Paul Zsolnay Publishing House

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

legal form GesmbH
founding 1924
Seat Vienna
management Herbert Ohrlinger
Branch publishing company

The Paul Zsolnay Verlag is one of Paul Zsolnay in 1924 Vienna , was established for fiction publishing , which includes works by Egmont Colerus , Heinrich Eduard Jacob , Heinrich Mann , Franz Werfel and HG Wells published. From its foundation in 1924 to the " Aryanization " in 1938, it was Austria's largest fiction publisher in terms of both the number of works published and the turnover. Since 1996 he belongs to the Munich Carl Hanser Verlag .


From the foundation to 1930

New publications 1924–1938
year number year number
1924 18th 1932 60
1925 21st 1933 52
1926 23 1934 33
1927 26th 1935 43
1928 44 1936 64
1929 47 1937 56
1930 66 1938 53
1931 46

In 1923, the successful flower grower and literature lover Paul Zsolnay began preparing to found his own publishing house. The high inflation that prevailed in Austria and Germany in the years after the First World War troubled many publishers and even led successful authors to lose large parts of their royalties . In this environment, Zsolnay, who came from a wealthy family and had set up his own business by growing flowers in the Czech Republic, and whose circle of friends included poets and writers such as Franz Werfel , wanted to gain a foothold in the publishing industry.

Old logo

When Franz Werfel had finished Verdi and according to the contract should have delivered it to the German Kurt-Wolff-Verlag , Zsolnay asked Werfel to let him have the book for publication. He offers him better conditions and will use the expected success of the book, which gives the publisher the necessary recognition, to build up his own publishing house. Werfel agreed because of the inflation problems that troubled Kurt Wolff Verlag and, as a result, his personal income.

On April 4, 1924, Zsolnay published the first advertisement in which he promoted Werfel's Verdi ; With 60,000 copies sold quickly, the book became the cornerstone of the publishing house - by 1933 the circulation had reached 250,000. It was not until May 6, 1924 that the Paul-Zsolnay-Verlag was entered as a book trade in the commercial register in Vienna. Felix Kostia-Costa (1887–1942) worked for him as an authorized signatory . On August 14, 1925, the company was converted into a GmbH : Zsolnay (16,000) and Kostia-Costa (4,000), who now acted as managing directors, contributed the initial capital of 20,000 schillings. Stefan Halasz joined the company as authorized signatory in October . In February 1926, the publishing house moved from its first company headquarters at Castelligasse  17 in Mariahilf to Palais Castiglioni at Prinz-Eugen-Straße 30 on the Wieden .

The second work by Zsolnay's school friend Hans Kaltneker was the drama “ The Sister ”. The third book was published on May 21, 1924: “ Der Menschenfischer ” by John Galsworthy , an author who was “discovered” by Zsolnay for the German-speaking area. In 1924 a total of 18 works were published, 13 of their authors were among the friends of the Zsolnays.

After Werfel he was able to poach other writers from Kurt-Wolff-Verlag, including Heinrich Mann , Max Brod and HG Wells . In the first few years, alongside Werfel and Mann, John Galsworthy was one of the most successful authors at the publishing house. In addition, there were collected works by a number of established authors who were also of great importance for the success of the young publisher. In addition to an eight-volume edition of Mann's earlier novels, for example, the collected works of Max Brod and Felix Salten , followed by H. G. Wells, Pearl S. Buck (from 1933), Sinclair Lewis and Theodore Dreiser .

The translation literature shaped the program so strongly that in 1926 the journalist Leopold Thaler referred to the publishing house as the “Ministry of Foreign Affairs”. Well-known translators were B. Clarisse Meitner, Eva Mertens , Lise Landau, Leon Schalit and Berta Zuckerkandl . By 1938 there were four winners of the Nobel Prize for Literature in the publishing house: John Galsworthy, Sinclair Lewis, Roger Martin du Gard and Pearl S. Buck.

