|attack on Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie in Sarajevo triggers the July crisis .|
|mobilized across Europe .||
The First World War
begins with great
enthusiasm for the war .
|1914 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1362/63 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1906/07 (September 10-11)|
|Baha'i calendar||70/71 (March 20/21)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1319/20 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2457/58 (southern Buddhism); 2456/57 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||76th (77th) cycle|
|Chuch'e ideology (North Korea)||Chuch'e 3|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1276/77 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4247/48 (October 2/3)|
|Iranian calendar||1292/93 (around March 21)|
|Islamic calendar||1332/33 (November 18-19)|
Taishō 3 (
大 正 元年 );
|Jewish calendar||5674/75 (September 20/21)|
|Coptic calendar||1630/31 (10/11 September)|
|Minguo calendar (China)||Year 3 of the Republic|
|Rumi Calendar (Ottoman Empire)||1329/30 (March 1st)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2224/25 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2225/26 (New Year October)
|Suriyakati Calendar (Thai Solar Calendar)||2456/57 (April 1)|
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1970/71 (April)|
The year 1914 represents a historical turning point in several respects . The assassination attempt in Sarajevo , in which Serbian nationalists murdered the Austro-Hungarian heir to the throne Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie , triggered the July crisis , and with the ensuing First World War , humanity slipped into the " great catastrophe of the 20th century ". This ended, among other things, the Belle Époque and the era of the emancipation of the bourgeoisie and the era of imperialism, which some referred to as the “ Long 19th Century ” .
The war, which due to a mixture of great power fantasies and multiple political misjudgments of a regional conflict in the Balkans quickly spread to most European countries - and their colonies - is initially received with overwhelming enthusiasm and patriotism , while critical voices, including the newly elected Pope Benedict XV. , can hardly be heard. But the optimism that prevailed on all sides that the fighting would be victorious in the same year soon turns out to be an illusion. And while slowly a lengthy positional and grave war developed flashed to the Christmas peace for the last time such a thing as humanity on the Western Front on.
Politics and world events
July crisis and first world war
The Sarajevo assassination and the July crisis
- June 28 : Gavrilo Princip , member of the secret organization Mlada Bosna , kills the heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary , Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie in Sarajevo : The assassination attempt and the (actual or alleged) connection of the assassins to the Serbian organizations Black Hand and Narodna Odbrana triggered the July crisis and in the aftermath of the First World War .
- July 5th / 6th : The Austro-Hungarian diplomat Alexander Graf von Hoyos travels to Berlin to obtain the support of the German Reich for an Austro-Hungarian military intervention against Serbia. The Hoyos Mission is one of the central events during the July Crisis.
- 20th bis 23. July : The French government consisting of Raymond Poincaré , René Viviani and de Margerie Pierre is on a state visit to Saint Petersburg.
- July 23 : 3 weeks after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, Austria-Hungary issues an ultimatum of 48 hours to Serbia by Foreign Minister Leopold Graf Berchtold . It contains extensive demands on the neighboring state. Its extensive but incomplete fulfillment triggers the Austrian declaration of war after the deadline and, as a result, the First World War .
- October 12. bis 23. October : In Sarajevo, the trial of 25 participants at the place Sarajevo assassination for treason and assassination instead. All involved deny a connection to official Serbia. Three of them are sentenced to death by hanging, but most are too young to be sentenced to death .
The beginning of the war and the August experience
- July 27th : The alleged Serbian attack at Temes Kubin is used by circles in Austria-Hungary to get Emperor Franz Joseph I to sign the declaration of war on Serbia.
- July 28 : The declaration of war by Austria-Hungary on Serbia marks the beginning of the First World War . The bombardment of Belgrade began the following night on the orders of General Oskar Potiorek .
- July 30 : Emperor Nicholas II of Russia orders the general mobilization .
- July 31 : The socialist politician Jean Jaurès , a leading exponent of French reformism and an opponent of the war, is murdered by the nationalist Raoul Villain in a Paris cafe . The assassin was later acquitted by the court after four years of pre-trial detention.
- July 31 / August 1 : The German Kaiser Wilhelm II gives two balcony speeches .
- August 1st : Simultaneously with the declaration of war by the German Reich on Russia, the Imperial Army is mobilized , France also mobilizes its army. In large parts of the German population there was great enthusiasm for the war, the so-called "August experience ".
- August 2nd : The German Reich sends an ultimatum to Belgium demanding free march through Belgium , while on the other hand the country is viewed as an enemy. In doing so, Germany violates the London Protocol from 1839 , which guarantees Belgian neutrality.
- August 3 : The German Reich declares war on France. King Albert of Belgium rejects the German ultimatum from the previous day. The British Foreign Secretary Edward Gray declares the violation of Belgium's neutrality to be incompatible with the interests of Great Britain .
- August 4 : During the First World War, German troops enter neutral Belgium in violation of international law , causing Great Britain to issue an ultimatum with threats of war against Germany. Belgium sends a declaration of war to the German Reich. The so-called " Rape of Belgium " subsequently became the Allied propaganda term .
- August 4th : After a fiery speech by Kaiser Wilhelm II, the Reichstag of the German Empire closes the so-called “ truce ” and votes in favor of granting war bonds and enacts a war authorization law . A total of 17 laws of war were passed on that day. This is intended to empower the Federal Council or the Reich leadership to take the economic measures necessary for the war, to “remedy economic damage”.
- August 4 : French President Raymond Poincaré coined the term Union sacrée in a speech .
- August 5th : With the declaration of war by Great Britain on the German Reich, all major European powers except Italy are in a state of war. British Cabinet members John Morley and John Elliot Burns are stepping down in protest against their country's entry into the war.
- August 5th : Disappointed with the "Burgfriedenspolitik" of the SPD Reichstag parliamentary group, Rosa Luxemburg founds the Internationale group together with Hermann Duncker , Hugo Eberlein , Julian Marchlewski , Franz Mehring , Ernst Meyer and Wilhelm Pieck , which shortly afterwards also joined Karl Liebknecht connects.
- August 6th : Austria-Hungary declares war on Russia, on the same day Serbia declares war on the German Reich.
- August 7th : Montenegro under King Nikola declares war on Austria-Hungary .
- August 13 : France declares war on Austria-Hungary.
- August 16 : Japan joins the Entente and declares war on the German Reich on August 23 .
The "home front"
- July 28th : Propaganda in World War I : The Austro-Hungarian War Press Quarters is established as a department of the Army High Command . The task of the KPQ is to coordinate all press information and propaganda activities of Austria-Hungary during the First World War , including all the mass media available at the time . The commandant of the KPQ is Maximilian von Hoen .
- September 9 : Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann Hollweg sets out the war aims of the German Reich in the First World War in his September program .
- October: Albert Einstein , together with Georg Friedrich Nicolai , Wilhelm Foerster and Otto Buek , signs the anti-militarist manifesto Call to the Europeans in response to the nationalist manifesto of the 93 from September, based on the ideas of 1914 , which is signed by almost all of his Berlin colleagues.
- October 16 : The declaration of the university professors of the German Reich is published, with which the majority of the German professors and lecturers justify the world war. On October 21 a appears response to the German professors in the New York Times .
- November 16 : With the aim of ending the First World War as quickly as possible with a peace treaty, the Bund New Fatherland is founded in Berlin . The federal chairmen are Kurt von Tepper-Laski and Georg Graf von Arco . Elisabeth Rotten is one of the co-founders .
- December 2 : In the German Reichstag , Karl Liebknecht ( SPD ) is the only member to vote against the first extension of the war credits .
- December 20 : Konstantin von Gebsattel , deputy chairman of the Pan-German Association , explains in a conference with King Ludwig III. from Bavaria called the “solution of the Jewish question” to the exclusion and expulsion of the German Jews to a “German war goal”.
The war in Europe
The invasion of Belgium and the western front
- August 4th : Belgian units put up bitter resistance to the illegal entry of German troops into their country. The conquest of Liège, which was planned as a coup d' état, lasted until August 16, to the surprise of the German General Staff .
- August 11th : The first units of the British Expeditionary Force land in Le Havre.
- August 15 : During the bombardment of Fort Loncin in the Liège fortress ring by German units with the " Fat Bertha ", the ammunition chamber explodes, killing 350 Belgian soldiers.
- August 19 : German troops march into the city of Leuven, abandoned by Belgian troops . From 25. bis 28. August they commit out of fear of Franc-tireurs the war crime of destruction of Louvain during the First World War . 248 people are murdered, over 1,000 buildings are destroyed, including the University of Leuven with its irreplaceable university library .
- August 20 : German troops march 16 days after the invasion of neutral Belgium in Brussels and Ghent one. On the same day they begin the siege of Antwerp .
- August 23 : Saxon troops of the German Army carry out the Dinant massacre in Belgium, killing 674 people. At the same time, around 1,100 to 1,300 of the 1,800 houses in the city of Dinant are destroyed.
- August 26th : After the Battle of Le Cateau , the troops of the Triple Entente withdraw from the Germans in the First World War .
- August 26 : For the administration of Belgium , the German occupiers create the General Government of Belgium . Colmar von der Goltz becomes governor-general, although he resigns from his post on August 28 due to internal differences. Moritz von Bissing is his successor .
- August 28th : The siege of Maubeuge by German troops begins. It ends on September 8th with the surrender of the French fortress .
- September 12 : The end of the Battle of the Marne on the Western Front brings the failure of the German Schlieffen Plan and, with the Battle of the Aisne, the beginning of the trench warfare in the First World War . On September 14th, the German Chief of Staff Helmuth Johannes Ludwig von Moltke is recalled and replaced by Erich von Falkenhayn .
- September 14th : With the attempt to bypass the enemy units in the north, the race to sea between the German army and the Entente begins .
- September 20th : The fighting on the Aisne subsided and will only be resumed briefly between September 25th and 27th for mutual troop ties. From this point on, there is an equilibrium in troop strength on the western front and thus a stalemate between the armies.
- October 10 : After almost two months of siege , the mayor of Antwerp surrenders to the German troops and hands over the fortress of Antwerp . Most of the Belgian army moved to West Flanders. The Belgian parliament and government go into exile in the Netherlands.
- October 20 to November 18 : Around 100,000 soldiers are killed on each side of the front in the First Battle of Flanders . The goal of the Germans to cut off the British units from their supply lines cannot be achieved. The German units suffered blatant material shortages in this battle.
- November 11th : A small skirmish during the Battle of Flanders near the village of Langemarck later established the German myth of Langemarck .
- December 24th : Live and let live : Christmas 1914, a “ Christmas peace ” between German and Allied soldiers takes place on the Western Front .
The fronts of the Habsburg Empire
- August 16 : An Austro-Hungarian army invading Serbian territory triggers the battle of Cer , which ends on August 24 with a Serbian victory and the temporary withdrawal of the Austro-Hungarian army from Serbia.
- August 23 to September 11 : The Battle of Galicia includes a series of battles between the Austro-Hungarian and Russian armies.
- August 26th to September 11th : The battle of Lemberg between the troops of Russia under the command of Nikolai Russki and Austria-Hungary comes to an end with a defeat for the Habsburg monarchy , from which it can no longer recover.
- 3. bis 11. September : After a series of defeats by the Russian troops breaks after the Battle of Rawa Ruska front along in Galicia Austria-Hungary.
- September 4th : In Austria-Hungary, the first Ruthenian (Ukrainian) residents from Galicia, who are believed to have sympathy with the war opponent Russia, are deported to a specially established internment camp near Graz .
- September 6 to October 4 : The battle on the Drina between the attacking Austro-Hungarian armed forces under Oskar Potiorek and the Serbs under Radomir Putnik ends in a draw and at times leads to a positional war in the Balkans.
- September 24 : During the First World War , the siege of Przemyśl by the tsarist army begins . The fortress held by Austria-Hungary fends off violent attacks by the Russians and for the time being withstands their onslaught.
