Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Este

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Franz Ferdinand Carl Ludwig Joseph Maria of Austria-Este (born December 18, 1863 in Graz , † June 28, 1914 in Sarajevo ) was Austrian Archduke and heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary from the House of Habsburg-Lothringen since 1896 . During the assassination attempt in Sarajevo , he and his wife Sophie Duchess von Hohenberg were murdered by the Serbian nationalist Gavrilo Princip . The act sparked the July crisis from leading to the First World War led.

Franz Ferdinand (picture by Ferdinand Schmutzer - around 1914)
Signature of Franz Ferdinand; the Archduke, known only by his first name, Franz, in the early years of his life, only signed with this


Childhood and youth

Franz Ferdinand, only known as Archduke Franz in his younger years, was the son of Karl Ludwig of Austria , the second eldest of the three brothers of Emperor Franz Joseph I , and Princess Maria Annunziata of Naples-Sicily . When he was eight years old, his mother died. He spent the summers near Reichenau an der Rax in the Villa Wartholz or in Artstetten Castle in Lower Austria. He was close friends with his cousin Rudolf , the Austro-Hungarian Crown Prince . He developed a close relationship with his stepmother Marie Therese of Portugal ; she married his father when Franz Ferdinand was nine and a half years old. Later she was also in a crisis about his inappropriate marriage in contrast to his relatives to him.

Inheritance d'Este

Franz Ferdinand at a young age

Archduke Franz V of Austria-Este , until 1859 Duke of Modena , Massa , Carrara and Guastalla († November 20, 1875), offered the father of Franz Ferdinand to appoint one of his sons as heir - on the condition that he had the Accept the name Estonian and learn a fair amount of Italian within twelve months . Karl Ludwig informed his two older sons about it (Archduke Ferdinand Karl was still too young), whereby Archduke Otto strictly rejected the request to learn the Italian language. Franz Ferdinand, however, undertook to do so.

After the emperor gave his permission, "-Este" was added to his Habsburg name and he received Italian lessons. However, it was very difficult for him to learn Italian. He passed on his aversion to the language to the Italians and never visited his extensive estates in northern Italy . According to the will, he was not allowed to sell the inheritance. After the heir to the throne was assassinated in 1914, the name Austria-Este passed to Franz Ferdinand's great-nephew, Archduke Robert , the son of the later Emperor Karl I. A large part of the Este archive has remained in Artstetten Castle .


He was taught privately with his younger brother Otto Franz Joseph under the direction of Count Ferdinand von Degenfeld-Schonburg (1835-1892).

Franz Ferdinand's stepmother Marie Therese of Portugal then looked for new teachers and won over the historian Onno Klopp , who taught the Archduke history for six years, from 1876 to 1882, and the provost Godfried Marschall . Both gained great influence on the young Archduke and decisively shaped his attitude towards life. Klopp influenced the young man by giving him an exaggerated Habsburg sense of mission and gave him lectures on his high calling and divine grace . His new religion teacher Marschall managed to win the affection of Franz Ferdinand. Marschall, who became provost of the Votive Church in Vienna in 1880 and auxiliary bishop in Vienna in 1901 , was Franz Ferdinand's closest friend and advisor for many years and had a great influence on him. The relationship of trust later broke due to the morganatic marriage of the heir to the throne.


“The first elephant” - Franz Ferdinand in front of a killed elephant, during his world tour in Kalawewa, Ceylon , in 1893 , photo taken by Eduard Hodek junior

Franz Ferdinand shot his first game at the age of nine. Hunting later became his great passion, and he is said to have been an extremely good shooter. He maintained several large hunting grounds. As can be seen from the fully preserved shot lists, Franz Ferdinand shot 274,889 game heads in the course of his life. Including many exotic animals such as tigers, lions and elephants when hunting big game on his long trips around the world. In 1911 alone he shot 18,799 game, the “daily record” was 2763 black-headed gulls on a June day in 1908 . He has been considered one of the best marksmen in the world since the early 1890s. His huge trophy collection is still in Konopiště Castle . In Artstetten Castle you can see the coins that he struck with the same shotgun after placing a bet on his trip to India.