Heinrich Mann : The head . Original publisher's cover of the first print, 1925

From 1927 the publisher published several yearbooks . The first appeared in 1927, with twelve art print panels , which reproduce the handwritten statements of the publishers in a facsimile manner . They were asked to give their opinion on Germany and Europe . The publisher also enclosed a facsimile of a sheet of score from Mahler's Xth Symphony , which the publisher had first published in 1924. In 1931 a last yearbook could be published, this contained two original contributions by Franz Werfel and twelve facsimile additions to pictures, two of them by Egon Schiele . The publisher's index of all works available in 1927 listed 62 titles, with Heinrich Mann, Der Untertan im 105th Tausend.

The company emerged from the years of inflation as the largest and most successful publisher in Austria. While many other publishers had to close for economic reasons in recent years or, at best, had a balanced balance, the Zsolnay-Verlag posted profits and expanded in both 1928 and 1929, the year in which the global economic crisis began.

World economic crisis and Nazi "seizure of power" (1930–1934)

Initially spared from the global economic crisis, the publisher believed in a further, albeit weakened, expansion. In 1930 it was decided to convert the company into a stock corporation (AG) in order to be less dependent on outside capital . This conversion took place on February 13, 1931. The board members, who paid a total of 500,000 Schillings as equity, were now Paul Zsolnay and Felix Kostia-Costa as well as the lawyer Paul Neumann. In addition to Stefan Halasz, Richard Lehnert and Grete Geiringer now acted as authorized signatories.

The publisher sold its books in editions that no other Austrian publisher could even begin to achieve. Zsolnay's first publication, Werfels Verdi , had a print run of 250,000 in 1933, Fülöp-Miller's The Holy Devil - Rasputin and Women had a print run of 170,000, Walter von Molo's The Schiller novel had a print run of 100,000 and Theodore Dreiser's An American Tragedy at 80,000.

However, the company's success came to an end in the 1932/1933 financial year. The economic crisis had a full impact and instead of profits, the company now lost around 35,000 schillings. However, the development came to a head when, with the " seizure of power " by the National Socialists in Germany in 1933, a large part of the publishing program was no longer allowed to be sold due to authors who, at least after the new rulers felt, Jews and / or political opponents were no longer allowed to be sold . Works by many publishers ended up at the stake in the 1933 book burning in Germany . In addition, in addition to the “ thousand-mark lock ” , Germany introduced a foreign currency export restriction, which largely cut off Austrian companies from sales generated in Germany. For the Austrian economy, which was largely dependent on Germany, this represented a threat to its existence, and it was deliberately used by the new National Socialist regime to sabotage Austria's independence. Zsolnay also made around 70% of its sales in Germany and was hit hard economically by this measure.

In 1933/1934, for the reasons mentioned, the loss was almost as much as the equity amounted to: 438,000 schillings. In 1933, new shareholders were taken on in order to get fresh equity: the academic painter and Zsolnay book illustrator Rudolf Geyer and the founder of the Bergland Group and printer owner Kurt Walter expanded the board. In addition, Zsolnay applied for financial support from the “ Restructuring Beneficiary Law ” that the Austrian government issued in response to the economic crisis to support domestic companies.

Realignment of the publishing program (1934–1938)

As a reaction to the changed situation in Germany, which declared a large part of Zsolnay's publishing program to be “undesirable” because the National Socialists understood it as “Jewish”, and also resulted in boycotts against “anti-German” Austrian authors, Paul Zsolnay lagged behind According to literary scholar Murray G. Halltwo options open: sell or radically convert. He [Zsolnay] chose the latter variant. “This path was already taken in 1933, when in the course of the changed power relations in Germany a PEN conference in Ragusa (Dubrovnik) on the dispute between“ Aryan national ”and“ Jewish opposition ”writers escalated. On both sides the main actors were authors of the Zsolnay publishing house. The consequence of the PEN conference was therefore not only a split in the PEN club, but also a split among the authors of the Zsolnay publishing house.