- November 16 : The battle of the Kolubara between Austria-Hungary and Serbia begins with another offensive by Oskar Potiorek. Belgrade is conquered at the end of November.
- December 3 : The Serbian units under Radomir Putnik and Živojin Mišić begin a counter-offensive leading to the complete evacuation of Serbia by Austria-Hungary by December 15 .
German Eastern Front
- August 19 : With the Battle of Gumbinnen , the attack by Russian troops on German Reich territory in East Prussia begins . The so-called Eastern Front is now open. The German units have to withdraw on August 20th .
- August 21 : The East Prussian fighting between the German Reich and Russia continues despite the solar eclipse of August 21, 1914 , which reached its maximum over Lithuania .
- August 26th : On the German Eastern Front south of Allenstein (Olsztyn) the so-called Battle of Tannenberg against Russian troops begins later for propaganda reasons in the German Reich .
- August 31 : With the victory of the German troops under Paul von Hindenburg in the Battle of Tannenberg , the Russian forces invading East Prussia are crushed.
- September 6th : The Battle of the Masurian Lakes begins. The German attackers succeed in persuading Russian divisions to withdraw from East Prussia .
- September 29th : The German 9th Army begins an attack aimed at the capture of Warsaw , which leads to the Battle of the Vistula . The Imperial Russian Army later prevailed.
- November 11th : In Poland , German troops begin the battle for Łódź with an offensive against Russian units.
- December 1st to 14th : The battle of Limanowa – Lapanow ends with a tactical Austrian victory against Russia, but the battle in the Carpathians does not end there. By December 28, the Russian army will be on the rise again.
The fronts of the Ottoman Empire
- January 3 : Sultan Mehmed V appoints Enver Pasha as Minister of War of the Ottoman Empire . This first clears the officer corps by means of massive forced retirement of critics of the Young Turks .
- November 15 : Mehmed V calls on the Muslims who fight as soldiers from the colonies on the side of England and France to jihad , to a holy war against their colonial masters and calls on them to desert and switch to the Islamic side. Germany participates in this experiment with the news office for the Orient by setting up the half-moon camp and a comparable camp (the Weinberg camp ) in the nearby town of Zossen . Here the prisoners are supposed to be moved to overflow and fight against their colonial masters.
- December 12th : Colmar von der Goltz becomes German military advisor to the Ottoman Sultan.
- November 5 : The British annex the island of Cyprus , which until then belonged to the Ottoman Empire .
- November 7th : Serbia declares war on the Ottoman Empire.
- November 1st : The Imperial Russian Army crosses the Caucasus border to the Ottoman Empire and opens the Caucasus Front .
- November 2 : One day after the fighting began, Russia declares war on the Ottoman Empire, which is on the side of the Central Powers .
- End of November: After offensives on both sides, the front has stabilized and the Russians are about 25 km deep in the opposing country on a line from Erzurum to Sarıkamış .
- December 22nd : The Battle of Sarıkamış begins with an Ottoman attack, but this brings only minor gains in terrain until the end of the year. Instead, around 10,000 Ottoman soldiers fell victim to cold, hunger and exhaustion because of the poor supply situation and a meter-high blanket of snow.
Mesopotamia and Egypt
- November 6th : The British Mesopotamia campaign begins with the landing near Fao . With the capture of Fao by units of the British Indian Army two days later, the Ottoman Empire no longer had access to the Persian Gulf .
- November 23 : With a military parade in occupied Basra closes in the First World War the British Army victory over Ottoman units in the battle of Basra in the Mesopotamian campaign from.
- December 19 : Egypt is declared a British protectorate . The previous khedivat Egypt is converted into the sultanate of Egypt , the khedive Abbas Hilmi II deposed and his uncle Hussein Kamil proclaimed sultan.
The war in the colonies
- August 6th : French and British troops call on the German colony of Togo to surrender. The next day, British troops from the Gold Coast and French troops from Dahomey march in without encountering any resistance. The German troops retreated inland and limited themselves to blowing up the railway bridges over the Sio and Lili rivers in order to slow down the enemy advance. In view of the maritime and military importance of the smaller Togblekovhe radio station , a German command was subsequently ordered back to prevent the radio station from falling into enemy hands. The command arrives on the Lome – Atakpame railroad on August 11th and makes the station unusable before the final withdrawal.
- August 12th : After unhindered advance through Togo, the Allied troops occupy the capital of Togo, Lomé, and then marched towards the Kamina radio station east of Atakpamé . Along the Lome – Atakpame railway line, a guerrilla war developed over several days between the retreating German police force and the British-French colonial troops advancing from the coast.
- August 22nd : The toughest battle in Togo takes place near the Chra River. British and French troops run for hours against a position in which 60 Germans and around 500 local mercenaries have holed up, losing 73 men in the process. Due to the demoralized mercenaries and porters as well as the lack of ammunition, the position had to be evacuated by the Germans the following day. This cleared the way to the Kamina radio station near Atakpame . This was destroyed by the Germans themselves in the night of August 24th to 25th by setting the machines on fire and knocking down the radio masts. The German commander surrenders the next day. After negotiations between Rittmeister von Roebern as emissary and Frederick Bryant from the British-French expeditionary corps , the handover of the Togo colony takes place on August 27th .
- August 24th : The attack on Cameroon begins with French ships bombarding the coast .
- September 9 : After Prime Minister Louis Botha's false statement that German troops had crossed the South African border from German South West Africa , the South African parliament passed a large majority on the Entente to enter the war. Especially the Boer part of the population and especially the armed forces are against this step. In October there is an open uprising.
- September 10th : German troops occupy the South African exclave Walvis Bay .
- September 19 : South African troops occupy Lüderitz Bay and advance inland from here.
- September 21 : South African police units take over Schuckmannsburg without a fight .
- September 26th : In German South West Africa the battle of Sandfontein takes place between the German protection force and a British-South African army . The Germans win despite being numerically inferior.
- October 31 : Because of the murder of German officers, German troops from German South West Africa undertake a punitive expedition to Portuguese West Africa and first destroy the Portuguese fort in Cuangar . The German Empire and Portugal are not at war at this point in time.
- December 18 : The German protection force wins the battle for Naulila as part of its punitive expedition against Portuguese colonial troops in Portuguese West Africa .
- December 25th : The Germans withdraw from Walvis Bay.
- August 5th : With pilot Bruno Büchner the only airplane arrives in German East Africa .
- August 15 : The German protection force under the command of Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck occupies the border town of Taveta in British East Africa against little resistance . On the British side, this leads to the decision to bring 4,000 Indian soldiers to Mombasa , who will arrive from September.
- November 2 : The landing of more British troops near Tanga turns into a disaster. In the Battle of Tanga , the Germans succeed in forcing the poorly managed British-Indian troops to retreat onto their ships.
- November 3 : A British offensive near Longido on the Kilimanjaro massif is repulsed by the German protection force.
East Asia and Oceania
- August 29th : The German colony of Samoa is occupied by New Zealand troops. Since there is no formal surrender, the German governor Erich Schultz-Ewerth , who, together with representatives of the settlers and family associations in a government council on August 5, decided to accept a military occupation of Samoa without resistance, is deported to Auckland and from 17 Detained on the quarantine island of Motuihe on September . The New Zealanders proclaim that German law will continue to apply and initially assure the German civil servants that they will continue to be employed in their positions with full salary. Between September 7th and 12th, however, all German officials who remained in New Zealand's service will resign from their posts in order not to have to be seen as helpers to the occupation. On September 12th, they are brought to New Zealand and interned.
- September 2nd : Japanese units land east of the Chinese port of Tsingtao, which is controlled by the German Reich . A few days later they begin the siege of Tsingtau .
- September 11 : Australia leads on New Britain in the Bismarck Archipelago , a part of the colony German New Guinea an invasion by and defeat the German military contingent to 21 September . In the province of Morobe , the German captain Hermann Detzner is hiding inland with a few men.
- October 21 : Japanese units occupy Rota as the last German island in Micronesia .
- November 6th : British-Australian troops take over the Pacific island of Nauru without resistance .
- November 7th : Alfred Meyer-Waldeck surrenders during the First World War on behalf of the German colony Kiautschou and hands over the besieged Tsingtau fortress to Japan .
Sea and air war
- August 4th : The British Home Fleet , the Royal Navy's fleet that protects the territorial waters of Great Britain, is renamed the Grand Fleet . John Jellicoe, 1st Earl Jellicoe , is appointed to their command.
- August 6th : A German zeppelin drops bombs over Liège. At probably the first air raid of World War nine people are killed.
- August 9 : During the First World War , the U 15, the first German submarine and its crew, are lost. British light cruiser HMS Birmingham rams the German warship before it can dive, causing it to sink.
- August 13 : The passenger steamer Baron Gautsch of the Österreichischer Lloyd runs into a sea mine on the coast of Istria and sinks, 147 passengers and crew members die.
- August 24th : A German zeppelin bombs Antwerp .
- August 28 : In a sea battle near Heligoland, the British sink three German small cruisers and a torpedo boat without losing their own ships.
- September 22nd : Otto Weddigen sinks the three British armored cruisers Aboukir , Cressy and Hogue in the course of the German submarine war with the U 9 in the North Sea . 1,467 men die, 837 survive.
- October 5th : The French pilot Joseph Frantz wins the world's first aerial combat . It can a German aviation - biplane at Reims shoot. The two Germans die in the crash.
- November 1 : The German East Asia Squadron wins the sea battle at Coronel over a British squadron.
- November 2 : After the sinking of several British cruisers, Great Britain declares the North Sea a restricted area .
- November 9 : The German cruiser Emden is sunk in the Indian Ocean by the Australian cruiser Sydney after several months of cruiser warfare .
- December 8 : The German East Asia Squadron is destroyed in a sea battle near the Falkland Islands by units of the British Royal Navy under the command of Frederik Doveton Sturdee . The German commander Maximilian von Spee is killed in the sinking of his flagship SMS Scharnhorst .
- December 24th : The German aviator Hans von Prondzynski drops the first bomb on British soil in an aerial warfare . She hits a parish garden in Dover .
Other events in the Balkans
- At the end of January, the great powers asked Greece to withdraw its troops from Northern Epirus on the basis of the London Treaty . The threat that the Greek claims on Lesbos , Chios and Samos would otherwise not be recognized is used as leverage. Following the withdrawal of Greece , a provisional government for Northern Epirus is set up by Greek residents of the region on February 28 , which on the following day proclaims the independent Autonomous Republic of Northern Epirus. The former Greek Governor General Georgios Christakis-Zografos is the Prime Minister . The capital of the new state is Gjirokastra , furthermore Himara , Kolonja , Përmet and Saranda belong to the controlled area.
- March 7th : Wilhelm zu Wied , who was appointed king in London the previous year , arrives with his wife Sophie von Schönburg-Waldenburg and his family in the Albanian capital Durrës . He is to lead the Principality of Albania, newly founded in the previous year, into independence.
- March 15 : Turhan Pascha Përmeti is appointed the new Albanian head of government.
- April 4th : Albania declares mobilization. War with neighboring Greece is feared.
- May: The Corfu Protocol , signed by Greece, Albania and the great powers, marks the end of the full state independence of Northern Epirus, but provides for extensive autonomy under the sovereignty of Albania. Northern Epirus was given the right to equip its own armed forces, and Greek was set as the official language.
- September 3 : Wilhelm zu Wied leaves the ungovernable Principality of Albania after only six months, but without formally abdicating.
- October 5 : Essad Pascha Toptani becomes the new Prime Minister in Albania with Serbian and Italian support.
- October 10 : Carol I , the Romanian prince and king of the Hohenzollern family, dies. Succeeded by Ferdinand I.
Other events in Central Europe
- January 1 : Arthur Hoffmann becomes President of Switzerland .