The “passion bordering on the addict” is unanimously perceived as one of the darkest sides of Franz Ferdinand's personality and is described by historians as “feudal mass slaughter”, “game slaughter, carrion, mass murder” or “pathological gunfury”, in which he uses “ruthless energy “Proceeded. Paul Sethe analyzed that Franz Ferdinand was "a child of the signs of decay of his time", "that numbers, the masses, are more important to him than the joy of stalking ..."

It should be noted, however, that the heir to the throne was usually invited as a guest of honor at hunts and the drivers directed the game to its shooting range. At the same time he developed a strong environmental awareness and promoted numerous ecological projects on his property.

Before the succession

From 1878 Franz Ferdinand received military training that led him through the entire monarchy: He was with the infantry in Bohemia, the hussars in Hungary and the dragoons in Upper Austria . In 1889 his father gave him Artstetten Castle in Lower Austria, which is now a museum for Franz Ferdinand. In 1899 he was promoted to general of the cavalry ; he also held the rank of admiral . During his military service, he contracted pulmonary tuberculosis several times , from which his mother had already died, and in the fall of 1895 even had to temporarily retire from active service.

In 1892/1893 he undertook a trip around the world on medical advice with a large entourage on the torpedo cruiser SMS Kaiserin Elisabeth . The trip was officially declared a scientific expedition in order to silence rumors about the Archduke's poor health. The journey took him from Trieste to India , Indonesia , Australia , Japan , Canada and North America . He described his resulting impressions and experiences in the book Diary of my journey around the earth ( Vienna , Alfred Hölder, 1895). This diary, which is kept in Artstetten Castle, clearly shows the influence the world tour had on his later political ideas. Among other things, he was convinced that only a federal system could keep the multi-ethnic state alive and that Austria absolutely needed a stronger navy in order to be politically active internationally. 14,000 ethnological objects from this trip are now in the Weltmuseum Wien . In the winters of 1895 and 1896 he undertook further extended spa stays , including in Egypt , and, contrary to many expectations, recovered from his illness.

After the suicide of his cousin Crown Prince Rudolf at Mayerling Castle on January 30, 1889 and the death of his father Karl Ludwig in 1896, Franz Ferdinand was the heir to the throne of his ruling uncle Franz Joseph I according to the Habsburg house laws . Several attempts to marry him befitting his status , among others with the widowed Crown Princess Stephanie or the Saxon Princess Mathilde , failed.

Marriage to Sophie Chotek

Sophie Countess Chotek

On July 1, 1900, Franz Ferdinand Sophie married Countess Chotek , lady-in-waiting to Archduke Friedrich and his wife Isabella von Croy-Dülmen and daughter of a Bohemian count, who was made Princess of Hohenberg by the Emperor and Duchess of Hohenberg in 1909 on the occasion of the wedding.

Despite her origins from the Bohemian nobility ( see Chotek von Chotkow ) she was not considered equal to the Habsburgs ; Moreover, she was perceived by courtiers who were not well-meaning to her as simple, austere, rarely smiling, willing to serve, housewife, modest and faithful to the letter, godly. Since Emperor Franz Joseph I could not bring himself to include her family in the list of equal sexes, after long reluctance he only allowed an morganatic marriage on the condition that Sophie was not "the future Empress-wife", but only "wife of the future emperor ”and the later descendants of the couple, who bore the von Hohenberg family name , had no claim to the throne.

A study commissioned by him shows that Franz Ferdinand had his morganatic marriage justified by historians to the extent that the usual inter-family marriages affect the health of the offspring. The choice of the name Hohenberg is also astonishing, which appears with Gertrude von Hohenberg as the wife of Emperor Rudolf I at the very beginning of the Habsburg monarchy and finally becomes prominent again at the very end of the same monarchy. In the circle of the immediate family, the choice of name is interpreted as an act of donation from Emperor Franz Joseph and renewal.

Franz Ferdinand signed an official act on June 28, 1900, acknowledging the inequality of his bride and the renunciation of the throne for his descendants from the planned morganatic marriage in the Vienna Hofburg in the presence of the emperor and numerous high dignitaries.

These strict inheritance regulations only applied to Austria. In Bohemia and Hungary, however, Sophie could very well have become queen and her children heir to the throne. Franz Ferdinand renounced these claims in his declaration, however, with regard to the unity of the empire.