In view of the dependence on the German market, Zsolnay gradually began to part with his Jewish authors. This change led to the paradox that the Nazi propaganda continued to vilify the publishing house as a "Jewish publishing house", but the publishing house was "aligned" with National Socialist ideas. Zsolnay turned to Theo Habicht , the NSDAP / AO functionary appointed by the German National Socialists as the "regional inspector" for Austria , who in turn referred Zsolnay to Professor Haasbauer in Linz, the "cultural regional director" of the NSDAP. The consequences of this rapprochement were that the NSDAP recommended that the “national Austrian poets” publish with Zsolnay, and that a confidante of the NSDAP, Hermann R. Leber, was appointed head of the editing department from spring 1934. From then on, Leber acted as a "middleman" between the Zsolnay publishing house and the NSDAP.

It is unclear among historians whether Zsolnay entered into this rapprochement voluntarily or whether pressure was put on him. After all, by switching to “mediocre national authors” he pissed off previous customers, while the publishing house in Germany was rejected as “Judenverlag”, which in turn gave the “national authors” who published at Zsolnay a “very bad [n ] Service ”. In any case, Zsolnay came under heavy attack from critics on both sides: On the one hand from the National Socialist side, for whom Zsolnay always remained a "Jewish publisher" and regarded the national publishing program at best as a good cover, and on the other hand Jewish and opposition authors and media who were hostile to the alignment of the publishing program with German, National Socialist ideologies. "So the grotesque case occurs that the Catholic State of Austria houses those Jewish publishers who obey the pagan requirements of the Reichsschrifttumskammer", summed up Joseph Roth in 1937. From April 1935 onwards, the Vienna police received several anonymous reports that the Zsolnay-Verlag a "camouflaged National Socialist cultural organization". Zsolnay was also questioned by the police in this regard - after preliminary inquiries, however, no investigations were initiated because the books published by Zsolnay Verlag were " free from any glorification of the National Socialist regime and any even hidden attacks against Austria " and the publisher "based on statements by People who supposedly know the publisher very well, […] it should be a Hungarian-Jewish company ” .

The "national poets of Austria", as some of the writers who have now been accepted into the publishing house, included the illegal NSDAP functionaries Otto Emmerich Groh , Edmund Finke and Hermann Stuppäck, as well as other authors who were active in the National Socialist era or who could be assigned to this political spectrum. such as the co-editor of striker Walter Hjalmar Kotas , Karl Hans Strobl , Franz Spunda , Erwin H. Rainalter , Erich Kernmayer , Hans Gustl Kernmayer , Erich Landgrebe , F. K. Ginzkey and Wladimir von Hartlieb . As a sign of this reorganization - in autumn 1933, advertising brochures for the old Zsolnay authors around Werfel, Perutz u. a. published in Germany - from autumn 1934 Zsolnay published the Südostdeutsche Literaturblätter , which had appeared seven times until the end of 1937 and advertised the new publishing program.

However, the publisher did not develop as expected. Regularly stamped as "Judenverlag" by the National Socialist media, the books were on the " black list " of many German booksellers . In the second half of 1937 the publisher published 37 works, sales increased - after it had slumped dramatically in 1933 and slipped away at a low level - by 10% compared to the previous year. However, the publisher continued to make no profits and was not even able to pay the interest on its debts. The increase in sales initially continued at the beginning of 1938, but the connection in March brought a huge setback for the entire Austrian publishing industry, mainly because of the setting of an irrational exchange rate when switching from schilling to Reichsmark , which made debts in Germany more expensive and outstanding claims increased in value lost.

Disputes about the new publishing program

Hans W. Polak contradicts the accusation that Zsolnay “collaborated” with the Nazis :
“Of course, until 1938 the publisher did not publish a book that supported the Nazi regime or that came from a declared National Socialist. To publish or not to publish an author because of his German citizenship would have occurred as little to the cosmopolitan Zsolnay as to publish a work because it was by a Jewish author.
It would be grotesque to present the appearance of works by Jewish authors like Werfel or Roda Roda in those years as Zsolnay's struggle against Nazi ideology. It is just as grotesque, however, to portray the appearance of books such as Rainalter or Ginzkeys as evidence of Zsolnay's willingness to come to an understanding with the National Socialists. "

