Coordinates: 19 ° 11 ′ N , 96 ° 9 ′ W
Veracruz on the map of Veracruz
|City foundation||April 22, 1519|
|- in the metropolitan area||811,671|
|Post Code||91690 to 91969|
|Time zone||UTC −6|
|City Presidency||Ramon Poo Gil|
Veracruz ("True Cross"), also colloquially Puerto de Veracruz , is the most important Atlantic port in Mexico on the Gulf of Mexico with 428,323 inhabitants (2010), who are called jarochos . Veracruz is the administrative seat of the Municipio Veracruz and the center of the Zona Metropolitana de Veracruz . Despite the name, the city is not the capital of the state of Veracruz , this is Xalapa-Enríquez .
The city goes back to the oldest Spanish settlement on the American mainland: Villa Rica de la Vera Cruz , founded on April 22, 1519 (Good Friday, "Day of the True Cross") by Hernán Cortés . Juan de Escalante was the first mayor from August 1519 and thus also the first European in this office on the American mainland. The Spaniards were able to gain a foothold on the coast thanks to the caciques of Cempoala , who went down in history as "the fat king".
The first Veracruz was close to the former Totonak town of Quiahuiztlan . Because of the strong north winds at this point, the settlement was moved south in 1525 and the new place La Antigua was founded, the so-called second Veracruz . In 1585 the construction of San Juan de Ulúa began , the fortress that is today opposite the port of Veracruz. The third, today's Veracruz, was built around the fortress. On the night of May 17-18, 1683, the Dutch pirate Laurens (Lorenz) de Graaf visited the Mexican city, gathered the villagers in the church, and plundered and pillaged the place. This incident was reported to Madrid by the surviving Spanish administration on June 18, 1683. Around this time the popular Mexican folk song La Bamba was written in the city.
The second and third Veracruz were ports of export of Mexican gold and especially of silver to Spain. The precious metals were the basis of the Spanish world power at that time.
During the Mexican-American War (1846-1848) the city was occupied by the United States' navy .
Shortly after the Tampico incident , Veracruz was taken again by the United States on April 21, 1914 ; the occupation lasted until November 23 of that year.
The city is the seat of the Roman Catholic diocese of Veracruz, established in 1962 . Luis Felipe Gallardo Martín del Campo SDB has been Bishop of the diocese since 2006 .
sons and daughters of the town
- Francisco Javier Clavijero (1731–1787), writer
- Miguel Lerdo de Tejada (1812–1861), politician
- Adolfo Ruiz Cortines (1890–1973), Governor of Veracruz and President of Mexico
- Fernando de Fuentes (1894–1958), film director
- Margot Rojas Mendoza (1903–1996), pianist and music teacher
- Toña la Negra (1912–1982), singer
- Luis Pirata de la Fuente (1914–1972), football player
- Mario Ruiz Armengol (1914–2002), composer, pianist and conductor
- Carlos Carús (1930–1997), football player
- Alicia Urreta (1930–1986), composer
- Rosenda Monteros (1935-2018), actress
- Monica Frassoni (* 1963), Co-Chair of the Greens in the European Parliament
- Hugo Guillermo Chávez (* 1976), football player
- Irán Castillo (* 1977), actress and singer
- Dalia Hernández (* 1985), dancer and actress
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Veracruz
- ^ Bernal Díaz del Castillo, History of the Conquest of Mexico , Edition Insel Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1982, p. 145
- ↑ www.motecuhzoma.de .
- ^ David F. Marley, Pirates of The Americas , Volume 1, 2010, p. 381