The wedding with Sophie brought Franz Ferdinand into a big conflict with his relatives. Franz Ferdinand's younger brothers Otto and Ferdinand Karl did not appear for the wedding, nor did their sister Margarete Sophie . On the wedding photo, which can be seen at Artstetten Castle , the small circle of guests is shown. The widespread contempt and humiliation can be measured by the fact that at weddings of other heirs to the throne or monarchs, an opulent ceremony in the presence of representatives of many other ruling houses was customary. From his extensive family, only his stepmother Maria Theresa and her two daughters Maria Annunziata and Elisabeth Amalie took part.

Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife
( Kosel court studio , around 1914)

The couple will never have regretted their decision to marry, despite this and many other humiliations. According to the strict court protocol, Sophie was not allowed to appear at her husband's side on official occasions. While Franz Ferdinand came as heir to the throne right behind the emperor, Sophie had to line up after the various ladies-in-waiting and dignitaries of the monarchy. In his function as Inspector General of the Armed Power, Franz Ferdinand was allowed to appear as an officer with his wife according to the protocol. The couple took advantage of this loophole in the otherwise strict protocol of the monarchy, tragically also in Sarajevo in 1914.

Franz Ferdinand's marriage to Sophie von Hohenberg had four children who had to bear the family name of their mother:

Franz Ferdinand and Sophie were thus the first parents of the Hohenberg family, which was noble in Austria until 1919 . The family had their seat in the Belvedere Palace in Vienna , their summer residence was Konopiště Palace in Bohemia , which was expropriated by the Czechoslovak state at the end of 1918 without compensation. The children were then moved to Austria. The brother-in-law of the heir to the throne, Count Thun-Hohenstein, became her legal guardian and negotiated with Emperor Karl I on her behalf to legally withdraw from the family fund. The headquarters of the descendants became Artstetten Castle in Lower Austria. The eldest son, Max Hohenberg, became a legal representative of Otto Habsburg-Lothringen in Austria.


Franz Ferdinand (right) during an imperial maneuver in 1909

Although he was never officially involved in the leadership of the Austro-Hungarian Dual Monarchy , Franz Ferdinand was actively involved in imperial politics. To this end, he resided with a staff of advisors - the so-called "military chancellery", headed by Alexander von Brosch-Aarenau and his successor Carl von Bardolff - in Belvedere Palace . After his accession to the throne, he would have chosen the name Franz II . He pushed the military development of the armed forces ( joint army and navy ) and planned to strengthen the central power and weaken dualism .

Trialism - Federalism - Centralism

The reforms would have led to the amalgamation of Croatia , Bosnia and Dalmatia into a separate part of the empire ( southern Slavia), which would have competed with Serbia's interest in founding a southern Slav kingdom under Serbian leadership. These plans and the heated public discussion fueled the Serbs' hatred of Franz Ferdinand and the Habsburgs .

Trialism ” (Austria-Hungary-South Slavia) had, in addition to Croatian conservative circles, Franz Ferdinand as a sponsor at times; however, its reform plans soon developed in the direction of comprehensive federalization . His anti-Hungarian plans related primarily to the Hungarian nationalities, not because they were socially and politically disadvantaged, but because he considered them loyal to the state. However, this goal could hardly be achieved by the Crown Land federalism, initially favored by Franz Ferdinand, which did not take ethnic conditions into account.

Ultimately, the heir to the throne became the focal point of the Greater Austrian movement , which envisaged a federalization of all the peoples of the empire on an ethnic basis, although ultimately he could not fully agree with their most pronounced ideological support, Popovici's federalization concept . Franz Ferdinand technically never committed himself to any of these plans; his intentions sometimes contradicted each other and were often vague. He pursued a mixture of ethnic and historical-traditional federalism, occasionally reverted to trialism and advocated a kind of watered-down centralism. In addition to the political archive of the military chancellery in the court and state archive, there is extensive documentation at Artstetten Castle about his plans and those of his advisors.

