History of Mexico

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This article covers the history of Mexico .

Pre-Columbian history (until 1519)

According to the current state of research, the first settlement ( Tlapacoya ) was around 20,000 to 22,000 years ago. The first traces of agriculture can be found around 1500 to 900 BC. Around 1500 BC. The city of Tlatilco in the Valley of Mexico was settled in the 4th century BC and was not given up again until the 4th century. Tlatilco was among other things under the cultural influence of the Olmecs . More complex cultures formed from 900 to 300 BC. Between 100 and 900 AD the so-called Mesoamerican civilizations emerged. The Mayan , Olmec, Toltec and Aztec cultures developed . Around 1500 AD, the Aztecs were the ruling people in what is now Mexico.

The Spanish Conquerors (1519-1535)

The Conquest of Mexico, 1519-1521

In 1519 the Spanish conquistadors settled and conquered the country. Francisco Hernández de Córdoba had already explored the Yucatán peninsula in southern Mexico in 1517 . He was followed in 1518 by Juan de Grijalva , who advanced north to the Río Pánuco . The main conqueror was Hernán Cortés , who came to the country in 1519. He founded the first city of European immigrants on the American mainland and named it "Puerto de la Villa Rica de la Vera Cruz". ( Veracruz )

The Aztecs, who ruled part of the country up to this point, believed, based on their traditions, that the Spaniards were sent by the gods, so they initially offered little resistance. Only when they realized that the conquerors had nothing to do with gods did they oppose them. After a few battles in which the Spaniards were almost defeated, the Spaniards finally surrounded the capital of the Aztec Empire Tenochtitlán . After several months of siege, and with the support of many indigenous peoples, they completely defeated the Aztecs on August 13, 1521.

The victory of the Spaniards was ultimately due to three important factors: On the one hand, they had superior weapon technology with their firearms . They also brought diseases into the country to which the local population had no immunity and which led to high mortality . In addition, the Spaniards managed to win as allies many peoples that had previously been subjugated by the Aztecs. These peoples promised liberation from the rule of the Aztecs.

In the following years from 1527 to 1546 the Spaniards conquered the Yucatán peninsula, which was predominantly populated by the Maya. These had no central power since 1441, when the last important city alliance, the League of Mayapán , fell apart, which made the conquest of the Mayan city-states easier.

As a result of the colonization of Mexico by the Spaniards, the new ethnic group of the Mestizo developed , who were mostly the children of Spanish fathers and native mothers.

The Spanish Inquisition or the Mexican Inquisition derived from it very soon took over great influence in rule in Mexico .

Viceroyalty of New Spain (1535–1822)

In 1535 Mexico was officially attached to the Spanish Crown as the Viceroyalty of New Spain (Spanish: Virreinato de la Nueva España ). Due to its wealth in silver, it gained great importance for the Spanish motherland.

Struggle for independence (1810-1822)

Miguel Hidalgo con estandarte.jpg
Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla

On September 15, 1810, under the leadership of Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla , a priest of Spanish descent filled with progressive ideas, the struggle for Mexican independence began. After Napoléon Bonaparte conquered Spain and put his brother on the Spanish throne, Mexican conservatives and wealthy landowners, who supported the Spanish royal family of the Bourbons , opposed Napoleon's comparatively liberal policies. Thus in Mexico an alliance was formed between the liberals or liberals who wanted a democratic Mexico and the conservadores or conservatives who wanted to consolidate the old status quo under a Bourbon ruler. What the two groups had in common was the conviction that Mexico had to go its own way and strive for independence.

The leading figures in Mexico's struggle for independence were Father José María Morelos , Vicente Guerrero , the Spanish General Agustín de Iturbide and General Antonio López de Santa Anna . The battle lasted eleven years until the Liberation Army entered Mexico City in 1821. Even if independence from Spain had been declared in 1810, it was only sealed by the Treaty of Cordoba on August 24, 1821, which was signed in Cordoba (Veracruz) by Juan O'Donojú and Agustin de Iturbide and ratified the Iguala plan .

First Empire (1821–1823)

Map of the Mexican Empire
Flag of Mexico from November 2, 1821-14. April 1823

In the same year, Agustín de Iturbide allied himself with the remaining rebels, as he, like the colonial Mexican upper class, feared liberal reform tendencies in motherland Spain. He proclaimed an independent Mexican monarchy that did not affect the power of the Church. For Kaiser this he (short-lived) monarchy as Agustín I on May 19, 1822 proclamation - officially as a temporary measure, could be persuaded to a member of a European royal house, to take control.