On the other hand, there are documents, letters and statements from persons or organizations close to the publisher. As one of the most famous Zsolnay authors, Heinrich Mann , who had been on friendly terms with Zsolnay until then, fell victim to the realignment of the publishing program. In November 1933 he wrote to his brother Thomas : “ All I can say about Zsolnay is that he is the cowardly traitor that you now usually get to know your long-term friend or business partner. All the calamities that have befallen me have not yet induced him to say a word; on the other hand, I know from third parties who have ordered my books from him in vain that he will not deliver them to Germany. Probably he could very well; for I am not aware of any real ban, and they are said to be in the window in the bookshops in the working-class districts. But Zsolnay evidently wants to save the rest of his publishing house for Germany by denying me. “The former Zsolnay author Emil Ludwig , who was also successful in 1932, reported something similar . History of a Man was able to sell 80,000 pieces at Zsolnay, but “ 1933 - not a single copy! “He reported in the Vienna daily Der Morgen in 1935 :“ I am fighting for the approval of my works published by Zsolnay-Verlag. […] It is known what it is about. My Viennese publisher Zsolnay has simply boycotted all those authors who are not acceptable over there in the Reich, who are also subject to a boycott over there, since the National Socialist regime took control of all violence in Germany. “In addition to the morning , Die Hour also regularly reported critically on the“ Zsolnay case ”, including headings such as“ Publishing under the sign of the Third Reich ”(Die Hour, April 11, 1935, p. 3) and“ Austria's publishers - Nazi friends? “(April 8, 1935, p. 11). Zsolnay himself also had a say and denied having dropped Austrian authors - he only had "open opponents of today's official Germany" from foreign authors such as Schalom Asch, the German Heinrich Mann and others Cut.

Attacks from the nationalist side

Even after the change in the publishing program, attacks by the National Socialists continued against the publishing house and its authors. However, this came less from official bodies, which tended to welcome the new direction of the publishing house, but from nationalist writings and media, of which especially Die Neue Literatur , which was widespread in Germany, attracted attention through violent attacks. The publisher of the monthly magazine was Will Vesper , who did not want to be fooled by Zsolnay's program realignment and who had the following to report:

What the Jewish publisher Zsolnay was aiming for with its strange 'national' 'Gleichschaltung' is unfortunately clearly shown by a first look at the novel 'Der Sandwirt' by Erwin H. Rainalter, which, although he is a theater critic of a journal of the movement, has just published published by the Viennese Jewish publishing house. In the middle of the Andreas Hofer novel, which would certainly have found good German publishers, there are advertising leaflets in which Zsolnay advertises a large part of his older literature, including the works of the Jew Werfel. Andreas Hofer and the National Socialist editor are therefore being used as opening credits for a Jew who is hostile to Germany. Is it still not getting light among the national Zsolnay authors? Have we not warned of this dangerous racial mixture in good time? Anyone who sits down at a table with Jews takes care of their business, even if they think they are smarter. And whoever does the business of the Jews, consciously or unconsciously, is damaging Germany and National Socialism, of which everyone today knows and must know that he knows no compromises with Judaism. 'National Socialism', as Rosenberg said in Nuremberg , 'contrary to some whisperings, will not deviate from its program and its attitude by a hand's breadth . "

In the end, Zsolnay himself felt compelled to write to Vesper in order to convince him of his commitment to "German nationality". Vesper cared little about this, however, and pointed to the history of the publishing house as well as Zsolnay's family relationships and stated that “personally good will” cannot be sufficient to be “ the man ” “to whom one can supply the German people with intellectual Entrust food ”. Vesper then continued his agitation against Zsolnay and his publishing house, since " a publishing house owned by a Jew cannot be a publishing house for national German writers ". At the same time, however, he also pointed out that those writers “who let themselves be captured for Zsolnay” will not personally benefit much from this connection, since “ the old Jewish and Jew-friendly customers of the Zsolnay publishing house do not buy the national poets, and neither do they the national population would take their intellectual food from the Judenverlag. Hopefully everyone involved will learn from the coming collapse, but above all we in the Reich. ".