- June 11th : Adolf Friedrich VI. after the death of his father Adolf Friedrich V becomes the new Grand Duke of Mecklenburg and the last ruling prince of Mecklenburg-Strelitz .
- In the German Reich , the Deutschvölkische Party emerged from two anti-Semitic splinter parties, the German Social Party founded in 1889 and the German Reform Party founded in 1890 .
Other events in Western and Southern Europe
- January 9 : The government under Prime Minister Afonso Augusto da Costa in Portugal resigns after exactly one year. President Manuel José de Arriaga is bringing the former Foreign Minister Bernardino Machado , who is in Brazil, back to Portugal and entrusting him with forming a government. The Machado government is sworn in on February 9th .
- April 21 : To mark the 10th anniversary of the Entente cordiale , the English royal couple visits Paris.
- May 25 : The British House of Commons granted Ireland greater sovereignty in the Government of Ireland Act 1914 . However, the Home Rule Act will not be implemented because the First World War and the Irish Easter Rising in 1916 changed the political scene.
- December 12 : Victor Hugo de Azevedo Coutinho becomes the new Prime Minister of Portugal after the Partido Democrático's election victory . The previous Prime Minister Machado plans to run for the 1915 presidential election.
Mexico / United States
- April 9 : US Navy members are arrested in Tampico , Mexico for being on shore leave in a disputed restricted area due to the Mexican Revolution . You will be released within an hour. However , an official apology offered by Victoriano Huerta's troops is not accepted by the Americans.
- April 14 : US President Woodrow Wilson uses the Tampico incident to threaten Mexico with "the most serious consequences".
- April 21 : The US Navy shoots at and occupies the Mexican city of Veracruz as part of the American gunboat policy .
- June 23 : During the Mexican Revolution , in the Battle of Zacatecas, an army of insurgents twice as large, led by Pancho Villa , defeats President Victoriano Huerta's government troops . After the victory, however, a new dispute breaks out between the various factions of the revolutionary camp. Venustiano Carranza claims executive power, but in the process comes up against resistance from Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata , who refuse to take part in the convention of governors and generals in Mexico City , which Carranza has called in early October .
- July 15 : Victoriano Huerta resigns as President of Mexico. He went into exile on the German cruiser SMS Dresden in Jamaica and from there on to Europe, later to the USA.
- October: To Carranza's surprise, the convention he convened is not prepared to grant him sole “executive power”. He adjourned to resume his meetings in Aguascalientes , confirmed Villa in his position as commander of the revolutionary army he commanded and appointed a provisional president. In the now beginning civil war, this time fought between “conventionists” and “constitutionalists”, Carranza, with the help of Álvaro Obregón, initially turns against Villa, the strongest of his opponents.
- November 23 : The occupation of Veracruz by American forces ends.
- November 28 : After the withdrawal of Obregón's units, the Mexican rebel leader Pancho Villa and his troops move into the capital, Mexico City, where he meets with Emiliano Zapata, among others, without the two agreeing on a concrete course of action against Venustiano Carranza can agree.
Other events worldwide
- January 23 : Japanese newspapers report for the first time on the Siemens scandal , a bribery scandal in which high-ranking Japanese naval officers are involved. On March 23, the Yamamoto cabinet resigned .
- July 3 : Representatives of the United Kingdom and Tibet sign an agreement in Shimla on the border between Tibet and India and the status of Tibet under international law. The so-called McMahon Line is set as the border, which moves the British-Indian border significantly to the north. The representative of China does not sign and China does not later recognize the agreement.
- July 21 : Upon reaching the age of majority, Ahmad Shah Kajar is crowned Shah of Persia .
- May 15 : The big Cologne Werkbund exhibition opens. A performance exhibition on contemporary design will take place on the newly created exhibition grounds opposite Cologne's old town .
- May to October: The International Book Trade and Graphics Exhibition takes place in Leipzig .
- July 31 : The German Reichsbank stops exchanging banknotes or coins for gold marks in order to protect the state's gold stocks . Because of war fears, the population's demand for cash has increased significantly.
- November 16 : The banks in the United States Federal Reserve System , including the Federal Reserve Bank of New York , begin operations.
- May 16 : In the German Reich a patent is granted to the Merck company for a synthesis process in which, among other things, the later ecstasy active ingredient MDMA is created as an intermediate product .
- October 13 : The American inventor Garrett Morgan receives a patent on the gas mask .
- January 5th : At a press conference, Henry Ford announced the introduction of the eight-hour day at Ford on January 12th and a minimum wage of five US dollars per day.
- January 14th : Henry Ford has the production of the Ford Model T automobile switched to assembly line production , which enables a lower sales price for the automobile .
- January 6 : Merrill Lynch & Co., Inc. is opened by Charles E. Merrill on Wall Street, New York.
- November 7th : The first edition of the magazine The New Republic, founded by Herbert Croly and Walter Lippmann , appears in the USA .
- December 1 : The Maserati automotive company is founded in Bologna .
- February 2 : The Tanganyika Railway is completed in German East Africa , which runs from the coastal city of Dar es Salaam near Kigoma to Lake Tanganyika . Construction work by the East African Railway Company began in 1905 .
- May 30th : The RMS Aquitania is put into service by the Cunard Line .
- June 17th : The Hohenzollern Canal is opened to the public by Kaiser Wilhelm II . The shipping route connects the Havel and Oder .
- July 14th : The Rhine-Herne Canal is opened to shipping after eight years of construction.
- August 8 : In Cleveland , the first traffic light in North America is set up with the Simplex Traffic Signal . It is patented in the same year.
- August 15 : The Ancona package boat, which carries 200 passengers, is the first watercraft to cross the Panama Canal in full length. Official opening ceremonies are canceled due to the outbreak of war in Europe.
- December 12th : The scheduled train service begins on the Arosa line between the Grisons capital, Chur, and the health resort Arosa .
- The first bus of Greyhound Lines , founded by Carl Eric Wickman , runs from Hibbing to Alice in the US state of Minnesota .
- January 1st : Ullstein Verlag takes over the Vossische Zeitung .
- January 2nd : The inhabitants of Sweden are only allowed to buy twelve liters of spirits per quarter.
- August 14th : The Big Hole diamond mine in the South African Kimberley , from which a total of 2,722 kg of diamonds have been extracted since 1871 , is closed.
- The year 1914 is the year used to calculate building insurance, see: Insurance value .
science and technology
- August 8th : The Endurance Expedition , the last major expedition of the so-called Golden Age of Antarctica research, leaves Plymouth for Buenos Aires under the direction of Ernest Shackleton . After another month stay in Grytviken , South Georgia that breaks Endurance on December 5 in the Antarctic on.
- October: Aeneas Mackintosh , appointed by Shackleton to head the Ross Sea Party belonging to the expedition , arrives in Sydney as agreed and finds chaotic conditions there. The ship Aurora is not in a suitable condition for an Antarctic expedition and needs a general overhaul. Numerous crew members who lose confidence in the expedition jump off and have to be replaced by newcomers. The Aurora can only sail from Hobart to Antarctica on December 24th .
- On December 14th, the Endurance was caught in the pack ice for the first time , but fairways opened on December 22nd , so that the ship could steadily work its way south over the next few weeks.
On February 12th, workers discover the double grave of Oberkassel in what is now Bonn in a quarry. The grave from the time of the late Ice Age penknife groups is about 14,000 years old and contains the well-preserved skeletons of a 50-year-old man, a 20- to 25-year-old woman, the remains of a dog, other animal remains and processed animal bones. The quarry owner reports the find to Bonn University . From February 21, the site will be carefully examined by the scientists Max Verworn , Robert Bonnet and Gustav Steinmann . You submit a comprehensive report in 1919 .
- Walter Schottky develops the laws for the start-up, space charge and saturation areas in the vacuum tube .
- James Franck and Gustav Ludwig Hertz carry out their experiment to determine the excitation energy in atoms .
- Ernest Rutherford identifies the “recoil atoms ” when bombarding hydrogen atoms with electrons as protons .
Teaching and Research
- July 27 : The Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Coal Research in Mülheim an der Ruhr is officially opened two years after it was founded. The first director is Franz Fischer .
- October 18 : Founding rector Richard Wachsmuth informs Kaiser Wilhelm II that the University of Frankfurt am Main has quietly started its work. A planned ceremonial opening of the foundation university with the head of state is canceled on this day because of the First World War.
- January 10 : Alberto Garelli conquered the 1925 meter high, snow-covered pass of Mont Cenis near Moncenisio in freezing cold with a self-made motorcycle , a company that was considered impossible at the time.
- July 30th : The Norwegian Tryggve Gran is the first person to fly over the North Sea alone . The flight from Scotland to Norway takes around 4½ hours with good winds.
- May 15 : The Cologne Werkbund exhibition , the first exhibition of the German Werkbund founded by artists, architects and industrialists , is opened by Henry van de Velde . Because of the outbreak of the World War, the exhibition initiated by Konrad Adenauer will be closed early on August 8th .
- August 22 : In Vienna, the anchor clock designed by Franz Matsch is erected on a bridge connecting two buildings. It counts as an outstanding work of Art Nouveau .
- The free secession splits after the implied resolution of the New Secession , led by Max Liebermann of the Berlin Secession from. The group of around 50 artists has its first exhibition in the same year.
- June: The first edition of vortizistischen literary magazine Blast appears.
- Selma Lagerlöf's novel The Emperor of Portugal appears.
- The short book Dubliner by James Joyce is published for the first time.
- Hermann Hesse's novel Roßhalde is published.
Music and theater
- January 1st : New Year's premiere in Europe's theaters. After the 30-year copyright protection has Bayreuth no longer the monopoly on Parsifal by Richard Wagner .
- January 30th World premiere of the operetta Endlich alone by Franz Lehár at the Theater an der Wien . Was brought out again in 1930 in a revised form under the title Schön ist die Welt .
- February 2nd : The comedy Der Snob by Carl Sternberg has its world premiere under the direction of Max Reinhardt at the Deutsches Theater Berlin . It follows the scandal piece Die Hose as the second part of a trilogy .
- February 10 : The world premiere of the operetta Endlich alone by Franz Lehár on a libretto by Alfred Maria Willner takes place at the Theater an der Wien in Vienna.
- April 1st : The world premiere of the opera Notre Dame by Franz Schmidt based on the novel The Hunchback of Notre-Dame by Victor Hugo takes place at the Court Opera in Vienna after multiple rejection . The soprano Marie Gutheil-Schoder sings the role of Esmeralda. The work was Schmidt's greatest success, but was soon forgotten.
- The new botanical garden is being laid out in front of the gates of Munich in Nymphenburg . Karl Ritter von Goebel becomes the first director of the botanical garden established on his initiative .
- January 2nd : The Volksbad Nürnberg is officially opened. The Art Nouveau building is equipped with three swimming pools for men and women, 66 baths, 14 showers, a steam bath as well as hairdressing and refreshment rooms. A dog bath and laundry are also integrated.
- January 10 : Swedish migrant worker Joe Hill found guilty of the murder of a grocer and his son in Salt Lake City despite a lack of evidence . The case turns into one of the largest legal scandals in American history.
- April 12th : The first fixed cinema in St. Pölten opens in the Grand Hotel Pittner .
- Shortly after the war began, Pope Pius X died on August 20th . The conclave elects Benedict XV on September 3rd . the new head of the Catholic Church . In contrast to his predecessor in office, Benedict maintained strict neutrality throughout his term of office . On September 8th he issued the Apostolic Letter Ubi Primum , in which he lamented the outbreak of war between Christians in Europe.
- October 18 : The Schoenstatt Movement , a Catholic renewal movement, is founded.
- In 1914, the “time of the end” began for Jehovah's Witnesses . Jesus Christ has taken over the rule of the "Kingdom of God" as theocratic government in heaven and banished Satan and his demons from heaven to earth, where his destructive activity is increasingly evident.