In 1823 Agustín I was overthrown after a military uprising led by Antonio López de Santa Anna. 17 of the 18 provinces of Guatemala (apart from Chiapas ) separated from Mexico and on July 1, 1823, the Republic of the United Provinces of Central America ( Central American Confederation ) was founded. On July 19, 1824, the emperor Agustín I, who had returned from exile, was captured and executed by the republicans.

First Republic (1824–1864)

Federal Republic 1824–1835

Mexico became a republic and a federal constitution on October 4, 1824, and Guadalupe Victoria became Mexico's first president. His real name was Manuel Félix Fernández, but he chose this name as thanks for the protection of the Madonna of Guadalupe and Victoria for victory. In 1828 he was replaced by Manuel Gómez Pedraza , who was followed by Vicente Guerrero that same year .

In 1829 there was a last Spanish attempt to retake Mexico. The invaders were defeated at Támpico north of Veracruz. In 1830 Anastasio Bustamante became the new president, followed in 1832 by Melchor Múzquiz . In the same year Pedraza was again president. Antonio López de Santa Anna became president for the first time in 1833 , who was replaced by Miguel Barragán in 1835 .

Centralist republic 1835–1846

Division of Mexico into "departments" and secession movements 1835–1846

On October 23, 1835, the "Seven Constitutional Laws" ( Siete Leyes ) introduced a new constitution that replaced the old federal one with a centralized system based on the French model. The former federal states became "Departements" ( departamentos ). This constitutional amendment, enforced by conservative forces in a less democratic manner, provoked resistance in many parts of the country. A riot broke out in Zacatecas , a center of silver mining, when the state militia was about to be disbanded. In 1840, the short-lived Republic of Rio Grande was formed from the northeastern departments . Yucatan gained independence over several years. There were also movements of autonomy in other departments (Tabasco, California, New Mexico, etc.). The centralistic tendencies also promoted the aspirations for autonomy of the English-speaking colonists in Texas . After the Battle of the Alamo and the subsequent defeat of the Mexican army on the San Jacinto River in 1836, Texas became virtually independent. The centralized republic was marked by great instability. The heads of government changed in quick succession. The new Mexican president was José Justo Corro in 1836 , who was replaced by Bustamante in 1837. Nicolás Bravo followed in 1840, Javier Echeverria in 1841 and Santa Anna for the second time, Valentin Canalizo in 1844 , José Joaquín de Herrera in 1845 , Mariano Peredes y Arrillaga in 1846 and Santa Anna for the third time, Pedro Maria Anaya in 1847 , Manuel de la Peña y Peña and 1848 for the second time Herrera, 1851 Mariano Arista , 1853 Juan Bautista Ceballos , Manuel Lombardini and for the fourth time Santa Anna, 1855 Martin Carrera and Romulo Diaz de la Vega . In the same year Ignacio Comonfort was elected president of the moderate party. This party sought a middle ground between the liberals and the conservatives. Felipe Zuloaga became president in 1858 and Miguel Miramón became president in 1859 .

The main responsible for these many, often unstable governments and the numerous military revolts up to this point was General Antonio López de Santa Anna, who was repeatedly rebel and president-dictator. During this time, some of the northern parts of Mexico were lost to the United States. Texas declared its independence in 1836, and on December 29, 1845 the province became the 28th state in the USA. The Monterey Junta also operated the secession of California.

Mexican-American War

Mexican territory annexed by the USA in 1848

During the Mexican-American War from 1846 to 1848, the territory of the Mexican departments Alta California , Nuevo México , and Texas (now California , Nevada , Arizona , Utah and parts of New Mexico , Colorado and Wyoming ) fell to the United States. One of the most famous battles of the American War of Aggression of 1847 was the Battle of Chapultepec , in which a whole group of young Mexican cadets directly from military training were killed fighting an army of experienced US soldiers. These cadets are celebrated as national heroes to this day. Since then, the Mexicans have repeatedly complained about the large territorial losses of this time, some of which are due to American conquests, but also to the fact that Santa Anna ceded large tracts of land for his personal profit. In 1853 the USA acquired an area of ​​77,700 km² through the Gadsden purchase .

