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Assassination attempt in Sarajevo , contemporary, recreational representation
Gavrilo Princip is arrested by the police after the attack in Sarajevo.
The attack on Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie in Sarajevo triggers the July crisis .
German mobilization on August 2nd
The armed forces are mobilized across Europe .
The departure of German soldiers from their garrison townThe First World War
begins with great
enthusiasm for the war .

Russian prisoners after the Battle of TannenbergThe German Empire
defeats Russia in the
Battle of Tannenberg .

1914 in other calendars
Armenian calendar 1362/63 (turn of the year July)
Ethiopian calendar 1906/07 (September 10-11)
Baha'i calendar 70/71 (March 20/21)
Bengali solar calendar 1319/20 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)
Buddhist calendar 2457/58 (southern Buddhism); 2456/57 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )
Chinese calendar 76th (77th) cycle

Year of the Wood Tiger甲寅 ( since January 26th , before that Water Buffalo癸丑)

Chuch'e ideology (North Korea) Chuch'e 3
Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam) 1276/77 (turn of the year April)
Dangun era (Korea) 4247/48 (October 2/3)
Iranian calendar 1292/93 (around March 21)
Islamic calendar 1332/33 (November 18-19)
Japanese calendar Taishō 3 ( 大 正 元年 );
Kōki 2574
Jewish calendar 5674/75 (September 20/21)
Coptic calendar 1630/31 (10/11 September)
Malayalam calendar 1089/90
Minguo calendar (China) Year 3 of the Republic
Rumi Calendar (Ottoman Empire) 1329/30 (March 1st)
Seleucid era Babylon: 2224/25 (turn of the year April)

Syria: 2225/26 (New Year October)

Suriyakati Calendar (Thai Solar Calendar) 2456/57 (April 1)
Tibetan calendar 1660
Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar) 1970/71 (April)

The year 1914 represents a historical turning point in several respects . The assassination attempt in Sarajevo , in which Serbian nationalists murdered the Austro-Hungarian heir to the throne Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie , triggered the July crisis , and with the ensuing First World War , humanity slipped into the " great catastrophe of the 20th century ". This ended, among other things, the Belle Époque and the era of the emancipation of the bourgeoisie and the era of imperialism, which some referred to as the “ Long 19th Century ” .

The war, which due to a mixture of great power fantasies and multiple political misjudgments of a regional conflict in the Balkans quickly spread to most European countries - and their colonies - is initially received with overwhelming enthusiasm and patriotism , while critical voices, including the newly elected Pope Benedict XV. , can hardly be heard. But the optimism that prevailed on all sides that the fighting would be victorious in the same year soon turns out to be an illusion. And while slowly a lengthy positional and grave war developed flashed to the Christmas peace for the last time such a thing as humanity on the Western Front on.