- January 30 : The Minister Achenbach colliery in Dortmund kills a firedamp 24 miners.
- May 29 : The British passenger liner Empress of Ireland sinks in just 14 minutes after a collision with the Norwegian coal freighter Storstad in the St. Lawrence River . Although the steamer has enough lifeboats and life jackets on board due to the experience of the Titanic disaster, 1,032 people are killed, only 465 survive.
- November 26th : The British liner Bulwark is destroyed by an ammunition chamber explosion off Sheerness . 736 of the 750-strong crew are killed. Of the 14 survivors, two died a few days later from their injuries. Most of the other survivors are also seriously injured.
Minor accidents are listed in the sub-articles of Catastrophe .
nature and environment
- September 1st : In the zoo of Cincinnati , the pigeon Martha, the last known individual of its genus, dies , which largely disappeared towards the end of the 19th century . Since then, the pigeon, together with the bison hunt, has become a symbol of the overexploitation of nature.
- June 14 : The International Olympic Committee (IOC) hoists the official Olympic flag with the five rings for the first time at the 16th Olympic Congress .
- The International Amateur Athletics Federation ( IAAF ), founded in 1912 , publishes the first list of world records in athletics . Since the federation rejects women's sport , it only contains 95 men's world records.
Entries of athletics world records can be found under the respective discipline under athletics .
|price||person||country||Reason for awarding the prize||image|
|Nobel Price for physics||
Max von Laue
|German Empire||"For his discovery of the diffraction of X-rays when passing through crystals "|
|Nobel Prize in Chemistry||
Theodore William Richards
|United States||"In recognition of its precise determinations of the atomic weight of numerous chemical elements"|
|Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine||
|Austria-Hungary||"For his work on physiology and pathology of the vestibular apparatus "|
|Nobel Prize in literature||not awarded|
|Nobel Peace Prize||not awarded|
- January 1st : Edith Picht-Axenfeld , German harpsichordist († 2001 )
- January 2 : Max Aebischer , Swiss politician († 2009 )
- January 3 : Hans Karl Fritzsche , German officer and ministerial official († 1999 )
- January 3 : Adelheid von Habsburg-Lothringen , Austrian nobleman († 1971 )
- January 5 : Nicolas de Staël , French painter, of Russian-Baltic origin († 1955 )
- January 5 : Helfried Grope , German officer and NDPD functionary († 1959 )
- January 6 : Gottfried Eduard Arnold , American physician († 1989 )
- January 6 : Heinz Berggruen , German art dealer († 2007 )
- January 7th : Anja Elkoff , German singer and actress
- January 7 : Bobby McDermott , American basketball player († 1963 )
- January 8 : Ernst Oldenburg , German painter († 1992 )
- January 8 : Herman Pilnik , German-Argentinian chess master († 1981 )
- January 9 : Kenny Clarke , American jazz musician († 1985 )
- January 9 : John Ferraby , British author († 1973 )
- January 9 : Adolf Urban , German football player († 1943 )
- January 11 : Otto Gritschneder , city councilor, lawyer and author in Munich († 2005 )
- January 13 : Joseph Gillain , Belgian comic artist and author († 1980 )
- January 14 : Emmy Andriesse , Dutch photographer († 1953 )
- January 14th : Fritz Kläger , German motorcycle racing driver and designer († 2007 )
- January 15 : René Le Bègue , French racing car driver († 1946 )
- January 15 : Gyula Kluger , Hungarian chess player († 1994 )
- January 15 : Koyama Kiyoshige , Japanese composer († 2009 )
- January 15 : Harry Mehlhose , German middle-distance runner († 1976 )
- January 15 : Hugh Trevor-Roper , British historian († 2003 )
- January 16 : Richard Eaton , Canadian choir director, organist and composer († 1968 )
- January 16 : Buddy Moss , American blues guitarist, harmonica player and singer († 1984 )
- January 17th : Anacleto Angelini , Italian-Chilean entrepreneur († 2007 )
- January 17 : Kurt Franz , supervisor of the Treblinka extermination camp († 1998 )
- January 17 : Howard Marion-Crawford , British actor († 1969 )
- January 18 : Arno Schmidt , German writer and translator († 1979 )
- January 19 : Bob Gerard , British racing driver († 1990 )
- January 19 : Friedrich Hacker , American psychiatrist, psychoanalyst and aggression researcher († 1989 )
- January 22 : Allen Edward Barrow , American lawyer († 1979 )
- January 23 : Igor Alexander Caruso , Austrian psychoanalyst († 1981 )
- January 24th : Georges Cravenne , French journalist, publicist, advertising specialist and film producer († 2009 )
- January 25 : Albrecht Achilles , German officer († 1943 )
- January 26 : Charles Wallace Adair Jr. , American bank clerk and ambassador († 2006 )
- January 28 : Gudrun Loewe , German prehistorian († 1994 )
- January 28 : Juan Urteaga Loidi , Spanish organist, choir director, music teacher and composer († 1990 )
- January 29 : Fukazawa Shichirō , Japanese writer († 1987 )
- January 31 : Hugh Joseph Addonizio , American politician († 1981 )
- January 31 : Carey Loftin , American actor and stuntman († 1997 )
- January 31 : André Ramseyer , Swiss sculptor († 2007 )
- February 1 : Maria Singer , Austrian folk actress († 2003 )
- February 2 : Heiner Fleischmann , German motorcycle racer († 1963 )
- February 2nd : Nicolas-Roland Payen , French aviation pioneer and inventor of the delta wing († 2004 )
- February 4 : Alfred Andersch , German writer and radio editor († 1980 )
- February 4 : Klas Anshelm , Swedish architect and artist († 1980 )
- February 5 : William S. Burroughs , American writer († 1997 )
- February 5 : Alan Lloyd Hodgkin , English biochemist and Nobel Prize winner († 1998 )
- February 5 : Silvius Magnago , Governor of South Tyrol, father of the South Tyrol Package († 2010 )
- February 5 : Frank Thorolfson , Canadian pianist, conductor, music teacher and composer († 1977 )
- February 6 : Karlgeorg Hoefer , German typographer and calligrapher († 2000 )
- February 6 : Walter Lütgehetmann , German carom player, world champion and four-time European champion († 1967 )
- February 7th : Friedel Schön , German motorcycle racer († 2005 )
- February 7th : Max Seither , German politician († 2003 )
- February 9 : Margrit Rainer , Swiss actress († 1982 )
- February 9 : Ernest Tubb , American country singer and pioneer of honky tonk music († 1984 )
- February 10 : Larry Adler , American harmonica player († 2001 )
- February 12 : Nello Celio , Swiss politician († 1995 )
- February 12 : Henry Primakoff , theoretical physicist († 1983 )
- February 13 : Susanne Pastoors , German athlete († 1984 )
- February 15 : Hale Boggs , American politician and member of the Warren Commission († 1972 )
- February 16 : Konrad Buchwald , German botanist and politician of the ÖDP († 2003 )
- February 17 : Julia de Burgos , Puerto Rican poet († 1953 )
- February 17 : Johannes Christiaan Mari Hattinga Verschure , Dutch doctor and chemist († 2006 )
- February 17th : René Vietto , French cyclist († 1988 )
- February 18 : João Chedid , Lebanese bishop in Brazil († 1991 )
- February 18 : Pee Wee King , American country musician († 2000 )
- February 19 : René Cotton , French skier, racing car driver and motorsport manager († 1971 )
- February 19 : Jacques Dufilho , French actor († 2005 )
- February 20 : Arnold Denker , US chess grandmaster († 2005 )
- February 20 : Hans Pischner , German harpsichordist and musicologist († 2016 )
- February 22 : Renato Dulbecco , Italian-American biologist († 2012 )
- February 22 : KO Götz , German informal art painter and poet († 2017 )
- February 23 : Theofiel Middelkamp , Dutch cyclist († 2005 )
- February 24 : Ralph Erskine , British-Swedish architect († 2005 )
- February 24 : David Langdon , English cartoonist and illustrator († 2011 )
- February 24 : Otto von Rohr , German opera singer († 1982 )
- February 27 : Winifred Atwell , pianist from Trinidad († 1983 )
- February 27 : Ástgeir Ólafsson , Icelandic writer († 1985 )
- February 28 : Élie Bayol , French racing car driver († 1995 )
- March 1 : Ralph Ellison , American author († 1994 )
- March 1 : Gustl Gstettenbaur , German actor († 1996 )
- March 2 : Hansi (Johanna) Knoteck , Austrian actress († 2014 )
- March 2 : James Robert Knox , Archbishop of Melbourne and Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church († 1983 )
- March 2 : Kurt Kretschmann , German conservationist († 2007 )
- March 2 : Martin Ritt , American film director († 1990 )
- March 3 : Asger Jorn , Danish painter († 1973 )
- March 4 : Gino Colaussi , Italian football player († 1991 )
- March 4 : Robert R. Wilson , American physicist († 2000 )
- March 5 : Philip Farkas , horn player and co-founder of the International Horn Society († 1992 )
- March 7 : Ferdinand Käs , Austrian professional soldier and anti-fascist resistance fighter († 1988 )
- March 8 : Uvo Hölscher , German professor of classical philology († 1996 )
- March 8 : Abraham S. Luchins , American Gestalt psychologist († 2005 )
- March 8 : Jim McMillin , American Olympic champion from 1936 († 2005 )
- March 8 : Ivan Romanoff , Canadian conductor, violinist, arranger and composer († 1997 )
- March 8 : Jakow Borissowitsch Seldowitsch , Belarusian nuclear physicist († 1987 )
- March 8 : Affonso Guimarães da Silva , Brazilian soccer player († 1997 )
- March 8 : Frank Soo , English football player, sometimes referred to as the first non-white English player († 1991 )
- March 10 : Ernst Brugger , Swiss politician († 1998 )
- March 10 : Manolo Monterrey , Venezuelan singer and composer († 1997 )
- March 11 : William Lloyd Webber , English church musician and composer († 1982 )
- March 12 : Jan Kapr , Czech composer († 1988 )
- March 13 : Friedrich-Wilhelm Goldenbogen , German politician († 1982 )
- March 13 : Bob Haggart , composer and bassist in jazz music († 1998 )
- March 15 : Paul Arlt , American cartoonist and painter († 2005 )
- March 15 : Gil Elvgren , American pin-up and advertising artist († 1980 )
- March 17 : Aida Tsunao , Japanese poet († 1990 )
- March 17 : Sammy Baugh , American football player and coach († 2008 )
- March 17 : Günter Hofé , German publishing director and writer († 1988 )
- March 17 : Stephen McNichols , American politician († 1997 )
- March 17 : Juan Carlos Onganía , Argentine military and politician († 1995 )
- March 17th : Mario Ruiz Armengol , Mexican composer, pianist and conductor († 2002 )
- March 18 : César Guerra-Peixe , Brazilian composer († 1993 )
- March 18 : Thaddäus Troll , German writer († 1980 )
- March 19 : Jay Berwanger , American football player († 2002 )
- March 21 : Paul Tortelier , French cellist († 1990 )
- March 22 : William E. Miller , American politician († 1983 )
- March 25 : Norman Ernest Borlaug , American agronomist, Nobel Peace Prize Laureate († 2009 )