Constitution of 1857

Benito Juárez, 1873

A new constitution was drawn up during Comonfort's presidency. The constitution of 1857, in which the later Liberal President Benito Juárez had a large share, preserved many of the rights of the Catholic Church from the colonial times, but no longer confirmed the Catholic Church, which until then had owned a third of the land, as the only religion in the country . Such reforms were unacceptable to the clergy and conservatives, Comonfort and its supporters were excommunicated, and a revolt was instigated. This led to the Reform War , which lasted from December 1857 to January 1861. The civil war became increasingly cruel and bloody and polarized the entire country. Many of the moderates switched to the liberals, convinced that the great power of the church must be curtailed. At times there were separate Conservative and Liberal governments; the Conservatives resided in Mexico City and the Liberals in Veracruz. The war finally ended in a victory for the Liberals, and their president Benito Juárez moved his residence to Mexico City. However, the civil war had ruined the country economically.

Interventions by France, Second Empire (1864–1867)

State flag of Mexico from June 18, 1864-15. July 1867
Édouard Manet : Execution of Emperor Maximilian of Mexico

Juárez's presidency, which lasted from 1861 to 1872, was interrupted by the Second Empire under Emperor Maximilian I from 1864 to 1867.

Since Mexico was unable to meet its foreign obligations due to the poor economic situation, Spain, Great Britain and France sent an expeditionary force in 1861. After the withdrawal of the Spanish and British units in 1862, the French penetrated into the Mexican highlands and finally defeated the Mexican troops under the leadership of General Ignacio Zaragoza and after the lost battle of Puebla on May 5, 1862 (today celebrated as the Cinco de Mayo holiday) occupied the capital of the country.

The French Emperor Napoléon III. wanted to establish an empire in Mexico that was politically and economically closely allied with France ( Panlatinism ) and installed Maximilian, brother of the Austrian Emperor Franz Joseph I , as Emperor of Mexico (cf. Maximilian I ). Maximilian hesitated at first, but was persuaded by Napoleon with the untrue argument that the Mexican people wanted an emperor from the House of Habsburg.

On June 16, 1864, Emperor Maximilian took office in Mexico. From the start, however, he was faced with strong Republican opposition. He tried to consolidate his power through the adoption and appointment of the Iturbide grandchildren as heirs to the throne (Habsburg-Iturbide dynasty) and the appointment of ex-dictator Santa Anna as Reichsmarschall.

Maximilian favored the formation of a restricted monarchy that should share power with a democratically elected congress. However, that was too liberal for the Mexican conservatives, while the liberals rejected the monarchy in principle, so that Maximilian found only a few supporters. In 1866, massive opposition and pressure from the United States forced the French to withdraw their troops from Mexico. Emperor Maximilian decided to stay in the country. He and his troops were defeated by the Mexican troops under Juárez 'leadership in the battle of Cerro de las Campanas near Querétaro on May 14, 1867, captured and finally executed on June 19, 1867.

Second Republic (1867-1910)

Benito Juarez

Benito Juárez, a Zapotec by birth , kept the republican government in function during the monarchist period. In 1867 the government was officially restored. A new constitution was enacted which, among other things, expropriated large parts of the church's property, introduced civil marriage and forbade the participation of priests in political life. The goal was an absolute separation of church and state.

Juarez was replaced by Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada in 1872 . After the victory over the monarchy, there were strong reservations among the conservatives about Juarez, whom they accused of concentrating too much power and seeking re-election. So finally one of the generals, Porfirio Díaz , rebelled against the government and in 1876 declared the Tuxtepec plan . In the same year Juan Nepomuceno Méndez became president.

Porfirio Díaz

Porfirio Díaz finally became the new president in 1877. During a period of over thirty years (1877–1911, with interruptions) he was the leading man in Mexico, in the "Porfiriato" (the de facto dictatorship of President Díaz) the political and economic situation of the country stabilized thanks to financial support from other countries. which experienced a considerable economic boom. Most of the people rejected the regime, which suppressed democracy to the greatest possible extent, often brutally (politics of "pan y palo": "bread and stick"). Few of the rich got richer while the vast majority of the population lived in absolute poverty. Manuel González ruled from 1880 to 1884 .