Strengthening the defense force

The heir to the throne was placed by the emperor on March 29, 1898 as an officer "at the disposal of my supreme command"; the emperor granted him his own military staff and announced that Franz Ferdinand would now "gain ample insight into all the conditions of the armed forces on land and at sea, which one day will serve the common good for the best".

From 1906 on, Alexander Brosch, as a wing adjutant for Franz Ferdinand, expanded his military chancellery into an instrument of observation and influencing of the entire policy of the dual monarchy; it has been called a subsidiary government by critics.

Commissioned with an analysis of the military strength of the monarchy, the heir to the throne succeeded in 1906 in the removal of the 65-year-old Minister of War Heinrich von Pitreich and the 76-year-old Chief of Staff Friedrich von Beck-Rzikowsky (popularly jokingly called " Vice Emperor "), a special confidante of the of the same age as the emperor; this was replaced by the 54-year-old Franz Conrad von Hötzendorf .

When Conrad was ousted by the emperor in 1911 for pursuing preventive war plans against Serbia, the heir to the throne ensured that he could return to office in 1912. However, Franz Ferdinand was an opponent of the ill-considered military approach and wanted to avoid a war with Russia , so that “the Tsar and the Emperor of Austria would not overthrow each other from the throne and clear the way for the revolution”. In doing so, he repeatedly opposed Conrad, who was a proponent of preventive wars.

A war against Serbia was also rejected by Franz Ferdinand in a letter to Count Leopold Berchtold as early as 1913 : “If we wage a special war with Serbia, we will destroy it in the shortest possible time, but what then? And what do we get from it? First of all, then all of Europe will attack us (...) and God forbid us if we annex Serbia; a totally indebted country with royal killers, rascals etc. And where we can't even cope with Bosnia (...) And now, in my opinion, there is only politics to watch how the others cut their heads in, incite them as much as possible and to keep the peace for the monarchy. "

Franz Ferdinand also played a major role in the expansion of the Austro-Hungarian Navy . After 1900 he was able to enforce numerous new ships and was also responsible for the introduction of submarines from 1908.

On the eve of his 83rd birthday, Emperor Franz Joseph I appointed the heir to the throne on August 17, 1913 as inspector general of all armed power and decreed that Franz Ferdinand's military chancellery should now be called the chancellery of the inspector general of all armed power .

honors and awards

Franz Ferdinand as Emperor of Austria, portrait by Wilhelm Vita (HGM)

The heir to the throne was awarded high orders, often for reasons of protocol. Like all archdukes of age, he was the bearer of the Golden Fleece (the house order of the Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty, which was ranked above all other honors in Austria), knight of the British Order of the Garter , bearer of the Grand Commander's Cross of the royal house order of Hohenzollern , owner of the Japanese chrysanthemum Order and various orders of sovereigns from Sweden to Sicily and from Spain to Bulgaria. In addition, he has received numerous other domestic and foreign medals.

Preparations for the accession to the throne

The coat of arms of Franz Ferdinand

Broch and his successor Bardolff prepared very detailed plans for Franz Ferdinand's accession to the throne in the military chancellery of the heir to the throne. They took into account that he intended a reconstruction of the dual monarchy decreed by the ruler before he could be tied to the traditional order by coronation silk and the like. The Magyar upper class would have been particularly hard hit by this (for whom the grief over his death was then very little). Therefore, in the deliberations, loyal forces who would support Franz Ferdinand had to be valued as well as expected opponents of his state restructuring from above, who intended to push the previous constitutions aside. This is where the diary of his trip around the world becomes important again.

In the so-called “Sarajevo Hall” of the Vienna Army History Museum there is a particularly curious oil painting by Wilhelm Vita . The portrait shows the Archduke in a white gala tunic with the rank of field marshal and with the four grand crosses of the Maria Theresa Order , the Austro -Hungarian Order of St. Stephen and Leopold as well as the Order of the Iron Crown . With the exception of the Order of St. Stephen, these are all attributes that Franz Ferdinand as Archduke and heir to the throne was not entitled to, but which he would have put on in the event of an accession to the throne.

The picture therefore depicts Franz Ferdinand as emperor and may have been intended as a template for official images of the emperor in the event of his accession to the throne. After the assassination of the heir to the throne, the portrait, which had become a utopia, was painted over. In this condition, the painting was acquired by the Army History Museum in 1959 and restored to its original condition after the overpainting was removed.