- March 25 : Karl Schiess , German CDU politician, Minister of the Interior of Baden-Württemberg 1972–1978 († 1999 )
- March 25 : Rolf Schwedler , Senator for Building and Housing of Berlin († 1981 )
- March 26 : William Westmoreland , US officer († 2005 )
- March 27 : Stanisław Has , Polish composer and conductor († 1997 )
- March 27 : Budd Schulberg , American writer and screenwriter († 2009 )
- March 28 : Edward Anhalt , American screenwriter († 2000 )
- March 28 : Guido Carli , Italian economist and politician († 1993 )
- March 28 : Bohumil Hrabal , Czech writer († 1997 )
- March 28 : Edmund S. Muskie , American politician († 1996 )
- March 30th : Sonny Boy Williamson I. , American blues musician († 1948 )
- March 31 : Emil Kemmer , German politician († 1965 )
- March 31 : Octavio Paz , Mexican writer and diplomat († 1998 )
- April 2 : Alec Guinness , English actor († 2000 )
- April 2 : David Ouchterlony , Canadian organist, music teacher and composer († 1987 )
- April 3 : Wilfried Joest , German theologian and professor († 1995 )
- April 3 : Elena Luber , German actress
- April 4 : Marguerite Duras , French writer, screenwriter and film director († 1996 )
- April 4 : Robert Gleichauf , German politician († 1992 )
- April 5 : Felice Borel , Italian football player († 1993 )
- April 7th : Madeleine Malraux , French pianist († 2014 )
- April 8 : Euthymia , German Clemens sister († 1955 )
- April 10th : Edna Anhalt , American screenwriter and film producer († 1987 )
- April 10 : Herbert Fischer , Ambassador of the GDR in India († 2006 )
- April 11 : Sidney Geist , American painter, sculptor, author and art professor († 2005 )
- April 12 : Manja Behrens , German actress († 2003 )
- April 12 : Gretel Bergmann , German high jumper († 2017 )
- April 12 : Jan Van Cauwelaert , Belgian bishop († 2016 )
- April 12 : Gilbert Taylor , British cameraman († 2013 )
- April 13 : Orhan Veli , Turkish poet and innovator of Turkish poetry († 1950 )
- April 14 : Wilhelm Hahnemann , Austrian and German soccer player († 1991 )
- April 16 : Mark Lazarewitsch Gallai , Soviet test pilot and engineer († 1998 )
- April 17 : Evelyn Furtsch , American athlete and Olympic champion († 2015 )
- April 18 : Wennemar Haarmann , German administrative lawyer and district administrator in the Stormarn district († 1993 )
- April 19 : Ugo Poletti , Archbishop of Spoleto and Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church († 1997 )
- April 20 : Otto Weiß , German figure skater
- April 21 : Carlos García , Argentine tango pianist, orchestra conductor and composer († 2006 )
- April 22nd : Hans Baumann , German poet, songwriter, author of children's and young adult books († 1988 )
- April 22 : Michael Wittmann , company commander of the heavy SS Panzer Division 501 († 1944 )
- April 23 : Jack Barkin , Canadian singer († 1996 )
- April 23 : Erich Linnhoff , German athlete († 2006 )
- April 24 : William Castle , American film director and producer († 1977 )
- April 24 : Loe de Jong , Dutch historian and journalist († 2005 )
- April 24 : Jan Karski , Polish officer and courier of the Polish Home Army († 2000 )
- April 25 : Marcos Pérez Jiménez , Venezuelan President († 2001 )
- April 26 : Bernard Malamud , American writer († 1986 )
- April 26 : Wilfrid Mellers , English music critic, scholar, educator and composer († 2008 )
- April 27 : Albert Soboul , French historian († 1982 )
- April 29 : Walter Janka , German publisher, SED member († 1994 )
- April 29 : Cal Niday , American racing car driver († 1988 )
- April 30 : Franz Kessler , German musicologist and university lecturer († 2007 )
- May 1 : Rudolf Gellesch , German football player († 1990 )
- May 1 : Ivan Prasko , Ukrainian bishop († 2001 )
- May 3 : Armando Bó , Argentine actor, director and composer for film music († 1981 )
- May 5 : Eugen Kramár , Slovak architect († 1996 )
- May 5 : Tyrone Power , American film and stage actor († 1958 )
- May 7 : Andreas Kupfer , German soccer player († 2001 )
- May 7 : Shibaki Yoshiko , Japanese writer († 1991 )
- May 8 : Romain Gary , French writer († 1980 )
- May 8 : František Smetana , Czech cellist and music teacher († 2004 )
- May 8 : Morris Surdin , Canadian composer and conductor († 1979 )
- May 9 : Ángel E. Lasala , Argentine composer and pianist († 2000 )
- May 9 : Carlo Maria Giulini , Italian conductor († 2005 )
- May 9 : Josef Müller-Brockmann , graphic designer, typographer, author and teacher († 1996 )
- May 9 : Hank Snow , Canadian country singer († 1999 )
- May 9 : Peter Wehle , Austrian composer, author and cabaret artist († 1986 )
- May 10 : Ignace Abdo Khalifé , Lebanese Bishop in Australia († 1998 )
- May 10 : Marcel Becquart , French racing car driver († 2010 )
- May 10 : Werner Klaas , German football player († 1945 )
- May 10 : Erwin Lange , German politician († 1991 )
- May 10 : Karl-Heinz Lauterjung , German physicist († 2000 )
- May 10 : Karl Sutter , German athlete († 2003 )
- May 11 : Bob Atcher , American country singer († 1993 )
- May 11 : Onelio Jorge Cardoso , Cuban writer and journalist († 1986 )
- May 11 : Haroun Tazieff , French geologist and volcanologist († 1998 )
- May 11 : Phyllis Krystal , English psychotherapist († 2016 )
- May 12 : Bertus Aafjes , Dutch writer († 1993 )
- May 13 : Karl Andritz , Austrian football player trainer († 1993 )
- May 13 : Joe Louis , American boxer († 1981 )
- May 13 : Johnnie Wright , American country musician († 2011 )
- May 13 : Albert Pratz , Canadian violinist, conductor, composer and music teacher († 1995 )
- May 13 : Gregor von Rezzori , Austrian writer and film actor († 1998 )
- May 14 : Kurt Aepli , Swiss silversmith, jewelry and equipment designer and professional educator († 2002 )
- May 14 : Lily Garáfulic , Chilean sculptor († 2012 )
- May 14 : Karl Kayser , East German theater director († 1995 )
- May 15 : Tenzing Norgay , mountaineer, first to climb Mount Everest († 1986 )
- May 15 : Manuel Saber Marroquín , Mexican pianist and composer († 1990 )
- May 17 : Guido Masanetz , German music director, composer and conductor († 2015 )
- May 17 : Bruno Pasut , Italian composer, pianist, organist, choir director, conductor and music teacher († 2006 )
- May 18 : Pierre Balmain , French fashion designer († 1982 )
- May 18 : Marcel Bernard , French tennis player († 1994 )
- May 18 : Emmanuel "Toulo" de Graffenried , Swiss racing driver († 2007 )
- May 19 : Max Ferdinand Perutz , Austro-English chemist († 2002 )
- May 20 : Hans-Gerd Fröhlich , German expellee politician († 1995 )
- May 20 : Hermann Götz , German politician († 1987 )
- May 21 : Gerhard Funke , German philosopher († 2006 )
- May 21 : Olivier Guimond , Canadian actor († 1971 )
- May 21 : Erich Herrmann , German field handball player († 1989 )
- May 21 : John Hubley , American animator († 1977 )
- May 22 : Vance Packard , American publicist († 1996 )
- May 22 : Sun Ra , jazz composer and jazz musician († 1993 )
- May 23 : Auguste Anglès , French Romance studies and literary scholar († 1983 )
- May 24 : Herbert Lawrence Anderson , American nuclear physicist († 1988 )
- May 24 : Wend von Kalnein , German art historian and writer († 2007 )
- May 24 : Lilli Palmer , German actress († 1986 )
- May 24 : George Tabori , Hungarian-British author and theater director († 2007 )
- May 27 : Bohdan Arct , Polish author and fighter pilot († 1973 )
- May 29 : Anna Andersch-Marcus , German glass painter († 2005 )
- May 30th : Paul Benthien , German table tennis player († 1982 )
- May 30 : Jiří Marek , Czech writer († 1994 )
- May 30 : Bobby Sherwood , American jazz guitarist († 1980 )
- May 30 : Peter Suter , Swiss architect († 1998 )
- May 31 : Akira Ifukube , Japanese composer and professor († 2006 )
- June 2 : Saba Youakim , Lebanese Archbishop of Petra and Philadelphia (Jordan) († 2003 )
- June 3 : Georg Apfelbeck , German building contractor and table tennis functionary († 1982 )
- June 4 : John Mansfield Addis , British diplomat († 1983 )
- June 5 : Felix Aprahamian , music critic and author († 2005 )
- June 6 : Gisela Schlüter , German cabaret artist and actress († 1995 )
- June 7th : Khwaja Ahmad Abbas , Indian film director, screenwriter and journalist († 1987 )
- June 7th : Ernst Bader , German song writer and composer († 1999 )
- June 7 : Alberto Camenzind , Swiss architect and professor at ETH Zurich († 2004 )
- June 8 : Kurt Barthel , German writer, poet, playwright, dramaturge, cultural politician († 1967 )
- June 9 : Hermann Haller , Swiss composer († 2002 )
- June 10 : Margot Becke-Goehring , German chemist († 2009 )
- June 10 : Marvin Duchow , Canadian composer, musicologist and music teacher († 1979 )
- June 10 : Oktay Rifat , Turkish writer († 1988 )
- June 10 : Rosita Serrano , Chilean singer and actress († 1997 )
- June 10 : Henryk Tomaszewski , Polish poster painter († 2005 )
- June 12 : Go Seigen , Japanese go pro of Chinese origin († 2014 )
- June 14 : Gisèle Casadesus , French actress († 2017 )
- June 14 : María de la Esperanza de Borbón-Dos Sicilias y Orléans , Spanish nobleman († 2005 )
- June 14 : Heinrich Mückter , German physician and chemist († 1987 )
- June 15 : Yuri Vladimirovich Andropov , Soviet politician († 1984 )
- June 15 : Larbi Ben Barek , Moroccan and French football player († 1992 )
- June 15 : Saul Steinberg , Romanian-American cartoonist and cartoonist († 1999 )
- June 15 : Werner Trillmich , German historian († 1985 )
- June 16 : R. Martin Schmidt , German politician († 2002 )
- June 17th : Lucie Kurlbaum-Beyer , German politician († 2008 )
- June 17 : Gertrud Heinzelmann , Swiss lawyer and Catholic theologian († 1999 )
- June 17 : John Hersey , American writer and journalist († 1993 )
- June 17 : Karl Seeburger , Austrian politician († 1979 )
- June 18 : EG Marshall , American actor († 1998 )
- June 19 : Anthony von Sourozh , Russian bishop († 2003 )
- June 19 : Lester Flatt , American country musician († 1979 )
- June 19 : Erwin Hasenzahl , German local politician in Hesse and Mayor of Michelstadt († 2008 )
- June 20 : Albrecht Brandi , German frigate captain († 1966 )
- June 20 : Robert Moch , American rower († 2005 )
- June 20 : Muazzez İlmiye Çığ , Turkish Sumerologist
- June 21 : William Vickrey , American economist and Nobel Prize winner († 1996 )
- June 23 : Walter Höchenberger , German soccer goalkeeper
- June 24th : Myroslaw Lyubatschiwski , Archbishop of Philadelphia and Lviv and a cardinal († 2000 )
- June 24 : Karl Josef Partsch , German lawyer and professor († 1996 )
- June 26 : Antoine Argoud , French officer († 2004 )
- June 26 : Shapur Bakhtiar , Iranian Prime Minister († 1991 )
- June 26 : Lyman Spitzer , American astronomer and physicist († 1997 )
- June 26 : Wolfgang Windgassen , German tenor († 1974 )
- June 27th : Antonio Attanasi , Italian documentary and animation filmmaker
- June 27 : William Foote Whyte , American sociologist († 2000 )
- June 28 : Aribert Heim , German-Austrian physician and concentration camp doctor († 1992 )