The Mexican Revolution and its Institutionalization (since 1910)

In 1910, 80-year-old Díaz decided to hold an election to serve as president for another term. He was convinced that he had eliminated any serious opposition in Mexico. However, Francisco I. Madero , an academic from a wealthy family, decided to compete against him and quickly received widespread public support, even though Díaz had him arrested.

When the official election results were announced, it was said that Díaz won the election with almost no dissenting votes and that Madero received just a few hundred votes across the country. This electoral fraud Díaz 'was too obvious than that the population would have accepted him, riots broke out. Madero published the plan of San Luis Potosí , in which he called on the population on November 20, 1910 to take up arms and take action against the Díaz government.

This was the beginning of the Mexican Revolution (Revolución Mexicana). Madero was jailed in San Antonio, Texas, but his plan was carried out. The federal army was defeated by various revolutionary groups, led by Emiliano Zapata in the south and Pancho Villa and Pascual Orozco in the north . Porfirio Díaz resigned on May 25, 1911 "in the name of the peace of the nation" and went into the Exile to France, where he died in 1915.

According to their social origins, the leaders of the revolution represented very different goals, including both liberals such as Madero and radicals such as Zapata or Villa. As a result, the formation of a functioning government from the victorious revolutionary troops turned out to be very difficult. The result was conflicts that eventually degenerated into further fighting and did not allow the country to calm down in the years to come. During this time, President Madero in 1913, Zapata in 1919, President Carranza in 1920, Villa in 1923, and many others were murdered.

Following Díaz's resignation, Francisco León de la Barra became president in 1911 , but was replaced by President Madero that same year. His murder was followed in 1913 by Victoriano Huerta , in 1914 by Francisco S. Carvajal , and in 1915 by Venustiano Carranza , a former revolutionary general who enacted a new constitution on February 5, 1917, which is still in force in Mexico today.

In January 1917, Germany tried to win Mexico as an ally against the United States, if the United States should join the First World War on the side of the Allies - Mexico was to get back the territories it had lost in 1848. The secret telegram ( Zimmermann dispatch ) was intercepted by the British, however, and ultimately led to the USA entering the war. Mexico remained neutral until the end of the war.

After Caranza's assassination in 1920, Adolfo de la Huerta and finally Álvaro Obregón became president. He represented all branches of Mexican society with the exception of the church and the big landowners and systematically pursued the social liberalization of the country by further curtailing the power of the church, improving schooling and strengthening the rights of women.

Even if the Mexican Revolution and Civil War ended after 1920, the armed conflict did not diminish. One of the most important points of conflict was the dispute between the most extensive disempowerment of the Catholic Church and the strong influence of the Catholic Church on political events. The following uprising by the supporters of the churches is also known as La Guerra Cristera .

In 1924, Plutarco Elías Calles and in 1928 Emilio Portes Gil became president. In 1929 the National Revolutionary Party ( Partido Nacional Revolucionario, PNR) was founded, which was to develop in the future as the Party of Institutionalized Revolution ( Partido Revolucionario Institucional , PRI) to become the strongest political force in the country.

Stabilization and institutionalization of the revolution

In 1929, Plutarco Elías Calles founded the National Revolutionary Party (Partido Nacional Revolucionario) (PNR). This later developed into the PNM and then the PRI, which would rule Mexico for the remainder of the 20th century. The PNR managed to convince most of the revolutionary generals to disband their private revolutionary armies and create the Mexican army . This foundation can be described as the actual end of the Mexican Revolution. In 1930 Pascual Ortiz Rubio and in 1932 Abelardo L. Rodríguez became president.

In 1934 Lázaro Cárdenas del Río became President of Mexico and implemented some reforms. On April 1, 1936, he banished Calles, the last general with dictatorial ambitions, from Mexico. He succeeded in uniting the various forces within the PNR and ensured that the PNR was able to rule for the coming decades without running the risk of being voted out of office.

In 1938 the PNR was renamed Partido de la Revolución Mexicana (PRM). On March 18, 1938, Cárdenas nationalized the oil industry, which had previously been owned by the United States, Britain, and the Netherlands, and the power plants. He also carried out major agricultural reforms than many of his predecessors. He founded the National Polytechnic Institute, took in Spanish refugees from the Spanish civil war and initiated reforms that shaped Mexico's development for decades. In 1940 Manuel Ávila Camacho became president.