From September 1935, after consultation with the Reichsschrifttumskammer and the Austrian NSDAP, the Zsolnay authors took a united front against Vesper's attacks. In addition, in a report entitled “The publishing house Zsolnay and its authors”, they justified their activity under the umbrella of the Zsolnay publishing house, since “ the Reich German publishers have treated the Austrian poets very badly in recent years because they are supposed to be for Austrian things in the Reich there would be too little interest. “All they had left was to join the Zsolnay-Verlag through Hermann Leber's mediation, despite its“ dreadful past ”, since German publishers didn't want to publish their works. Ultimately, a discussion of the “ Reichsstelle zur Förder des Deutschen Literatures ” with Vesper, which “ removed the existing misunderstandings ”, brought Vespers to cease attacks against the Zsolnay publishing house in December 1935.

Branch in Switzerland (1930–1940)

As early as 1929, Zsolnay made the decision to found an offshoot of his publishing house in Switzerland, under whose name particularly successful publishing works were sold more cheaply. This publisher, which used a slightly modified publisher 's logo , was initially called Paul Zsolnay's Library of Contemporary Works and began to appear in 1929 with its first publications - including Werfel's Der Abituriententag (1929) and HG Wells' Der Traum (1930). The publishing house was initially located in Bern , but without registration at the commercial court; however, the books were printed by R. Kiesel in Salzburg . About 15 to 20 works appeared in this way in 1929 and 1930. From March 1930 the publishing house was in Zurich, the Swiss businessman Willy Wahler was registered as the owner. Two other Swiss, Robert Faesi and Konrad Bloch, as well as Zsolnay, Costa and Halazs were registered as directors of this stock corporation. In 1934, Zsolnay and Costa officially left the publishing house without actually relinquishing control. The publisher was now called the Library of Contemporary Works and from 1934 published many of the works that were banned in Germany from 1933 for “racial” reasons and that Zsolnay no longer wanted or could not publish in Austria because of the publisher's dependence on the German market. The publishing house was thus converted into " Exilverlag " and published 14 titles in 1934 and 1935, namely three works by Otto Zarek, two each by Schalom Asch, Paul Frischauer, Heinrich Eduard Jacob and Robert Neumann and one each by Lili Grün and Josef Löbel and Viktoria Wolf. These books were advertised primarily in the Börsenblatt - the most important trade journal for the German book trade, which, however, was closely monitored by the National Socialist media and institutions. They did not miss the fact that Zsolnay continued to publish some of the books sorted out in Austria and Germany in this way. The publishing house was given up after 1935 and officially closed in 1940.

1938 to 1945

Just a few days after the "Anschluss" of Austria , the publishing house was placed under temporary administration on March 16, 1938 and " Aryanized " by Hannes Dietl . In the autumn of 1941, the publishing house was taken over by Karl Heinrich Bischoff, a former specialist in the Reichsschrifttumskammer . Paul Zsolnay succeeded in emigrating to England in 1939 , where he made intensive contacts with important English authors such as Graham Greene and founded the Heinemann & Zsolnay publishing house , while Nazi literature , for example by Erich Kern , was published by the Paul Zsolnay publishing house in Vienna .

Since 1945

Zsolnay returned to Vienna in 1946 and took over the management of the Paul-Zsolnay-Verlag Vienna-Hamburg. The publishing program now again comprised modern world literature, history, politics, contemporary history, art and cultural history. Graham Greene , Johannes Mario Simmel , Leo Perutz and Marlen Haushofer were among the best-known publishers of this time .

After Paul Zsolnay's death in 1961, Hans W. Polak, who had been with the publishing house since 1953, took over management of the company. Important Zsolnay books of the following decades were John le Carré's The Spy Who Came Out of the Cold (1964), Brigitte Schwaiger's How does salt get into the sea? (1977) and Stephen King's Must Burn Salem (1979). In the short time that Gerhard Beckmann was responsible for the program, Jürgen Serkes' Bohemian Villages stood out. Walks through an abandoned literary landscape (1987) and the series “Books of Bohemian Villages” subsequently published by Serke, in which Hermann Ungar, Hugo Sonnenschein-Sonka and Fritz Brügel, among others, were published.