- June 29 : Rafael Kubelík , Swiss conductor and composer († 1996 )
- June 30th : Francisco da Costa Gomes , Portuguese Marshal and President of Portugal († 2001 )
- July 1 : Ahmad Hasan al-Bakr , Iraqi President († 1982 )
- July 1 : Christl Cranz , German ski racer († 2004 )
- July 1 : Michael Wilson , American screenwriter († 1978 )
- July 2 : Alois Andritzki , Sorbian Catholic priest and Christian martyr († 1943 )
- July 2 : Otto Klötzer , German politician († 1976 )
- July 2 : Erich Topp , submarine commander in World War II and later officer in the German Navy († 2005 )
- July 2 : Waluliso , peace activist and well-known original in Vienna († 1996 )
- July 3 : Carl Scarborough , American racing driver († 1953 )
- July 5 : John Thomas Dunlop , American politician († 2003 )
- July 6 : Ernest Kirkendall , American chemist and metallurgist († 2005 )
- July 7 : Harry Strom , Canadian politician († 1984 )
- July 8 : Jyoti Basu , Indian communist politician († 2010 )
- July 8 : Link Davis , American musician († 1972 )
- July 8 : Billy Eckstine , American jazz singer and band leader († 1993 )
- July 9 : Willi Stoph , German politician († 1999 )
- July 10 : Emil Carlebach , German resistance fighter in Buchenwald, Member of the Bundestag and journalist († 2001 )
- July 11 : Donald S. Harrington , American pastor and liberal politician († 2005 )
- July 11 : Hans Meyer , Mayor of Hemer († 2007 )
- July 11 : Aníbal Troilo , Argentine musician, arranger, band leader and composer († 1975 )
- July 12 : Renato Olmi , Italian football player († 1985 )
- July 13 : Sam Hanks , American racing driver († 1994 )
- July 13 : Franz von Werra , German fighter pilot († 1941 )
- July 15 : Prince Bira , Thai racing driver († 1985 )
- July 15 : Jérôme Rakotomalala , Archbishop of Antananarivo and Cardinal († 1975 )
- July 17 : Antonia Magdalena Arté , Dominican musician and music teacher († 2000 )
- July 17 : James Purdy , American writer († 2009 )
- July 18 : Gino Bartali , Italian cyclist († 2000 )
- July 18 : Herbert Collum , German church musician († 1982 )
- July 19 : Ewald Bucher , German politician († 1991 )
- July 19 : Josef Páleníček , Czech pianist and composer († 1991 )
- July 20 : Carlo Graaff , German politician († 1975 )
- July 20 : Ersilio Tonini , Italian Cardinal († 2013 )
- July 20 : Elias Shaheen , Lebanese Archbishop in Canada († 1991 )
- July 20 : Dobri Dobrew , Bulgarian beggar († 2018 )
- July 21 : Philippe Ariès , French medievalist and historian († 1984 )
- July 21 : Suso Cecchi D'Amico , Italian screenwriter († 2010 )
- July 22 : Yakov Malkiel , American linguist and Romance philologist († 1998 )
- July 22 : Charles Regnier , German actor († 2001 )
- July 23 : Alice Jean Arden-Hodge , American high jumper († 2012 )
- July 24 : Frances Oldham Kelsey , American pharmacologist († 2015 )
- July 24th : Riccardo Malipiero , Italian composer († 2003 )
- July 25 : Erhard Theodor Astler , German painter, graphic artist and draftsman († 1998 )
- July 25 : Woody Strode , American decathlete and actor († 1994 )
- July 26 : Raymond Perry Ahlquist , American pharmacist and pharmacologist († 1983 )
- July 26 : Cecil Farris Bryant , American politician († 2002 )
- July 26 : Juan Francisco Fresno Larraín , Catholic Cardinal and Archbishop († 2004 )
- July 26 : Rudolf Jacobs , German partisan in Italy († 1944 )
- July 27 : Georges Borgeaud , Swiss writer († 1998 )
- July 27 : Margaret Ekpo , Nigerian politician and women's rights activist († 2006 )
- July 27 : Gusti Huber , Austrian theater and film actress († 1993 )
- July 27 : Karlfranz Schmidt-Wittmack , German politician, Member of the Bundestag († 1987 )
- July 27 : Otto Kehr , German pastor († 2009 )
- July 28 : Ernst Albrecht , German politician († 1991 )
- July 30th : Achille Corona , Italian politician († 1979 )
- July 30th : Michael Morris , Anglo-Irish journalist and sports official († 1999 )
- July 30th : André Nocquet , French master of the Japanese martial art Aikido († 1999 )
- July 30th : Elisabeth Scherer , German actress († 2013 )
- July 30 : Tachihara Michizō , Japanese lyric poet († 1939 )
- July 31 : Isolde Ahlgrimm , Austrian harpsichordist († 1995 )
- July 31 : Raymond Aubrac , French leading member of the Resistance († 2012 )
- July 31 : Mario Bava , Italian film director, cameraman and screenwriter († 1980 )
- July 31 : Louis de Funès , French actor and comedian († 1983 )
- July 31 : Bernt von Kügelgen , German journalist († 2002 )
- August 1 : Grigol Abashidze , Georgian-Soviet poet († 1994 )
- August 1 : J. Lee Thompson , British director († 2002 )
- August 2 : Kinoshita Junji , Japanese writer († 2006 )
- August 2 : Roman Ryterband , Polish composer, conductor and pianist († 1979 )
- August 2 : Charlotte Schreiber-Just , German actress and radio play speaker († 2000 )
- August 2 : Beatrice Straight , American actress († 2001 )
- August 4th : Paul de Roubaix , Belgian film director and producer († 2004 )
- August 5 : Stjepan Šulek , Croatian composer and conductor († 1986 )
- August 5 : Samuel Dresden , Dutch Romance studies and literary scholar († 2002 )
- August 6 : Arthur Dobson , British racing car driver († 1980 )
- August 6 : Gordon Freeth , Australian politician († 2001 )
- August 6 : Benedict Nicolson , English art historian and editor († 1978 )
- August 7th : Vojtěch Cach , Czech author and playwright († 1980 )
- August 7 : Fernando Cerchio , Italian director, screenwriter and film producer († 1974 )
- August 7th : June Travis , American actress († 2008 )
- August 8 : Ana Mercedes Asuaje de Rugeles , Venezuelan composer and music teacher († 2012 )
- August 8 : Paul Ledoux , Belgian astronomer and astrophysicist († 1988 )
- August 8 : Unity Mitford , British National Socialist, personal friend of Hitler († 1948 )
- August 8 : Willi Strobl , Sudanese German football player († 1997 )
- August 9 : Ludwig Aulbach , German journalist and editor-in-chief († 1989 )
- August 9 : Ferenc Fricsay , Hungarian conductor († 1963 )
- August 9 : Tove Jansson , Finnish fantasy writer († 2001 )
- August 9 : Maria Keil , Portuguese painter († 2012 )
- August 10 : Ken Annakin , British film director († 2009 )
- August 12 : Hans Theilig , German handball player († 1976 )
- August 13 : Gudrun Genest , German actress and voice actress († 2013 )
- August 14 : Dieter Arend , German rower (†)
- August 14 : Poul Hartling , Danish liberal politician of the Venstre party († 2000 )
- August 14 : Wilhelm Wehren , German politician († 1999 )
- August 15 : Paul Rand , American designer of company logos († 1996 )
- August 16 : Pavel Kutachow , Soviet pilot († 1984 )
- August 18 : Manuel Sánchez Acosta , Dominican doctor and composer († 2006 )
- August 19 : Raymond Marcellin , French politician († 2004 )
- August 21 : Roberto Ardia , Italian actor († 1994 )
- August 23 : Sigi Sommer , German chronicler and journalist († 1996 )
- August 24th : Wolfgang Kummer , German bobsleigh driver († 1988 )
- August 26 : Ferdinand Auth , German politician († 1995 )
- August 26 : Julio Cortázar , Argentine writer († 1984 )
- August 26 : Josef Veleba , Austrian horn player († 1997 )
- August 27 : Heidi Kabel , German folk actress († 2010 )
- August 27 : Heinz Schubert , German SS-Obersturmführer († 1987 )
- August 28 : Hugo Fiorato , American violinist and conductor († 2012 )
- August 28 : Gerda Johanna Werner , German painter, model for the 50-pfennig piece († 2004 )
- August 29 : Erwin Scharf , secretary of the SPÖ and founder of the Left Socialists († 1994 )
- August 31 : Richard Basehart , American actor († 1984 )
- September 1 : Ernst Ortner , Austrian resistance fighter in the Third Reich († 1945 )
- September 3 : Dixy Lee Ray , American politician († 1994 )
- September 5 : Guillermo Graetzer , Argentine composer, music teacher and musicologist († 1993 )
- September 5 : Nicanor Parra , Chilean poet († 2018 )
- September 6 : Hermann Person , German politician († 2005 )
- September 7th : Thomas Viktor Adolph , German journalist († 1997 )
- September 7th : James Van Allen , American physicist († 2006 )
- September 7 : Lída Baarová , Czech actress and lover of Joseph Goebbels († 2000 )
- September 7th : Graeme Bell , Australian jazz pianist, composer and bandleader († 2012 )
- September 8 : Albert Edward Kelly , British composer and conductor († 1994 )
- September 9 : Erik Blumenthal , German psychologist, graphologist and psychotherapist († 2004 )
- September 10 : Ernst Ohst , German painter, graphic artist and caricaturist († 2000 )
- September 10 : Robert Wise , American director († 2005 )
- September 12 : Desmond Llewelyn , British actor († 1999 )
- September 13 : Paolo Mosconi , Italian Archbishop († 1981 )
- September 14 : Bernard Dorival , French art historian and art critic († 2003 )
- September 14th : Manlio Di Rosa , Italian fencer († 1989 )
- September 14 : Michał Spisak , Polish composer († 1965 )
- September 15 : Creighton Williams Abrams junior , American general († 1974 )
- September 15 : Leo Beranek , American acoustician († 2016 )
- September 15 : Adolfo Bioy Casares , Argentine writer († 1999 )
- September 15 : Jens Otto Krag , Danish politician (social democrat) († 1978 )
- September 15 : Will Quadflieg , German theater actor († 2003 )
- September 15 : Gail Kubik , American composer, violinist and music teacher († 1984 )
- September 16 : Takada Toshiko , Japanese poet († 1989 )
- September 18 : Jack Cardiff , British cameraman and film director († 2009 )
- September 19 : Hal Draper , American socialist, Marxism researcher, author and translator († 1990 )
- September 19 : Rogers Morton , American politician († 1979 )
- September 20 : Ken Hechler , American politician († 2016 )
- September 21 : Tonny Ahm , Danish badminton player († 1993 )
- September 21 : John Kluge , German-American businessman († 2010 )
- September 21 : Leroy Stewart , American jazz musician († 1987 )
- September 22 : Hōjō Tamio , Japanese writer († 1937 )
- September 22 : Siegfried Lowitz , German actor († 1999 )
- September 23 : Leo Adamek , German politician († 2000 )
- September 23 : Norman Cazden , American composer († 1980 )
- September 24 : Jiří Kolář , Czech poet and visual artist († 2002 )
- September 24 : Lee Moore , American country musician († 1997 )
- September 24 : Andrzej Panufnik , Polish composer († 1991 )
- September 24th : Horst Winter , German-Austrian musician († 2001 )
- September 26 : Werner Albring , German engineer († 2007 )
- September 26 : Achille Compagnoni , Italian mountaineer († 2009 )
- September 26 : Jack LaLanne , founder of the US fitness movement († 2011 )
- September 27 : Ernst Ferber , German general († 1998 )
- September 28 : Giuseppe Accattino , Italian film director, screenwriter and producer († 1979 )
- September 28 : Luigi Dadaglio , Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church († 1990 )
- September 28 : Maria Franziska von Trapp , US missionary († 2014 )