Mexico declared war on Germany, Japan, and Italy on May 22, 1942, entering World War II . Until then, Mexico had been neutral. The trigger for the declaration of war was the sinking of the two tankers Potrero del Llano on May 13th and Faja de Oro on May 21st by German submarines .

In 1946 the ruling PRM was renamed the Institutional Revolutionary Party ( Partido Revolucionario Institucional, PRI).

Manuel Ávila Camacho ruled Mexico at a time that was determined by the change from the revolutionary period to the reign of the PRI, which was to last until 2000. It broke away from absolute national autonomy and opened the way for foreign investors that had already been created by Madero two generations earlier. His government froze taxes, prevented strikes and silenced dissidents with a law against the crime of social deviation . During this time the PRI reversed some of the previous land reforms; Camacho's successor, Miguel Alemán Valdés , even added Article 27 to the constitution , which was supposed to protect large landowners.

The PRI regime brought economic growth and relative prosperity to the country for nearly three decades ( Mexican miracle ); Nevertheless, political unrest began in the 1960s, which ended on October 2, 1968 in the Tlatelolco massacre . From 1940 to 1970 an economic policy of import-substituting industrialization and structuralist economic policy was pursued. Land reforms, the expansion of infrastructure and the construction of social facilities were given massive support. In 1976 and 1982 the country suffered economic collapse, after which the banks that were blamed for the disaster were nationalized. Each time the Mexican peso was devalued, and by 2000 it had become normal for six years of presidency to be followed by major devaluation and recession. The crisis that followed the devaluation of the peso in 1994 is considered the greatest recession in Mexico in the second half of the century.

In 1985, an earthquake devastated parts of Mexico City, killing over 20,000 people. During the clean-up work, the corruption and lack of action of the PRI became apparent; during the reconstruction the Mexicans were more or less on their own - a fact that contributed greatly to the alienation from the de facto one-party system and is certainly one of the reasons for the fall of the PRI 15 years later .

In October 1986, Mexico reached an agreement with the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the World Bank and the Paris Club on financial aid measures totaling 12 billion US dollars and debt rescheduling of 60 billion US dollars.

In 1992 Mexico, together with the USA and Canada, signed the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), which came into force on January 1, 1994. At the same time, a twelve-day indigenous uprising took place in the southern state of Chiapas (organized in the EZLN ). Since then, there have been repeated incidents, interrupted peace talks and the development of autonomously governed areas. The conflict has still not been resolved.

End of the hegemony of the PRI

In 1995, President Ernesto Zedillo faced an economic crisis. After the Zapatista Army ( EZLN ) rose from Chiapas in 1994, there were public demonstrations and constant military presence in Mexico City. In addition, a development had set in through reforms that had to reduce the power of the PRI as a single ruling party. After the elections of 1988, which were heavily discussed and allegedly already lost by the ruling party, the IFE ( Instituto Federal Electoral ) was founded in the early 1990s . It was run by citizens who were responsible for ensuring that elections were legal and fair. As a result of the continuing dissatisfaction, the presidential candidate of the PAN National Action Party , Vicente Fox Quesada , was elected President of Mexico in the July 2, 2000 election and by both houses of Congress. The election result ended the 71-year rule of the PRI.

Rulers in Mexico

See also



  • Christian Berndt: Globalization Limits. Modernization dreams and realities of life in northern Mexico. Bielefeld: Transcript 2004, ISBN 3-89942-236-8
  • Walther L. Bernecker, Horst Pietschmann, Hans W. Tobler: A Little History of Mexico. Suhrkamp, ​​Frankfurt / M. 2007, ISBN 978-3-518-45621-7 .
  • Dieter Boris , Albert Sterr: FOXtrott in Mexico. Democratization or neopopulism. New Isp-Verlag 2002, ISBN 3-89900-102-8
  • Bernal Diaz del Castillo: History of the Conquest of Mexico. Ed. U. edited v. Georg A. Narciss. (= Insel Taschenbuch 1067), Frankfurt a. Main 1988, ISBN 3-458-32767-3
  • John Reed: A revolutionary ballad. Mexico 1914. Eichborn 2005, ISBN 3-8218-4560-0
  • Jacques Soustelle: The Life of the Aztecs. Mexico on the eve of the Spanish conquest, Zurich: Manesse-Verlag, 1993. ISBN 3-7175-8086-8
  • Hans Werner Tobler: The Mexican Revolution. Social change and political upheaval; 1876-1940. Suhrkamp, ​​Frankfurt am Main, 1992 (paperback edition)