A similar picture can be seen in Artstetten Castle. It was ordered for the Hofburg from the Czech painter Václav Brožík , who commutes between Prague and Paris , and according to protocol it was supposed to represent the entire imperial family. After Emperor Franz Joseph I fell ill, in order not to lose his commission, the artist took the liberty of making a new sketch in which the heir to the throne is depicted as emperor. The final execution was not carried out because the artist died on April 15, 1901.


Assassination attempt in Sarajevo

Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie died in this automobile
Bullet hole of the bullet that hit Sophie Duchess von Hohenberg

Franz Ferdinand and his wife were in Bosnia-Herzegovina in June 1914 as part of maneuver visits . On June 28, 1914, they paid an official visit to its capital, Sarajevo. The underground organization “ Mlada Bosna ” planned an assassination attempt on this occasion with the help of members of the Serbian secret organization “ Black Hand ”. After an initially unsuccessful attempt at assassination with a hand grenade, the 19-year-old schoolboy Gavrilo Princip killed the Archduke and his wife with two pistol shots, with the heir to the throne being hit in the jugular vein and trachea, shortly thereafter losing consciousness and bleeding to death.

The automobile in which Franz Ferdinand and his wife were shot can be viewed in the Army History Museum in Vienna, where the bullet hole of the bullet that fatally hit Sophie can be clearly seen. The blood-soaked uniform of the heir to the throne can also be viewed (loan from the Archduke Franz Ferdinand Museum, Artstetten Castle). The medals and decorations worn by Franz Ferdinand on the day of his murder, however, are in Konopiště Castle . The blood-stained dress of the Duchess von Hohenberg is also preserved.


The funeral ceremonies were deliberately kept modest by the court because of the inappropriate marriage, the press spoke of a “funeral III. Class".

A full state funeral was out of the question for the heir to the throne anyway; only the monarch himself was entitled to this. Otherwise, Obersthofmeister Prince Montenuovo , not prevented by the Emperor, was content with a minimal program. Burial in the Capuchin Crypt was not possible for the Duchess von Hohenberg . That is why Franz Ferdinand had a crypt built for himself and his family in his Artstetten Castle . Attempts were made to keep the nobility from a funeral procession; The transfer of the coffins to Artstetten took place without the participation of (court) state agencies by the Vienna City Burial. The burial in the family crypt under the parish church in Artstetten Castle took place on July 4th in the family circle.

From the estate of Franz Ferdinand, a museum was built by his descendants in the castle, which shows him not only as an official and dignitary, but also as a private person.

Political consequences of the attack

As can be seen from the minutes of meetings of the Austro-Hungarian Council of Ministers for Common Affairs , Austria-Hungary then wanted to make Serbia harmless forever with a war, and on July 23, 1914, presented the Serbian government with an extremely tough ultimatum limited to 48 hours in which it u. a. demanded the suppression of all actions and propaganda against the territorial integrity of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy and a judicial investigation of the assassination with the participation of Austro-Hungarian officials. The ultimatum was deliberately written in such a way that a sovereign state could not accept it. However, the ultimatum only threatened diplomatic relations and not (yet) war, a delicacy that the Austro-Hungarian Foreign Minister Leopold Graf Berchtold attached great importance to.

Serbia responded to the ultimatum within the given deadline, but did not accept it unconditionally. Finally, Austria-Hungary, with German support, declared war on Serbia on July 28, 1914. The First World War was triggered by the alliance obligations of the great powers of the time .

After the murder of Franz Ferdinand, Charles I became the Austro-Hungarian heir to the throne according to the Habsburg house laws .


Despite his reform plans and unconventional marriage, Franz Ferdinand did not become a popular figure. This was probably due to the resentment of all those who resented his inappropriate marriage and his reform plans, as well as to his being, described as harsh and uninspiring.

The Viennese publicist Karl Kraus , who at times sympathized with him, put it in his obituary as follows: He was not a greeter (...) He was not aiming for that unexplored area that the Viennese call his heart .