- September 29 : Jean Laroche , French racing driver († 1967 )
- September 29 : Tsuji Ryōichi , Japanese writer († 2013 )
- September 30 : Baby Ray , American football player († 1986 )
- October 1 : Herbert Friedrich Andréas , German historian and bibliographer († 1984 )
- October 1 : Daniel J. Boorstin , Head of the Library of Congress († 2004 )
- October 2 : Franz Hubmann , Austrian photographer and photojournalist († 2007 )
- October 3 : Sylvio Lacharité , Canadian conductor and composer († 1983 )
- October 3 : Jan Nowak-Jeziorański , Polish journalist, writer and patriot († 2005 )
- October 5 : Elfriede Kaun , German athlete († 2008 )
- October 6 : Thor Heyerdahl , Norwegian anthropologist and adventurer († 2002 )
- October 7th : Georg von Metaxa , Austrian tennis player († 1944 )
- October 8 : William Egan , American politician († 1984 )
- October 8 : Robert Pierce , American journalist and evangelist († 1978 )
- October 9 : Edward Andrews , American actor († 1985 )
- October 10 : Ivory Joe Hunter , American R&B singer, pianist and songwriter († 1974 )
- October 10 : Mario Lanzi , Italian athlete († 1980 )
- October 10 : Agostino Straulino , Italian yachtsman († 2004 )
- October 11 : Reuben Fine , American chess player and psychoanalyst († 1993 )
- October 11th : Marc Gignoux , French racing car driver († 1991 )
- October 12 : Thomas Windisch , composer, architect, painter, poet and pianist († 2005 )
- October 14 : József Ács , Yugoslav painter, art educator and art critic († 1990 )
- October 14 : Raymond Davis Jr. , American physicist († 2006 )
- October 14 : Richard Durrance , American skier († 2004 )
- October 14 : Hanne Landgraf , German politician († 2005 )
- October 15 : Karl Lütgendorf , Austrian politician († 1981 )
- October 15 : Mohammed Sahir Shah , Afghan King 1933–1973 († 2007 )
- October 17th : Michael Danzinger , Austrian pianist, entertainer and composer († 2007 )
- October 17 : Jerry Siegel , American author and co-inventor of the comic book Superman († 1996 )
- October 18 : Louis Pons , French racing car driver († 1980 )
- October 19 : Gerd Sannemüller , German composer and musicologist († 2008 )
- October 20 : Mario Luzi , Italian poet († 2005 )
- October 20 : Fayard Antonio Nicholas , American dancer, singer and actor († 2006 )
- October 21 : Samuel W. Alderson , American inventor († 2005 )
- October 21 : Martin Gardner , American science journalist and non-fiction author († 2010 )
- October 21 : Johann Houschka , Austrian field handball player († 1983 )
- October 21 : Cardinal Kazimierz Świątek , Senior Archbishop of Minsk († 2011 )
- October 22 : Kurt Laqueur , German diplomat († 1997 )
- October 23 : Frank Kinard , American football player and coach († 1985 )
- October 23 : Otto Koenig , Austrian behavioral scientist, zoologist and writer († 1992 )
- October 24 : Charles Howard Anderson , American eventing rider and Olympic champion († 1993 )
- October 24 : Karl Kotratschek , Austrian athlete († 1941 )
- October 25 : Warren Arthur Ambrose , American mathematician († 1995 )
- October 25 : Max Eckard , German actor († 1998 )
- October 26 : Raymond Arveiller , French Romance studies and lexicologist († 1997 )
- October 26 : Jackie Coogan , American actor and child star († 1984 )
- October 26 : Otto Matzerath , German conductor († 1963 )
- October 27 : Hermann Geiger , Swiss rescue pilot and pioneer of glacier flights († 1966 )
- October 27 : Jan Kott , Polish theater scholar and translator († 2001 )
- October 27 : Dylan Thomas , Welsh poet († 1953 )
- October 28 : Liesel Beckmann , German professor of business administration († 1965 )
- October 28 : Jonas Salk , American doctor and immunologist († 1995 )
- October 28 : Richard LM Synge , English chemist († 1994 )
- October 30 : Krystana Iwanowa Janewa , Bulgarian resistance fighter († 1944 )
- October 31 : Robert E. Smylie , American politician († 2004 )
- November 1 : Adam Berberich , German politician († 2001 )
- November 1 : Yamazaki Hōdai , Japanese writer († 1985 )
- November 2 : Felicitas Kukuck , German composer († 2001 )
- November 2 : Ray Walston , American actor († 2001 )
- November 2 : Dale Wasserman , American writer († 2008 )
- November 3 : Leo Bardischewski , German actor and voice actor († 1995 )
- November 3 : Gyula Trebitsch , Hungarian film producer († 2005 )
- November 4 : Ernst Knaack , German communist and resistance fighter († 1944 )
- November 5 : Herbert Czaja , German politician († 1997 )
- November 5 : Emmanuel Kiwanuka Nsubuga , Archbishop of Kampala and Cardinal († 1991 )
- November 5 : Snjolaug Sigurdson , Canadian pianist and music teacher († 1979 )
- November 7 : Raphael Aloysius Lafferty , American science fiction and fantasy writer († 2002 )
- November 8 : George Dantzig , American mathematician († 2005 )
- November 8 : Norman Lloyd , American director, producer and actor
- November 9 : Hedy Lamarr , actress and inventor († 2000 )
- November 10 : Alan Graham Apley , English orthopedist and editor († 1996 )
- November 10 : Edmund Conen , German football player († 1990 )
- November 11 : EV Cunningham , American writer († 2003 )
- November 12 : Edward Schillebeeckx , Belgian religious and theologian († 2009 )
- November 12th : Peter Whitehead , English Formula 1 racing driver († 1958 )
- November 13 : David Cohen , American politician († 2005 )
- November 13 : William Gibson , American playwright († 2008 )
- November 13 : John Latouche , American writer and librettist († 1956 )
- November 13 : Alberto Lattuada , Italian film director († 2005 )
- November 13 : Paul Lücke , German building minister and interior minister († 1976 )
- November 14 : Raúl Banfi , Uruguayan football player († 1982 )
- November 14 : Eric Crozier , English opera director and librettist († 1994 )
- November 15 : Jorge Bolet , American-Cuban pianist († 1990 )
- November 15 : Giuseppe Caprio , Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church († 2005 )
- November 15 : Vladimir Lotaryov , Soviet designer of jet engines († 1994 )
- November 16 : Bernhard Balkenhol , German politician († 2004 )
- November 17 : Christa Johannsen , German writer and translator († 1981 )
- November 17 : Marianne Kühn , German politician († 2005 )
- November 18 : Alfred Abegg , Swiss politician († 1998 )
- November 18 : Anatols Imermanis , Latvian writer († 1998 )
- November 19 : Mills E. Godwin , American politician († 1999 )
- November 20 : Fritz Goller , German composer († 1986 )
- November 20 : Emilio Pucci , Italian fashion designer († 1992 )
- November 21 : Michael Grant , English classical philologist and ancient historian († 2004 )
- November 21 : Henri Marie Laborit , French neurologist, doctor and chemist († 1995 )
- November 21 : Abd al-Karim Qasim , Iraqi Prime Minister († 1963 )
- November 24th : Hilde Bussmann , German table tennis player († 1988 )
- November 24th : Agostino Casaroli , Cardinal Secretary of State of the Roman Catholic Church († 1998 )
- November 24 : Khoren I. Mesrob Paroyan , Catholicos of the Great House of Cilicia († 1983 )
- November 25 : Eddie Boyd , American musician († 1994 )
- November 25 : Joe DiMaggio , American baseball player († 1999 )
- November 26th : Cuno Fischer , German painter, set designer and designer († 1973 )
- November 29 : Kurt Böhner , German historian († 2007 )
- November 30th : Charles Hawtrey , British actor († 1988 )
- December 1 : Knud Børge Andersen , Danish politician († 1984 )
- December 2 : Bill Erwin , American actor († 2010 )
- December 2 : Pops Staples , American gospel and R&B musician († 2000 )
- December 4 : Rudolf Hausner , Austrian painter and graphic artist († 1995 )
- December 5 : Anatole Abragam , French physicist († 2011 )
- December 5 : Hans Hellmut Kirst , German writer († 1989 )
- December 8 : Ruth Amiran , Israeli archaeologist († 2005 )
- December 8th : Hilda Horak , Slovenian pianist, music teacher and composer († 1995 )
- December 8th : Pál Patay , Hungarian archaeologist
- December 9 : Herbert Hunger , Austrian Byzantinist († 2000 )
- December 9 : Walter Jokisch , German actor († 1984 )
- December 9 : Frances Reid , American actress († 2010 )
- December 10 : Roman Jankowiak , Polish conductor and music teacher († 1983 )
- December 10 : Erich Pizka , Austrian horn player and professor († 1996 )
- December 12 : Patrick O'Brian , writer († 2000 )
- December 13 : Alan Bullock , British historian († 2004 )
- December 13 : Ludwig Kaindl , German athlete († 1995 )
- December 13 : Paul Michaelis , German painter († 2005 )
- December 14 : Karl Carstens , German politician, Federal President of the FRG 1979–84 († 1992 )
- December 14 : Rainer Hildebrandt , German civil rights activist, historian, author and publicist († 2004 )
- December 14th : Martin Securel , German classical philologist († 2009 )
- December 14 : Lieselotte Wicke , German politician († 1989 )
- December 17th : Oktay Aslanapa , Turkish art historian († 2013 )
- December 17th : Francis Bay , Belgian conductor († 2005 )
- December 17 : Wilhelm Traub , German politician († 1998 )
- December 18 : Connie Curtis Crayton , American blues singer and guitarist († 1985 )
- December 18 : Tatsuo Matsumura , Japanese actor († 2005 )
- December 19 : Franz Josef Attems-Petzenstein , Austrian major general († 2003 )
- December 20 : Alfred Hoffmann , German ice hockey goalkeeper
- December 20 : Romeo C. Espino , General of the Armed Forces of the Philippines († unknown)
- December 22nd : Klaus Konrad , German politician († 2006 )
- December 23 : David Alexander , American film director and film producer († 1983 )
- December 23 : Hans Hermsdorf , German politician († 2001 )
- December 24th : Alfred Dompert , German athlete († 1991 )
- December 24th : Herbert Reinecker , German journalist and author († 2007 )
- December 25 : Konrad Georg , German actor († 1987 )
- December 26 : Murlidhar Devidas Office , Indian human rights activist († 2008 )
- December 26 : Gil Duggan , American football player († 1974 )
- December 26th : Annemarie Wendl , German actress († 2006 )
- December 26 : Richard Widmark , American actor († 2008 )
- December 27 : Giuseppe Berto , Italian writer († 1978 )
- December 27 : Dorris Bowdon , American actress († 2005 )
- December 29th : Alfred Vohrer , German film director († 1986 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Wilhelm Paul Ackermann , German-Swedish naturopath and doctor († 2002 )
- Ibrahim Ahmed , Kurdish author, writer and translator († 2000 )
- Muhammad Nasiruddin al-Albani , Albanian scholar († 1999 )
- David Asseo , Turkish Grand Rabbi († 2002 )
- John Dembeck , Canadian violinist and violist († 1993 )
- Aussie Elliott , American criminal († 1934 )
- Lou Fine , American comic book artist and illustrator († 1971 )
- Tito Okello , head of state of Uganda 1985/1986 († 1996 )
- Efraim Reuytenberg , Israeli painter († 2005 )
- Maria Gabriella Sagheddu , Italian Trappist and Catholic Blessed († 1939 )
