Robert Schumann (born June 8, 1810 in Zwickau , Kingdom of Saxony ; † July 29, 1856 in Endenich , Rhine Province , now part of Bonn ) was a German composer , music critic and conductor . Today he is counted among the most important composers of the Romantic period . In the first phase of his career he mainly composed piano music . In 1840, the year he married the pianist Clara Wieck , he wrote almost 150 songs. In the following years his work developed into a great variety: from then on he also composed orchestral music (including four symphonies ), concert works , chamber music , choral music and an opera .
Robert Schumann had a double talent for literature and music. Poems, artistic prose, drafts for dramas and musical compositions stood side by side on an equal footing at a young age. It was only after 1830 that music became the focus of his life concept, and he saw himself as a composer. Both in his compositions and from 1834 at the latest with the help of his literary work, he strove for future-oriented, poetic music, distancing himself from the program music of Franz Liszt .
Many contemporaries considered his works to be too difficult. For a long time the bon mot held that he began as a genius and ended as a talent and that his later works were shaped by his illness, which led to the madhouse. But with the musicological discussion of late works since the end of the 20th century, the way we look at it has changed. Schumann's oeuvre is now widely recognized, and he is unreservedly considered one of the great composers of the 19th century.
Robert Schumann grew up in Zwickau . As a child he began to compose and learned to play the piano. From 1828 he studied law for two years in Leipzig and Heidelberg , but devoted himself more to his literary and musical interests. In 1830 he returned to Leipzig to become a pianist. He took piano lessons from Friedrich Wieck and lessons in music theory from Heinrich Dorn . When permanent complaints in his right hand thwarted a career as a virtuoso, he concentrated on composing.
In 1834 Schumann founded the Neue Zeitschrift für Musik in Leipzig together with Friedrich Wieck and others , for which he worked for ten years as an editor, author and publisher. Because of the bitter resistance of Friedrich Wieck, Schumann had to fight for permission to marry his daughter Clara in court in 1840. In 1843 Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy made him a brief teacher at the Conservatory of Music in Leipzig. In 1844 he moved to Dresden , where he was very productive as a composer and from 1847 also worked as a choir director. In 1850 Schumann became municipal music director in Düsseldorf .
Origin and youth
Robert Schumann was the youngest of five children of the bookseller and publisher August Schumann (1773-1826) and his wife Johanne Christiane (née Schnabel , 1767-1836). August Schumann wrote novels and had a good reputation nationwide as a translator for English-speaking authors. From 1807 on, he and his brother ran the publishing bookstore Gebrüder Schumann in Zwickau, which was known for promoting general education by publishing classics from all nations in paperback format. Robert Schumann had four older siblings: Emilie (1796-1825), Eduard (1799-1839), Carl (1801-1849) and Julius (1805-1833). The older brothers later all went into the publishing business.
Even before Schumann took piano lessons from Johann Gottfried Kuntsch (1757–1855) at the age of seven, he had composed small piano pieces. “I enjoyed the most careful and loving upbringing,” Schumann later stated. Quite soon, stimulated by his father's literary and publishing activities and reading in his extensive library, he wrote poems, fragments of novels and essays as well as self-critical texts and kept a diary. In 1846 he recalled: "It pushed me i m it to Producieren, even in the earliest years, it was not for the music, to poetry." Especially influenced him the romantic writers and especially Jean Paul . The father supported Robert's literary interests and musical ambitions.
Schumann's schooling was extensive. He learned Latin , Greek and French and was considered to be an exceptional linguist. As a teenager he founded a school orchestra, as well as a "literary association" in which he read various works with classmates, including eight plays by Friedrich Schiller , in various roles. "[H] r was dominated by the absolute certainty that he would become a famous man in the future - where famous was still very undecided, but famous under all circumstances," said his childhood friend Emil Flechsig , whose memories of Robert Schumann were mostly about Schumann's youth and studies provide information.