The monument in Sarajevo

His lack of understanding of all new cultural developments (e.g. the architecture of Otto Wagner ; see the church at Steinhof opened by Franz Ferdinand in 1907 ), which went as far as reactionary , also contributed to bad defamation. There is a tradition, for example, that at an exhibition he expressed the opinion that all the bones in Oskar Kokoschka's body should be broken.

Beer from the Ferdinand brewery in Benešov

In 1912, Esteplatz in Vienna- Landstrasse (3rd district) was named after the heir to the throne. The Ferdinand brewery , which Franz Ferdinand moved from Konopischt (Konopiště) to Beneschau ( Benešov ) and still produces beer under his name, was named after him.

In 1917 a memorial to the murdered couple was unveiled in Sarajevo. It was removed from the SHS state in 1919 .

Ludwig Winder published a near-source novel in Zurich in 1937 with the title The Heir apparent . It was reissued in East Berlin in 1984. Marcel Reich-Ranicki had the work presented in March 1987 in the series “Novels from yesterday - read today”. Paul Zsolnay Verlag brought out a new edition in 2014 .

As a well-known figure in Austrian history Franz Ferdinand is also found in several feature films, including 1955 in the film To throne and love of Fritz Kortner .

In 1989 the Archduke Franz Ferdinand Museum was established in Artstetten Castle .

The Scottish band Franz Ferdinand , founded in 2001, is named after the Archduke.

2014 marked the hundredth anniversary of the beginning of the First World War; this has been the subject of numerous books, documentaries, etc. The journalist Frank Gerbert (* 1955) published a book in 2014 in which he detailed the last journey of Franz Ferdinand that ended in Sarajevo. In addition, 2014 provided the occasion for numerous other new publications.

In 2014 Artstetten Castle organized a requiem in the castle church and in the basilica of Maria Taferl with more than 90 members of the former imperial family. This became the occasion for larger commemorative events in which numerous politicians also took part.

Fonts (selection)

  • “The natives didn't make a particularly favorable impression.” Diary of my trip around the earth 1892–1893. Edited, introduced and commented on by Frank Gerbert, Kremayr & Scheriau, Vienna 2013, ISBN 978-3-218-00862-4 .