- Sterjo Spasse , Albanian writer († 1989 )
- Mohammad Yusuf , Afghan politician and technocrat († 1998 )
- January 13 : Alfred Lichtwark , German art historian, museum director and art teacher (* 1852 )
- January 14th : Franz Rudolph Wurlitzer , American musical instrument manufacturer (* 1831 )
- January 15 : Friedrich Leo , German classical philologist (* 1851 )
- January 18 : Marie-Georges Picquart , French officer, minister of war and involved in the Dreyfus affair (* 1854 )
- January 19 : Heinrich Rudolf Genée , German writer (* 1824 )
- January 21 : Mirza Abu'l-Fadl , Persian Baha'i theologian (* 1844 )
- January 21 : Donald Smith , Canadian entrepreneur, politician and diplomat (* 1820 )
- January 26 : Lyman R. Casey , American politician (* 1837 )
- January 30 : Matthias Büssem , German clergyman (* 1848 )
- February 3 : Wenzel Josef Heller , Bohemian composer, church musician, military bandmaster and choir director (* 1849 )
- February 6 : Peter Auzinger , German actor (* 1836 )
- February 13 : Alphonse Bertillon , French criminalist and anthropologist (* 1853 )
- February 16 : Shūzō Aoki , Japanese diplomat and politician (* 1844 )
- March 1st : Tor Aulin , Swedish composer (* 1866 )
- March 1 : Mehmed Said Pascha , Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire (* 1838 )
- March 3 : Victor Nováček , Czech violinist and music teacher (* 1875 )
- March 4 : Benjamin Dwight Allen , American composer (* 1831 )
- March 5 : William A. Massey , American politician (* 1856 )
- March 5 : Georgi Sedov , Russian naval officer and polar explorer (* 1877 )
- March 6 : George Washington Vanderbilt II , American art collector (* 1862 )
- March 7th : Henryk Dobrzycki , Polish doctor, philanthropist and composer (* 1841 )
- March 12 : Edwin O. Stanard , American politician (* 1832 )
- March 12th : George Westinghouse , American inventor (* 1846 )
- March 13 : Nuur ud-Din , Khalifat ul-Masih I. (* 1841 )
- March 16 : Gaston Calmette , French journalist and newspaper director (* 1858 )
- March 16 : Charles Albert Gobat , Swiss politician and Nobel Peace Prize Laureate (* 1843 )
- March 16 : John Murray , British oceanographer (* 1841 )
- March 17th : Giuseppe Buonamici , Italian composer (* 1846 )
- March 22nd : Theodor Borrer , Swiss aviation pioneer (* 1894 )
- March 23 : Rafqa Pietra Choboq Ar-Rayès , saint of the Catholic Church (* 1832 )
- March 25 : Frédéric Mistral , French poet and linguist (* 1830 )
- March 26 : Max Hagen , German landscape painter, draftsman and caricaturist (* 1859 )
- March 30th : John Henry Poynting , English physicist (* 1852 )
- March 31 : Christian Morgenstern , German poet and writer (* 1871 )
- March 31 : Hubert von Herkomer , English painter, sculptor, musician and writer (* 1849 )
- April 2 : Paul Heyse , German writer and winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature (* 1830 )
- April 7th : Sardar Mohammed Ayub Khan , interim regent of Afghanistan (* 1857 )
- April 8 : Jakub Arbes , Bohemian journalist and writer (* 1840 )
- April 10 : Ferdinand Leopold Freiherr von Andrian-Werburg , Austrian geologist and anthropologist (* 1835 )
- April 10 : Karl Ernst Schrod , German auxiliary bishop (* 1841 )
- April 11th : Helena Guerra , Blessed, Italian nun (* 1835 )
- April 12 : Josef Nešvera , Czech composer (* 1842 )
- April 16 : Hermann Ahlwardt , German elementary school teacher and anti-Semitic agitator (* 1846 )
- April 16 : George William Hill , American astronomer and mathematician (* 1838 )
- April 19 : Emil Heinrich Otto Müller , German classical philologist and pedagogue (* 1826 )
- April 19 : Karl Dehner , German homeland researcher (* 1862 )
- April 19 : Charles Sanders Peirce , American mathematician, philosopher and logician (* 1839 )
- April 28 : Thomas G. Jones , American politician (* 1844 )
- May 1 : Hermann Frasch , German-American chemist and technologist (* 1851 )
- May 12 : Willy Pöge , German entrepreneur, horse, cyclist and motor sportsman (* 1869 )
- May 22nd : Carl Attenhofer , Swiss composer, conductor, singer, organist and university music director (* 1837 )
- May 23 : William O'Connell Bradley , American politician (* 1847 )
- May 25 : Heinrich Vogelsang , German businessman (* 1862 )
- May 30th : Alfred Agostinelli , French mechanic, chauffeur and secretary (* 1888 )
- June 11th : Adolf Friedrich V , Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (* 1848 )
- June 18 : Frank Hiscock , American politician (* 1834 )
- June 21 : Bertha von Suttner , Austrian pacifist (* 1843 )
- June 25th : Georg II , Duke of Saxony-Meiningen, known as "Theater Duke" (* 1826 )
- June 28 : Franz Ferdinand , son of Archduke Karl Ludwig of Austria (* 1863 )
- June 28 : Sophie von Hohenberg-Chotek , wife of Franz Ferdinand of Austria (* 1868 )
- July 2 : Joseph Chamberlain , British politician (* 1836 )
- July 3 : Hermann Suchier , German Romanist (* 1848 )
- July 6 : Delmira Agustini , Uruguayan poet (* 1886 )
- July 8 : Carel Herman Aart van der Wijck , Governor General of the Dutch East Indies (* 1840 )
- July 11 : Julius Rodenberg , German writer (* 1831 )
- July 14 : Jürgen Friedrich Ahrens , German teacher and local poet (* 1834 )
- July 16 : Hans Ross , Norwegian linguist (* 1833 )
- July 19 : Alexander Conze , German archaeologist (* 1831 )
- July 31 : Jean Jaurès , French politician (* 1859 )
- August 2nd : Gabriel Dupont , French composer (* 1878 )
- August 9 : Roque Sáenz Peña , Argentinian lawyer and politician (* 1851 )
- August 10 : Paul Adolph , German lawyer and politician (* 1840 )
- August 10 : John Butler Smith , American politician (* 1838 )
- August 12 : John Philip Holland , American submarine designer (* 1841 )
- August 15 : Franz Georg von Glasenapp , German general (* 1857 )
- August 20 : Max Theodor von Karajan , Austrian classical philologist (* 1833 )
- August 22nd : Spencer Wishart American racing driver (* 1889 )
- August 20 : Giuseppe Melchiorre Sarto, under the name of Pius X Pope (* 1835 )
- August 24 : Johannes Weiß , Protestant theologian (* 1863 )
- August 24 : Chester B. Jordan , American politician (* 1839 )
- August 27 : Eugen Böhm von Bawerk , Austrian economist (* 1851 )
- August 28 : Anatoly Lyadow , Russian composer (* 1855 )
- August 29 : Rudolf Ahorn , German football player (* 1890 )
- August 29 : George Shoobridge Carr , British mathematician (* 1837 )
- August 31 : Lucy Lloyd , British-South African linguist and ethnologist (* 1834 )
- September 2 : Salomon Haberland , German entrepreneur (* 1836 )
- September 4 : Theodor Weber , German medic (* 1829 )
- September 5 : Charles Péguy , French writer (* 1873 )
- September 6 : Emil Rausch (officer) , German officer and colonial official (* 1877 )
- September 9 : Albert Arnz , German landscape painter (* 1832 )
- September 13 : Charles N. Felton , American politician (* 1832 )
- September 22 : Alain-Fournier , French writer (* 1886 )
- September 25 : Alfred Lichtenstein , German poet (* 1889 )
- September 26 : Hermann Löns , German writer (* 1866 )
- September 26 : Ernst Wilhelm Lotz , German Expressionist poet (* 1890 )
- September 26 : August Macke , German Expressionist painter (* 1887 )
- September 26 : Emil von Rappard , German officer (* 1863 )
- September 27 : Robert von Pöhlmann , German ancient historian (* 1852 )
- September 28 : Conrad Wilhelm Kambli , Swiss Protestant clergyman (* 1829 )
- September 29th : Jean Bouin , French athlete, world record holder (* 1888 )
- October 1 : Friedrich Wilhelm Oskar von Arnstedt , German administrative lawyer (* 1840 )
- October 7 : Gabriel Montoya , French chansonnier and poet (* 1868 )
- October 9 : Hans Erlwein , German builder (* 1872 )
- October 10 : Johan Jacob Ahrenberg , Finnish-Swedish architect and writer (* 1847 )
- October 10 : Carol I , Romanian prince and king from the House of Hohenzollern (* 1839 )
- October 13 : Paulin Gschwind , Swiss Catholic and later Christian Catholic clergyman (* 1833 )
- October 15 : Tycho von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff , German classical philologist (* 1885 )
- October 19 : Julio Argentino Roca , Argentine President (* 1843 )
- October 23 : Peter Kollwitz , German painter (* 1896 )
- October 23 : Siegfried Sudhaus , German classical philologist and papyrologist (* 1863 )
- October 24 : Gustav Wied , Danish writer (* 1858 )
- October 28 : Richard Heuberger , Austrian composer (* 1850 )
- October 29 : Julius von Zech auf Neuhofen , German officer and colonial official (* 1868 )
- October 30 : Ernst Stadler , Alsatian poet (* 1883 )
- November 1 : Christopher Cradock , British admiral (* 1862 )
- November 3 : Georg Trakl , Austrian poet (* 1887 )
- November 4 : John Kean , American politician (* 1852 )
- November 4 : Erich Köhler , German naval officer (* 1873 )
- November 4 : Tom von Prince , German colonial officer (* 1866 )
- November 4th : Paul Prüssing , German chemist (* 1861 )
- November 5 : August Weismann , German biologist (* 1834 )
- November 7th : Gerard Anderson , British hurdler (* 1889 )
- November 10 : Max L. Strack , German ancient historian (* 1867 )
- November 12 : Augusto dos Anjos , Brazilian poet (* 1884 )
- November 12 : Sylvester Stieber , German officer and colonial official (* 1867 )
- November 14 : Marie Karchow-Lindner , German actress, journalist and patron (* 1842 )
- November 15 : Leonhard Tietz , German businessman (* 1849 )
- November 16 : Sattar Khan , Iranian revolutionary leader (* 1868 )
- November 26th : Eduard Kremser , Austrian composer, arranger and conductor (* 1838 )
- November 28 : Johann Wilhelm Hittorf , German physicist and chemist (* 1824 )
- November 30th : Arnold Lang , Swiss zoologist (* 1855 )
- December 1 : Alfred Thayer Mahan , American admiral (* 1840 )
- December 5 : Charles Malo , French orchestra leader and composer (* 1835 )
- December 8th : Melchior Anderegg , Swiss mountain guide (* 1828 )
- December 8 : Maximilian Graf von Spee , German naval officer (* 1861 )
- December 9 : John Andrew Arthur , Australian politician (* 1875 )
- December 16 : Emil Usteri , Swiss Jesuit and university professor in India (* 1839 )
- December 18 : Cherubine Willimann , superior general in Koblenz (* 1842 )
- December 22nd : William S. West , American politician (* 1849 )
- December 23 : Hugo Zuckermann , German writer and Zionist (* 1881 )
- December 25 : Bernhard Stavenhagen , German composer (* 1862 )
- December 28 : Hans Karl Georg Otto Heinrich Felix von Arnim , Prussian politician (* 1841 )
- December 28 : Ludwig Auer , German Christian educational reformer, writer, publisher and entrepreneur (* 1839 )
Exact date of death unknown
- probably in January: Ambrose Bierce , American narrator (* 1842 )
- Hermann Bürkle , German football player (* 1884 )
- Joaquín Fabres , Chilean painter (* 1864 )
- Ernst Kullak , German composer (* 1855 )
- Isaac Burney Yeo , English medic (* 1835 )