Schumann's musical training, however, remained almost amateurish during his school days. As soon as he played the piano better than his teacher, the latter recommended self-study, which Schumann tried to do by attending musical performances and reading scores and piano reductions, among other things. Looking back, Schumann wrote about the period from around 1820 to 1824: “… Free imagination (many hours every day)… Morbid longing for music and piano playing when I haven't played for a long time… Cello and flute at Stadtdir's. Meißner ... Most powerful in the imagination ... The ravishing fire of my lecture ... Complete lack of a line felt: hearing, technology in particular, theory [...] "
In 1826 August Schumann, who had long suffered from abdominal complaints and a "nervous disorder" and, most recently, from dizziness, died at the age of 53 years. As a result, and also through the death of Carl Maria von Weber in the same year, Robert Schumann's hope of being trained by Weber was dashed. August Schumann left his family a small fortune. Robert's share was administered by a guardian, the Zwickau cloth and iron goods dealer Gottlob Rudel. Had as Robert Schumann his school leaving certificate (with the second best rating "omnino dignus"), his mother decided together with the guardian that he law should study.
study of law
On March 29, 1828, Schumann enrolled at Leipzig University as a law student. Having been a student at the high school in Zwickau member of a Burschenschaft union student association had been, he became in 1828 a member of the Alte Leipziger fraternity Markomannia . As late as 1835 it came into the register of a police investigation file directed against the fraternity movement at the University of Leipzig. In 1828 he lived in the same apartment as Emil Flechsig, whose correspondence with Schumann was considered significant by Schumann in 1828, even with regard to "posterity": "[T] hen that our letters will be printed once is a matter of course."
At that time, Leipzig was the second largest city in Saxony after Dresden with around 41,000 inhabitants . It was the city of fairs, book trade and printing. Renowned publishers such as Brockhaus , Reclam and Breitkopf & Härtel had their headquarters here. The Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra shone with performances that Schumann had never seen before.
Even before the beginning of the summer semester lectures, Schumann met the man who was to change his life in the house of the art-loving professor Ernst August Carus : Friedrich Wieck . Wieck, who had studied theology and worked as a private tutor, was self-taught in piano playing, composition theory, music trading and music education and enjoyed an excellent reputation as a piano teacher. His approach, following Bernhard Logier's method , consisted of a combination of piano playing and technique as well as basic training in music theory. His most successful student was his daughter Clara, whom Schumann saw for the first time on March 31, 1828.
From April 24, 1828 to May 14, 1828, Schumann and his friend Gisbert Rosen went on a Mulus trip through Bavaria, which took him to Jean Paul's places of work and where he was received by Heinrich Heine in Munich . Alongside ETA Hoffmann, Jean Paul and Heinrich Heine were the most important poets for Schumann's thought and work.
The lectures for the summer semester had already started on May 12, 1828. Although he wrote to his mother that he “went to college regularly”, he mainly spent his time with music, writing and reading, attended philosophical lectures, for example with Wilhelm Traugott Krug , but also spent some mornings in his dressing gown with “lyrical laziness”. Sometimes he was plagued by his indecision and guilty conscience, which his diaries and letters from youth provide information about. From the diary: "I feel freezing when I think what should become of me." And in a letter to his mother: "I have to go to jurisprudence, as cold as it may be, I want to overcome: and if people just want to - they can do everything [...] and I don't want to look gloomily into a future that can be so happy if I don't waver. ”In August 1828, Schumann began his musical training in Wieck's hands. However, in contrast to Clara Wieck, he lacked decisive fundamentals in both the pianist's craft and compositional technique. The disappointment was great. Schumann asked Wieck to apologize more and more often and ended up not coming to class at all. As Emil Flechsig reported, during this time he was always concerned with the latest in literature: “Heine's travel pictures, Menzel's German history - especially a lot of reading by Jean Paul, whose style and manner he unfortunately imitated too much in his daily writing continued for several hours. ”In addition to piano works, he also composed songs in 1828, two of which he later transformed into slow movements in his piano sonatas op. 11 and op.
