Veracruz (state)

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Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave
Coat of arms of Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave
Vereinigte Staaten Guatemala Belize Honduras El Salvador Baja California Baja California Sur Sonora Chihuahua Sinaloa Durango Coahuila Nuevo Léon Tamaulipas Zacatecas Nayarit Colima Colima Aguascalientes Guanajuato Michoacán Mexiko-Stadt Tlaxcala Morelos Guerrero Michoacán Hidalgo Puebla Querétaro México Jalisco San Luis Potosí Veracruz Oaxaca Tabasco Campeche Chiapas Quintana Roo Campeche Yucatánmap
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Capital Xalapa Enríquez
surface 71,820 km² (rank 11 )
population 7,643,194 (rank 3 )
Population density 106.4 inhabitants per km²
(2010 census)
governor Cuitláhuac García Jiménez ( Morena )
(2018-2024)Template: future / in 4 years
Federal MPs Morena = 10
PES = 5
PAN = 3
PT = 2
(20 federal constituencies)
Senators Morena = 2
PAN = 1
ISO 3166-2 MX-VER
Postal abbreviation Ver.

Veracruz [ beɾaˈkɾus ], also Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave , officially Free and Sovereign State of Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave ( Spanish Estado Libre y Soberano Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave ), is a federal state on the east coast of Mexico . With 7.6 million inhabitants (2010) it is one of the larger states in Mexico. Its capital is Xalapa-Enríquez , the largest city is Veracruz .


The state stretches over 1,000 kilometers along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico down to the isthmus of Tehuantepec . Veracruz has a large part of the coastal plain and the eastern slopes of the Sierra Nevada. In between are hilly landscapes, in which the capital Xalapa-Enríquez is also located.

The highest peaks in the state are the volcanic mountains of Citlaltépetl (also called Pico de Orizaba ), which is the highest mountain in Mexico at 5636 meters, and the Cofre de Perote at 4282 meters.


Due to the size of the state, Veracruz has a wide variety of climates. The coastal region is tropical to subtropical and humid (example Poza Rica or Veracruz-Puerto ), the mountainous region dry and cold (example Perote ) and the middle highlands temperate (example Xalapa ).

Neighbore states

Veracruz borders on numerous other Mexican states: in the south on Oaxaca and Chiapas , in the southeast on Tabasco , in the west on Puebla , Hidalgo and San Luis Potosí and in the north on Tamaulipas . The state is bounded by the Gulf of Mexico in the east.

Map with the 10 different major regions of the state


Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave is a total of 71,820 km² and is divided into 212 so-called Municipios . These 212 Municipios are grouped into 10 major regions (green).

  1. Huasteca Alta
  2. Huasteca Baja
  3. Totonaca
  4. Nautla
  5. Capital
  6. Las Montañas
  7. Sotavento
  8. Papaloapan
  9. Los Tuxtlas
  10. Olmeca


The southern Veracruz belonged to 1200 BC. Until 400 BC To the cultural area of ​​the Olmecs . Their centers in this region were San Lorenzo Tenochtitlan and Tres Zapotes , some of which are artifacts on display in the Museo de Antropología de Xalapa . Around the time from 300 to 900 AD, the "Veracruz Classic" flourished in the central part of the state, which was influenced by Teotihuacán , but has its own signature. The curious "niche pyramid" of El Tajín is famous .

After the abandonment of El Tajín, Toltecs and partly also the Aztecs dominated the area and subjugated the native Totonaks and Huaxteks , of whom the Spaniards under Hernán Cortés (similar to Tlaxcala ) were welcomed as very welcome allies at the beginning (1519).


According to the census, a good 7.6 million people lived in the entire state of Veracruz in 2010; in 2000 there were 6.9 million inhabitants. Measured against the total population of Mexico, Veracruz makes up almost 7% and is in third place in the state evaluation.

Population development
year population
1990 6.228.239
1995 6,737,324
2000 6,908,975
2005 7.110.214
2010 7,643,194
2015 8,112,505

In general, the state is one of the richest states in Mexico. The more developed and industrialized regions are the metropolitan areas of Veracruz , Córdoba , Orizaba , Coatzacoalcos and Poza Rica . The poorest region is the highlands in the north of the state.

The largest cities are the port city of Veracruz (741,234 inhabitants), the capital Xalapa-Enríquez (595,043 inhabitants) and the oil city Poza Rica (481,389 inhabitants).

Of the state's residents, 83% are Catholic. 318,626 (4.90%) responded in 2005 Nahuatl , 116,044 Totonakisch , 50564 Huastec language and 32,292 Popoluca .

Due to its openness to the Caribbean , Veracruz is the only state in Mexico with a significant proportion of the population of African descent.


In Veracruz is the state Universidad Veracruzana , which has its main campus in Xalapa-Enríquez.


The most important branch of the economy is oil production . The state oil company PEMEX has numerous production platforms in the Gulf of Mexico . In Poza Rica in the north and in Minatitlán in the south there are large refineries that process the extracted oil.

A well-known export good from Veracruz is coffee . In the moderately humid climate around Coatepec it thrives very well. Other export goods are rubber , cocoa , vanilla and cotton .


The state is served by Grupo ADO buses. The company offers connections of various classes. The big cities have a bus terminal of the appropriate size, for example the CAVE in Veracruz or the CAXA in Xalapa.

The largest airport in the state is the Aeropuerto Internacional de Veracruz near Veracruz. There are connections to various Mexican cities and Houston . Other large cities also have airports with national connections.

The ports of Veracruz and Coatzacoalcos are especially important for the transport of goods. A Mexican Navy base is located in the port of Tuxpan .

Individual evidence

  1. State population figures from INEGI , accessed September 27, 2010.
  2. Mexico: States and Cities - Population Statistics in Maps and Tables. Retrieved July 26, 2018 .
  3. State population data from INEGI (Religion Section), accessed September 27, 2010.

Web links

Commons : Veracruz (State)  - Collection of images, videos, and audio files

Coordinates: 19 ° 30 ′  N , 96 ° 30 ′  W