Web links

Commons : Franz Ferdinand von Österreich-Este  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Friedrich Weissensteiner: Franz Ferdinand - The prevented ruler . Austrian Bundesverlag, Vienna 1983, pp. 65–68.
  2. ^ Friedrich Weissensteiner : Franz Ferdinand. The prevented ruler . Österreichischer Bundesverlag, Vienna 1983, pp. 52–59.
  3. Linhart reports (with reference to "Borneo cannot keep up with Gmunden") from a competition with art shooters Buffalo Bill in Vienna, which Franz Ferdinand won in LB. In: FAZ , July 16, 2013, p. 30.
  4. Wladimir Aichelburg: Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Este and Artstetten. Lehner, Vienna 2000, ISBN 3-901749-18-7 , p. 32.
  5. Wladimir Aichelburg: Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Este and Artstetten. Lehner, Vienna 2000, ISBN 3-901749-18-7 , p. 33.
  6. ^ Gerhard Roth : A journey into the interior of Vienna. Essays. S. Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 1991, ISBN 3-10-066045-5 , p. 182.
  7. Wolfram G. Theilemann: needle in the green coat. Noble hunters, large private forest property and the Prussian forest officials 1866–1914. Akademie Verlag, Berlin 2004, ISBN 3-05-003556-0 , p. 73.
  8. a b c Emil Franzel : Franz Ferdinand d'Este. Model of a conservative revolution. Munich 1964, p. 60.
  9. ^ Friedrich Weissensteiner: Franz Ferdinand. The prevented ruler. Österreichischer Bundesverlag, Vienna 1983, p. 224.
  10. Wolfram G. Theilemann: needle in the green coat. Noble hunters, large private forest property and the Prussian forest officials 1866–1914. Akademie Verlag, Berlin 2004, ISBN 3-05-003556-0 , p. 140.
  11. ^ Gerd Holler: Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Este. Ueberreuter, Vienna 1982, ISBN 3-8000-3182-5 , p. 41.
  12. Paul Sethe: That made history. Panoramas from a century. Scheffler, Frankfurt am Main 1969, p. 42.
  13. Wladimir Aichelburg "Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria Este 1863-1914". Berger publishing house, ISBN 978-3-85028-625-1 .
  14. ^ Friedrich Weissensteiner: Franz Ferdinand - The prevented ruler , Öst. Bundesverlag, Vienna 1983, pp. 85-88.
  15. Wladimir Aicheburg: Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria Este 1863-1914. Publisher: Berger & Söhne, Ferdinand (February 3, 2014), ISBN 978-3-85028-625-1 .
  16. ^ Archives Schloss Artstetten, private correspondence Duke Max v. Hohenberg
  17. ^ Official part . In: Wiener Zeitung newspaper , Vienna, No. 147, June 29, 1900, p. 1.
  18. Christopher Clark : The Sleepwalkers. How Europe moved into World War I. Deutsche Verlagsanstalt, Munich 2013, pp. 152–152.
  19. ^ Friedrich Weissensteiner: Franz Ferdinand - The prevented ruler. East Bundesverlag, Vienna 1983, pp. 114-138.
  20. Wladimir Aichelburg: Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Este . Verlag Berger, Horn and Vienna 2014. ISBN 978-3-85028-624-4 .
  21. ^ Robert A. Kann : The nationality problem of the Habsburg Monarchy. History and ideas of the national efforts from the Vormärz to the dissolution of the Reich in 1918. Volume 2: Ideas and plans for reform of the Reich. Böhlau, Graz / Cologne 1964, pp. 193–197.
  22. ↑ Very high handwriting of March 29, 1898. In: Official part . In: Wiener Zeitung newspaper , No. 75, April 1, 1898, p. 1.
  23. cit. after Friedrich Weissensteiner: Franz Ferdinand - The prevented ruler. Austrian Bundesverlag, Vienna 1983, p. 214.
  24. ↑ Very high handwriting of August 17, 1913. In: Official part . In: Wiener Zeitung daily , No. 192, August 20, 1913, p. 1.
  25. Lists of his awards (as of January and November 1913):
    Hof- und Staats-Handbuch der Austro-Hungarian Monarchy for 1913 , section Genealogy of the Most High Rulers , p. 2. kk Hof- und Staatsdruckerei, Vienna 1913.
    Adolph Lehmann's General housing indicator: in addition to trade and Business address book for dkk Reichshaupt- u. Residence city Vienna a. Surroundings. Vienna 1914, Volume 1, section Austrian Imperial House , digital p. 36, 1st and 2nd column
  26. ^ Manfried Rauchsteiner , Manfred Litscher (Ed.): The Army History Museum in Vienna . Graz / Vienna 2000, p. 56 f.
  27. Johann Christoph Allmayer-Beck : The Army History Museum Vienna. The museum and its representative rooms. Salzburg 1981, p. 52.
  28. ^ Archduke Franz Ferdinand Museum Schloss Artstetten. Military Chancellery room.
  29. Johann Christoph Allmayer-Beck : The Army History Museum Vienna. Hall VI - The k. (U.) K. Army from 1867-1914. Vienna 1989, p. 53.
  30. ^ Manfried Rauchsteiner , Manfred Litscher (Ed.): The Army History Museum in Vienna . Graz, Vienna 2000 p. 63.
  31. ^ Friedrich Weissensteiner: Franz Ferdinand - The prevented ruler. Österreichischer Bundesverlag, Vienna 1983, p. 39.
  32. State history of Lower Austria . 2nd edition 1994, p. 340, see also biography in the personal dictionary of the state of Lower Austria.
  33. Franz Ferdinand and the Talents . In: Die Fackel , Vienna, XVI. Jahr, No. 400–403, July 10, 1914, p. 1 ff., Quoted on p. 3 below
  34. Otto Hans Ressler: "The" value of art , Böhlau, Vienna 2007, p. 64.
  35. Alma Hannig, Paul Miller: No memorial for the dead. In: Die Zeit , Hamburg, No. 27, June 26, 2014 .
  36. ^ Frank Gerbert: Sarajevo final stop. The last days of the heir to the throne Franz Ferdinand. A search for traces from Bohemia to Bosnia. Kremayr & Scheriau, Vienna 2014, ISBN 978-3-218-00908-9 .