polar explorer (b. 1790) May 8:
- May 12: Walenty Wańkowicz , Russian painter (b. 1799)
- May 20: Jules-Maurice Quesnel , Canadian explorer, businessman and politician (b. 1786)
- May 26: Caroline Auguste Fischer , German writer and suffragette (b. 1764)
- May 30: Hans von Held , Prussian civil servant and writer (b. 1764)
- Georg Friedrich Treitschke , German-Austrian playwright, theater director and lepidopterologist (b. 1776) June 4:
- Outerbridge Horsey , American politician (b. 1777) June 9:
- June 12: Thomas Arnold , English theologian and educator (born 1795)
- June 17: Arthur Conolly , British traveller, military and diplomat (b. 1807)
- June 17: Charles Stoddart , British diplomat (b. 1806)
- June 20: Antal Deák , Hungarian politician (b. 1789)
- June 20: Michael Runde , Austrian composer and Kapellmeister (b. 1781)
- June 26 Carlo Ignazio Pozzi , German architect and builder (b. 1766)
- June 26: Samuel L. Southard , American politician (b. 1787)
- June 28: James Witherspoon , American politician, Lieutenant Governor of the State of South Carolina (b. 1784)
July to September
- Thomas Veazey , American politician (b. 1774) July 1:
- Joseph Kopp , German classical scholar (b. 1788) July 7
- 23 July: Jacques-François Besson , Bishop of Metz (b. 1756)
- July 25: Karl August Lebrun , German actor and playwright (b. 1792)
- July 26: Michael Friedrich Erdmann Heym , German mayor and state elder of Lower Lusatia (b. 1761)
- July 28: Clemens Brentano , German writer (b. 1778)
- July 29: Mariano Enrique Calvo , Minister of Foreign Affairs and President of Bolivia (b. 1782)
- July 30: Johann Leopold Krawinkel , German stocking weaver and company founder (b. 1780)
- Michael Creizenach , German-Jewish educator and theologian (b. 1789) August 5:
- August 13: John Banim , Irish writer (b. 1798)
- August 18: João Domingos Bomtempo , Portuguese composer (b. 1775)
- August 18: Louis de Freycinet , French explorer (b. 1779)
- August 19: Alexandre Du Sommerard , French archaeologist and art collector (b. 1779)
- August 21: Johann Friedrich Leopold Duncker , Prussian civil servant, writer and poet (b. 1768 or 1770)
- August 21: Leona Vicario , Mexican national heroine (b. 1789)
- August 24: Ryūtei Tanehiko , Japanese writer (b. 1783)
- 27 August: Johann Franz Lepape von Trevern , Bishop of Strasbourg (b. 1754)
- August 28: Peter Fendi , Austrian painter, watercolourist, lithographer and etcher (b. 1796)
- Alexandre-Vincent Pineux Duval , French architect, writer and theater manager (b. 1767) September 1:
- Edward Somerset , British cavalry general (b. 1776) 1 September:
- Pietro Pulli , Italian chemist (b. 1771) September 4:
- September 10: Letitia Tyler , First Lady of the United States (b. 1790)
- September 14: Karl Wilhelm Ammon , German writer (b. 1777)
- September 15: Pierre Baillot , French violin player and composer (b. 1771)
- September 15: José Francisco Morazán Quezada , President of the Central American Confederation (b. 1792)
- September 21: Jeremiah Smith , American politician (b. 1759)
- September 24: Obadiah German , American politician (b. 1766)
October to December
- José Mariono Elízaga , Mexican composer (b. 1786) October 2:
- Lowry Cole , British Governor of South Africa's Cape Colony (b. 1772) 4 October:
- Christoph Ernst Friedrich Weyse , Danish composer (b. 1774) October 8:
- 20 October: Grace Darling , English lighthouse keeper's daughter and lifeguard (b. 1815)
- October 23: Wilhelm Gesenius , German theologian and linguist (b. 1786)
- October 24: Georg Carabelli , Austro-Hungarian dentist (b. 1787)
- October 24: Bernardo O'Higgins , President of Chile (b. 1778)
- October 25: Johann Joachim Bellermann , German theologian and Semitist (born 1754)
- October 26: Carl Friedrich Wilhelm Gottlob von Bibra , German farmer and politician (b. 1770)
- October 27: Georg Friedrich Wiesand , German jurist and politician (b. 1777)
- October 30: Allan Cunningham , Scottish novelist (b. 1784)
- Leopold Puellacher , Austrian painter (b. 1776) November 2:
- Franz Clement , Austrian violinist, pianist, conductor and composer (b. 1780) November 3:
- Montfort Stokes , American politician, Governor of North Carolina (b. 1762) November 4:
- November 10: Alexei Vasilyevich Koltsov , Russian poet (b. 1809)
- November 15: Hermann Arntzenius , Dutch legal scholar (b. 1765)
- November 15: Joseph Rastrelli , Saxon composer and conductor (b. 1799)
- November 24: Pehr Frigel , Swedish composer (b. 1750)
- November 26: Robert Smith , United States Secretary of State (b. 1757)
- November 28: Maria Callcott , British botanist and author (b. 1785)
- c. December 7: Delphine LaLaurie , American socialite, slave owner, and serial killer (b. c. 1775)
- December 11: Georges-Adrien Crapelet , French publisher and novelist (b. 1789)
- 12 December: Robert Haldane , Scottish officer and lay preacher (b. 1764)
- December 12: Lea Mendelssohn Bartholdy , Prussian pianist, patron of music and culture, mother of four musically gifted children (b. 1777)
- December 16: Georg Christian Kessler , founder of the first German sparkling wine producer (b. 1787)
- December 16: Friedrich Rochlitz , Saxon storyteller, playwright, composer and writer on music (b. 1769)
- 17 December: Amandus Augustus Abendroth , Hamburg senator and mayor (b. 1767)
- December 18: Giuseppina Negrelli , Welschtirol patriot, fighter against Napoleonic troops (b. 1790)
- December 18: Giuseppe Nicolini , Italian opera composer (b. 1762)
- December 25: Friedrich Dionys Weber , Bohemian composer (b. 1766)
- December 30: Alois Mayrhofer , Austrian politician, Mayor of St. Pölten (b. 1764)
Exact date of death unknown
- Giovanni Balestra , Italian engraver (b. 1774)
- Josef Frederiks , Kaptein of the Bethanians or ǃAman
- Heinrich August Rothe , German mathematician (born 1773)