From 1986 the publisher changed hands several times until it was acquired by Carl-Hanser-Verlag in 1996 and continued and repositioned as an independent GmbH based in Vienna. The literary critic Herbert Ohrlinger was appointed program director and later director of the publishing house. In 1997 the publishing house put two titles on the German-language bestseller lists: Jean-Dominique Bauby's Butterfly and Diving Bell and Viviane Forrester's Terror der Ökonomie . In 1998, The Fifth Woman, the first of Henning Mankell's Wallander novels, appeared, which became the books with the highest circulation in the next decade and a half.

Zsolnay-Verlag stands for German-language as well as international fiction with a focus on Southern and Eastern Europe and for a wide range of non-fiction, especially humanities and political books. The series of publications on the Philosophicum Lech and Profile - magazine of the literature archive of the Austrian National Library round off the program and establish a connection to applied science. The most important contemporary authors of the publishing house include Friedrich Achleitner , Luc Bondy , Mircea Cărtărescu , Liliana Corobca, Karl-Markus Gauß , Franzobel , André Heller , Ruth Klüger , Konrad Paul Liessmann , Claudio Magris , Robert Menasse , Martin Pollack , Eginald Schlattner , Franz Schuh , Armin Thurnher , Varujan Vosganian and Edmund de Waal .

Classic and complete editions are also published. Examples are the works of Ivo Andrić , Miklós Bánffy , Albert Drach , Graham Greene , Curzio Malaparte , Leo Perutz and John Steinbeck . The Perutz edition contributed to the rediscovery of the forgotten earlier successful writer. For several years (as of 2015), Zsolnay-Verlag has been publishing texts by authors such as Arthur Schnitzler , Alfred Polgar or Ludwig Winder that have either been long forgotten or have never been published before .

Biographies by Jens Malte Fischer about Gustav Mahler , Peter Gülke about Robert Schumann , Ulrich Weinzierl about Hugo von Hofmannsthal and Stefan Zweig and autobiographies of personalities such as Barbara Coudenhove-Kalergi , Ioan Holender , Ari Rath and Franz Vranitzky form a further programmatic focus.

2004 was trade publisher Deuticke acquired, the program was further headed by Martina Schmidt. Until 2019, Deuticke was an imprint of Zsolnay. At the end of 2019, Deuticke was absorbed by Paul Zsolnay Verlag.


Before 1938

Selection of important authors who published for the first time before 1938 in the Zsolnay publishing house in Vienna. The dates of the first and last publication by the authors are given in brackets. If the two years are separated by commas , the author has only published two books. If there are more than two publications, a semicolon ("-") connects the two years that stand for the first and last publication.

After 1938

Selection of important authors who first published after 1938 in the Zsolnay publishing house in Vienna.


  • Hans W. Polak: Paul von Zsolnay . In: New Austrian biography from 1815. Great Austrians . Volume XXII. Amalthea, Vienna 1987, ISBN 978-3-85002-253-8 , pp. 133-143.
  • Murray G. Hall : The Paul Zsolnay Verlag. From the foundation to the return from exile. Max Niemeyer, Tübingen 1994, ISBN 978-3-484-35045-8 .
  • Murray G. Hall, Herbert Ohrlinger: The Paul Zsolnay Verlag 1924-1999. Documents and certificates. Zsolnay, Vienna 1999, ISBN 978-3-552-04948-2 .
  • Murray G. Hall: Austrian publishing history 1918-1938: Volume 1: History of the Austrian publishing industry. Böhlau, Vienna / Cologne / Graz 1985, ISBN 978-3-412-05585-1 .
  • Murray G. Hall: Austrian publishing history 1918–1938: Volume 2: Belletristic publishers of the First Republic. Böhlau, Vienna / Cologne / Graz 1985, ISBN 978-3-205-07258-4 .