  • Alfredo López Austin, Leonardo Luján López : El pasado indígena. Fondo de Cultura Económica - El Colegio de México . México 2001.
  • REVISTA ARQUEOLOGÍA MEXICANA: Atlas del México Prehispánico. Núm. especial 3rd Editorial Raíces. México. 2000.
    • El Colegio de México: Historia General de México. Cuarta edición 1994, ISBN 968-12-0969-9
    • Pablo Martín Gómez: Hombres y armas en la conquista de México, 1518–1521. (2001)
    • Juan Miralles Ostos : Hernán Cortés. Inventor de México, (2001)
    • Bartolomé Bennassar : Hernán Cortés: el conquistador de lo imposible, (2002)
  • Héctor Campillo Cuautli: Diccionario Quintana Roo Enciclopedia Regional. Héctor Campillo Cuautli, Fernández Editores, México, 1988. (pp. 18–19)
  • Enciclopedia: "Yucatán en el tiempo", Vol. 3, 1998
  • Cordourier, Alfonso y otros: Historia y Geografía de Yucatán. EPSA, México 1997 ISBN 968-417-347-4
  • Miguel Barbachano: Al Exmo. Sr. Ministro de Relaciones de la República. Mérida, April 17, 1848. Archivo General de la Nación, Gobernación, sin sección, vol. 356, exp. 5.


  • Christina Bueno: The Pursuit of Ruins: Archeology, History, and the Making of Modern Mexico. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque 2016, ISBN 978-0-8263-5732-8 .
  • Charles Mann: 1491: New Revelations of the Americas Before Columbus. Knopf, 2005, ISBN 1-4000-4006-X .
  • Michael Coe, Thames & Hudson: Mexico: From the Olmecs to the Aztecs. 2004, 5th edition, ISBN 0-500-28346-X .
  • Richard A. Diehl: The Olmecs: America's First Civilization. Thames & Hudson, 2004, ISBN 0-500-02119-8 .
  • Kay Marie Porterfield, Emory Dean Keoke: American Indian Contributions to the World: 15,000 Years of Inventions and Innovations. Checkmark Books, 2003, paperback edition, ISBN 0-8160-5367-7 .
  • Michael Snodgrass: Deference and Defiance in Monterrey: Workers, Paternalism, and Revolution in Mexico, 1890-1950. (Cambridge University Press, 2003) ( ISBN 0-521-81189-9 )
  • Michael C. Meyer, William L. Sherman, Susan M. Deeds: The Course of Mexican History. Oxford University Press, 2002, ISBN 0-19-514819-3 .
  • Alfredo Lopez Austin, Leonardo Lopez Lujan: Mexico's Indigenous Past. University of Oklahoma Press, 2001, ISBN 0-8061-3214-0 .
  • Anthony Aveni: Skywatchers: A Revised and Updated Version of Skywatchers of Ancient Mexico. University of Texas Press, 2001, ISBN 0-292-70502-6 .
  • Joyce Kelly: An Archaeological Guide to Central and Southern Mexico. University of Oklahoma Press, 2001, ISBN 0-8061-3349-X .
  • Richard EW Adams: Prehistoric Mesoamerica: Revised Edition. University of Oklahoma Press, 1996, ISBN 0-8061-2834-8 .
  • Guillermo Bonfil Batalla: Mexico Profundo. University of Texas Press, 1996, ISBN 0-292-70843-2 .
  • David Stannard: American Holocaust: The Conquest of the New World. Oxford University Press, 1993, Rep edition, ISBN 0-19-508557-4 .
  • Miguel Leon-Portillo: The Broken Spears: The Aztec Account of the Conquest of Mexico. Beacon Press, 1992, ISBN 0-8070-5501-8 .
  • Paul Horgan, Holt, Rinehart and Winston: Great River, The Rio Grande in North American History. reprint, 1977, in one hardback volume, ISBN 0-03-029305-7 .

Web links

Commons : History of Mexico  - Collection of Images, Videos and Audio Files

Individual evidence

  1. Silke Hensel: The emergence of federalism in Mexico , page 151. ISBN 978-3-515-06943-4 ( preview in the Google book search, accessed on May 18, 2011)