Politics and world events

July crisis and first world war

The Sarajevo assassination and the July crisis
Gavrilo Princip
Alexander Hoyos
The assassins in the courtroom
The beginning of the war and the August experience
The official alliance situation in Europe during the July crisis
Berlin population with a special edition, August 1914
US propaganda poster 1918
An artist leaflet by Max Liebermann from August 1914 shows the crowd in front of a balcony of the palace and quotes Wilhelm's words from August 4th: "I don't know any political parties any more, I only know Germans"
The "home front"
The war in Europe
The invasion of Belgium and the western front
Belgian infantry rifle line near Herstal , northeast of Liège
The destroyed library
Destroyed houses in Dinant
Seat of the military government in Brussels
Map of the Battle of the Marne
Langemarck in October 1914
German and British troops during the Christmas peace
The fronts of the Habsburg Empire
Austro-Hungarian troops resting during an ongoing advance
Russian artillery in the Battle of Lviv
German Eastern Front
Battle of Gumbinnen
The fronts of the Ottoman Empire
Enver Pasha as Minister of War
  • January 3 : Sultan Mehmed V appoints Enver Pasha as Minister of War of the Ottoman Empire . This first clears the officer corps by means of massive forced retirement of critics of the Young Turks .
  • November 15 : Mehmed V calls on the Muslims who fight as soldiers from the colonies on the side of England and France to jihad , to a holy war against their colonial masters and calls on them to desert and switch to the Islamic side. Germany participates in this experiment with the news office for the Orient by setting up the half-moon camp and a comparable camp (the Weinberg camp ) in the nearby town of Zossen . Here the prisoners are supposed to be moved to overflow and fight against their colonial masters.
  • December 12th : Colmar von der Goltz becomes German military advisor to the Ottoman Sultan.
Frozen Ottoman soldiers
  • December 22nd : The Battle of Sarıkamış begins with an Ottoman attack, but this brings only minor gains in terrain until the end of the year. Instead, around 10,000 Ottoman soldiers fell victim to cold, hunger and exhaustion because of the poor supply situation and a meter-high blanket of snow.
Mesopotamia and Egypt
Operations on the Mesopotamia Front, 1914
The war in the colonies
West Africa
The fighting in Togo, August 1914
  • August 6th : French and British troops call on the German colony of Togo to surrender. The next day, British troops from the Gold Coast and French troops from Dahomey march in without encountering any resistance. The German troops retreated inland and limited themselves to blowing up the railway bridges over the Sio and Lili rivers in order to slow down the enemy advance. In view of the maritime and military importance of the smaller Togblekovhe radio station , a German command was subsequently ordered back to prevent the radio station from falling into enemy hands. The command arrives on the Lome – Atakpame railroad on August 11th and makes the station unusable before the final withdrawal.
  • August 12th : After unhindered advance through Togo, the Allied troops occupy the capital of Togo, Lomé, and then marched towards the Kamina radio station east of Atakpamé . Along the Lome – Atakpame railway line, a guerrilla war developed over several days between the retreating German police force and the British-French colonial troops advancing from the coast.
  • August 22nd : The toughest battle in Togo takes place near the Chra River. British and French troops run for hours against a position in which 60 Germans and around 500 local mercenaries have holed up, losing 73 men in the process. Due to the demoralized mercenaries and porters as well as the lack of ammunition, the position had to be evacuated by the Germans the following day. This cleared the way to the Kamina radio station near Atakpame . This was destroyed by the Germans themselves in the night of August 24th to 25th by setting the machines on fire and knocking down the radio masts. The German commander surrenders the next day. After negotiations between Rittmeister von Roebern as emissary and Frederick Bryant from the British-French expeditionary corps , the handover of the Togo colony takes place on August 27th .
  • August 24th : The attack on Cameroon begins with French ships bombarding the coast .
Southern Africa
Colonies in Southern Africa: British (red), Portuguese (green)
German NCO shortly before the Battle of Sandfontein
East Africa
German soldiers with field guns in German East Africa
East Asia and Oceania
Hoisting of the Union Jack in Samoa, August 30, 1914
  • August 29th : The German colony of Samoa is occupied by New Zealand troops. Since there is no formal surrender, the German governor Erich Schultz-Ewerth , who, together with representatives of the settlers and family associations in a government council on August 5, decided to accept a military occupation of Samoa without resistance, is deported to Auckland and from 17 Detained on the quarantine island of Motuihe on September . The New Zealanders proclaim that German law will continue to apply and initially assure the German civil servants that they will continue to be employed in their positions with full salary. Between September 7th and 12th, however, all German officials who remained in New Zealand's service will resign from their posts in order not to have to be seen as helpers to the occupation. On September 12th, they are brought to New Zealand and interned.
Landing of the Japanese off Tsingtao
The British flag is raised on Nauru, 7 November 1914
Sea and air war
German U 15
Bombing of Antwerp by a zeppelin in 1914, painting by Themistocles von Eckenbrecher
Sinking of the armored cruiser off the Dutch coast (based on an original drawing by Hans Bohrdt)
The sea battle in the Falkland Islands

Other events in the Balkans

Declaration of independence from Northern Ireland on March 1st in Gjirokastra
  • At the end of January, the great powers asked Greece to withdraw its troops from Northern Epirus on the basis of the London Treaty . The threat that the Greek claims on Lesbos , Chios and Samos would otherwise not be recognized is used as leverage. Following the withdrawal of Greece , a provisional government for Northern Epirus is set up by Greek residents of the region on February 28 , which on the following day proclaims the independent Autonomous Republic of Northern Epirus. The former Greek Governor General Georgios Christakis-Zografos is the Prime Minister . The capital of the new state is Gjirokastra , furthermore Himara , Kolonja , Përmet and Saranda belong to the controlled area.
Wilhelm zu Wied and his wife on their arrival in Albania
  • March 7th : Wilhelm zu Wied , who was appointed king in London the previous year , arrives with his wife Sophie von Schönburg-Waldenburg and his family in the Albanian capital Durrës . He is to lead the Principality of Albania, newly founded in the previous year, into independence.
  • March 15 : Turhan Pascha Përmeti is appointed the new Albanian head of government.
  • April 4th : Albania declares mobilization. War with neighboring Greece is feared.
  • May: The Corfu Protocol , signed by Greece, Albania and the great powers, marks the end of the full state independence of Northern Epirus, but provides for extensive autonomy under the sovereignty of Albania. Northern Epirus was given the right to equip its own armed forces, and Greek was set as the official language.
  • September 3 : Wilhelm zu Wied leaves the ungovernable Principality of Albania after only six months, but without formally abdicating.
  • October 5 : Essad Pascha Toptani becomes the new Prime Minister in Albania with Serbian and Italian support.
Ferdinand of Romania