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. a b Hall, 1985, Volume II, p. 489
  2. based on a list of the Deutsche Bücherei in Leipzig , quoted from: Hall, 1985, Volume II, p. 489 f.
  3. ^ Hall, 1985, Volume II, p. 482
  4. a b Hall, 1985, Volume II, p. 503
  5. Entry for Felix Kostia in "The Central Database of Shoah Victims' Names"
  6. ^ Hall, 1985, Volume II, pp. 490-492
  7. ^ Hall, 1985, Volume II, p. 493
  8. ^ Hall, 1985, Volume II, p. 495
  9. quoted from a letter from the writer Josef Weinheber, who is known for his liver, to Gustav Pezold on February 23, 1935, cf. Hall, 1985, Volume II, p. 499
  10. ^ Joseph Roth: Publishers in Austria or Austrian Publishers? Christian Ständestaat, August 29, 1937, quoted from: Hall, 1985, Volume II, p. 509 f.
  11. cf. Hall, 1985, Volume II, p. 500 and p. 510
  12. ^ "Supplementary report" of the Vienna Federal Police Directorate of December 11, 1935; AVA, BMfHuV, reference number 570, Gdzl. 106.248-9a / 35, reference number 112.608-9a / 35; quoted from: cf. Hall, 1985, Volume II, p. 510
  13. Hall, 1985, Volume II, pp. 502 f.
  14. Hall, 1985, Volume II, p. 526 f.
  15. Hans W. Polak, 1987, p. 139. Hall is referred to here by Polak as a “self-righteous Canadian Germanist, year of birth 1947” without naming his name.
  16. Heinrich Mann's letter of March 3rd / 4th. November 1933. In: Heinrich Mann to his brother. Newly found letters (1922–1937). In: Thomas Mann Studies , Volume 3, 1979, p. 120; quoted from: Hall, 1985, Volume II, p. 504
  17. Emil Ludwig: I am outraged! , in: Der Morgen, June 3, 1935, p. 8; quoted from: Hall, 1985, Volume II, p. 505
  18. cf. Hall, 1985, Volume II, pp. 506 f.
  19. Zsolnay, 1935; quoted in Die Aktion , Vol. 2, No. 15, April 13, 1935, p. 4 f .; see. Hall, 1985, Volume II, pp. 507 f.
  20. "The New Literature". Issue October 1935, p. 625. Quoted from: Joseph Wulf : Culture in the Third Reich. Literature . Ullstein, Frankfurt / M. 1989, ISBN 978-3-550-07056-3 , pp. 276f.
  21. cf. Die Neue Literatur , No. 6, June 1934, p. 393 and No. 8, August 1934, p. 537 f .; quoted from: Hall, 1985, Volume II, p. 512 f.
  22. Will Vesper: Die Neue Literatur , Issue 8, August 1935, pp. 494–497; quoted from: Hall, 1985, Volume II, p. 515
  23. ^ The Paul Zsolnay publishing house and its authors. Report, BDC / Zsolnay, no year (probably summer or early autumn 1935), p. 4; quoted from: Hall, 1985, Volume II, p. 517 f.
  24. Wladimir von Hartlieb's diary, end of January 1937, Hartlieb estate in the Austrian National Library, quoted from: Hall, 1985, Volume II, p. 520
  25. ^ Die Neue Literatur , Issue 12, December 1935, p. 761; quoted from: Hall, 1985, Volume II, p. 517 f.
  26. Hall, 1985, Volume II, pp. 522-524
  27. Tina Walzer , Stephan Templ : Our Vienna. "Aryanization" in Austrian . Structure, Berlin 2001, ISBN 978-3-351-02528-1 , p. 142
  28. Hall / Ohrlinger, 1999, pp. 84-86.
  29. Hall / Ohrlinger, 1999, pp. 86-91.
  30. Hall / Ohrlinger, 1999, p. 96.
  31. Deuticke-Verlag becomes Zsolnay . Article dated October 16, 2018, accessed June 5, 2020.
  32. End of the Deuticke publishing house . Article dated October 19, 2018, accessed June 5, 2020.