Other events in Central Europe

Other events in Western and Southern Europe

Bernardino Machado

Mexico / United States

The US fleet during the attack on Veracruz
Venustiano Carranza
  • June 23 : During the Mexican Revolution , in the Battle of Zacatecas, an army of insurgents twice as large, led by Pancho Villa , defeats President Victoriano Huerta's government troops . After the victory, however, a new dispute breaks out between the various factions of the revolutionary camp. Venustiano Carranza claims executive power, but in the process comes up against resistance from Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata , who refuse to take part in the convention of governors and generals in Mexico City , which Carranza has called in early October .
  • July 15 : Victoriano Huerta resigns as President of Mexico. He went into exile on the German cruiser SMS Dresden in Jamaica and from there on to Europe, later to the USA.
  • October: To Carranza's surprise, the convention he convened is not prepared to grant him sole “executive power”. He adjourned to resume his meetings in Aguascalientes , confirmed Villa in his position as commander of the revolutionary army he commanded and appointed a provisional president. In the now beginning civil war, this time fought between “conventionists” and “constitutionalists”, Carranza, with the help of Álvaro Obregón, initially turns against Villa, the strongest of his opponents.
  • November 23 : The occupation of Veracruz by American forces ends.
Pancho Villa (left) and Emiliano Zapata (right) in the Presidential Palace after moving into Mexico City
  • November 28 : After the withdrawal of Obregón's units, the Mexican rebel leader Pancho Villa and his troops move into the capital, Mexico City, where he meets with Emiliano Zapata, among others, without the two agreeing on a concrete course of action against Venustiano Carranza can agree.

Other events worldwide

Map from the Shimla agreement: The McMahon line is drawn in red



Money economy



Business start-ups


The Aquitania 1914
Map of the Panama Canal and the Canal Zone
  • August 15 : The Ancona package boat, which carries 200 passengers, is the first watercraft to cross the Panama Canal in full length. Official opening ceremonies are canceled due to the outbreak of war in Europe.


science and technology

Antarctic exploration

Working to free the ship


Find spot - marked with a white cross - photo from 1914
Profile drawing of the grave from 1914

On February 12th, workers discover the double grave of Oberkassel in what is now Bonn in a quarry. The grave from the time of the late Ice Age penknife groups is about 14,000 years old and contains the well-preserved skeletons of a 50-year-old man, a 20- to 25-year-old woman, the remains of a dog, other animal remains and processed animal bones. The quarry owner reports the find to Bonn University . From February 21, the site will be carefully examined by the scientists Max Verworn , Robert Bonnet and Gustav Steinmann . You submit a comprehensive report in 1919 .

Natural sciences

Teaching and Research

Technical services


Visual arts

Poster for the exhibition of the Deutscher Werkbund, design by Peter Behrens
Franz Marc : Tyrol , 1914, Neue Pinakothek , Munich


Music and theater




The signing of the Concordat with Serbia on the eve of the First World War
Benedict XV
  • Shortly after the war began, Pope Pius X died on August 20th . The conclave elects Benedict XV on September 3rd . the new head of the Catholic Church . In contrast to his predecessor in office, Benedict maintained strict neutrality throughout his term of office . On September 8th he issued the Apostolic Letter Ubi Primum , in which he lamented the outbreak of war between Christians in Europe.
  • October 18 : The Schoenstatt Movement , a Catholic renewal movement, is founded.
  • In 1914, the “time of the end” began for Jehovah's Witnesses . Jesus Christ has taken over the rule of the "Kingdom of God" as theocratic government in heaven and banished Satan and his demons from heaven to earth, where his destructive activity is increasingly evident.


The explosion of HMS Bulwark
  • November 26th : The British liner Bulwark is destroyed by an ammunition chamber explosion off Sheerness . 736 of the 750-strong crew are killed. Of the 14 survivors, two died a few days later from their injuries. Most of the other survivors are also seriously injured.

Minor accidents are listed in the sub-articles of Catastrophe .

nature and environment

Martha, the last passenger pigeon
  • September 1st : In the zoo of Cincinnati , the pigeon Martha, the last known individual of its genus, dies , which largely disappeared towards the end of the 19th century . Since then, the pigeon, together with the bison hunt, has become a symbol of the overexploitation of nature.


Olympic rings

Entries of athletics world records can be found under the respective discipline under athletics .

Nobel Prizes

price person country Reason for awarding the prize image
Nobel Price for physics Max von Laue
German EmpireThe German Imperium German Empire "For his discovery of the diffraction of X-rays when passing through crystals " Max von Laue
Nobel Prize in Chemistry Theodore William Richards
(awarded 1915)
United States 48United States United States "In recognition of its precise determinations of the atomic weight of numerous chemical elements" Theodore William Richards
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine Robert Bárány
(awarded 1915)
Austria-HungaryAustria-Hungary Austria-Hungary "For his work on physiology and pathology of the vestibular apparatus " Róbert Bárány
Nobel Prize in literature not awarded
Nobel Peace Prize not awarded






Alec Guinness, 1973



Yuri Andropov, 1983





Thor Heyerdahl
Jonas Salk, 1988



Exact date of birth unknown


First quarter

George Westinghouse

Second quarter

Bertha von Suttner, around 1886
The car in which Franz Ferdinand and his wife were shot

Third quarter

Pius X.
August Macke, self-portrait with hat (1909)

Fourth Quarter

Field post letter for Peter Kollwitz with a return note: "Back - dead"
August Weismann
Johann Wilhelm Hittorf, 1893

Exact date of death unknown

Web links

Commons : 1914  - Collection of Pictures, Videos and Audio Files