In May 1829 Schumann switched to the Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg for three semesters in order to finally devote himself seriously to law. He joined the Corps Saxo-Borussia Heidelberg in 1830 . From a technical point of view, the change of location turned out to be wasted time. Among the professors he was only fascinated by Anton Friedrich Justus Thibaut , because he - himself highly musical - regularly organized music evenings in his house, in particular with works by Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina and Georg Friedrich Handel . And because a trip to Italy was simply vital in his opinion at this time, Schumann wrested the funds for it from his mother. "Italy, Italy, my heart hummed from childhood," he wrote to her. What drew him there was "the really great, moving, lively life". He wanted to get to know the “white, shiny cities”, “the orange scents, southern flowers” and the “Italians with the fiery, languishing eyes”. He attended the Teatro alla Scala and was impressed by Rossini performances with the singer Giuditta Pasta ; but on the whole he was able to gain little from Italian music.
On April 10, 1830, Schumann and two friends traveled from Heidelberg to Frankfurt am Main for a concert by Niccolò Paganini . Paganini's virtuosity and his compositions affected Schumann in two ways: “Paganini was extremely stimulating to work hard” while practicing the piano, and Schumann planned virtuoso variations on Paganini's La Campanella , of which only a few sketch sheets have survived.
Decision for the music
On July 30, 1830, Schumann wrote to his mother from Heidelberg that after a long inner struggle he intended to take up the profession of musician: "If I follow my genius, he will point me to art and I believe to the right path." For six years he wanted to "compete with every other piano player". At his request, the mother turned to Friedrich Wieck - "with trembling and inner fear", because from her point of view Robert should have started the pianist career ten years earlier in order to be able to earn the "bread for life". She received an answer after just two days. Wieck wrote: "I am committed to training your son, Robert, with his talent and imagination, within three years, into one of the greatest piano players alive now, who is supposed to play more witty and warmer than Moscheles and better than Hummel ." he combined this with the condition that Schumann, unlike in Heidelberg, conquer his “unrestrained imagination, combined with so much fluctuating senses” and attend classes regularly.
Schumann went back to Leipzig full of good intentions and initially moved into a room in the Wiecks house. At that time he made friends with Wieck's daughter Clara. He sometimes went for a walk with her, but could not do much with the nine-year-old girl. In addition to piano lessons, he had - for the first time in his life - from July 1831 to February / March 1832 "regular composition lessons" from Heinrich Dorn. The focus was on figured bass studies and contrapuntal exercises. After that, Schumann continued his autodidactic training and over time came to an objectifying distance from the subjective “inspiration of the moment” gained in piano improvisation.
However, he soon had to give up his desired career as a concert pianist. Scattered remarks in his diaries indicate that problems with the right hand that became manifest in 1831 already had a history: He mentioned a sick arm (December 1828), a numb finger (January 1830) and finally “the most infinite pain in the arm” (September 1830). In his project book , after practicing intensively and without satisfactory success on Frédéric Chopin's variations on “Là ci darem la mano” in the summer of 1831, he noted : “In about October 1831 my right hand was paralyzed.” This gave rise to chronic complaints, according to his diary in May 1832 first on the right middle finger, then on the whole right hand. Friedrich Wieck attributed this handicap to the fact that Schumann had used a mechanical exercise device with which individual fingers could be held back in order to specifically strengthen them. A permanent impairment of the whole hand - and the fact that Schumann described the problem as "weakness" and "paralysis" but did not complain of pain - speaks against the exercise device as the cause. Clara Schumann also did not later recall any such connection. It cannot have been a tendinitis because it would have been very painful. The neurologist Eckart Altenmüller , who specializes in musicians' medicine , comes to the conclusion that Schumann had an activity-specific focal dystonia , better known as "musician's cramp". In August 1832 Schumann wrote to his mother that there was no point in continuing to study the piano. In a letter in November, he informed her that he thought his symptoms were incurable.
Schumann now concentrated on learning composition techniques independently; He put compositional work analyzes and his own exercises on top of textbook studies; The Well-Tempered Clavier by Johann Sebastian Bach provided him with valuable illustrative material . He wrote to his former teacher, Johann Gottfried Kuntsch, that the well -tempered piano was his grammar, “and anyway the best. I dissected the joints themselves one after the other [...]. "
In the beginning Schumann composed almost exclusively for piano, his Opus 1 are the Abegg Variations (1829/1830), pieces that are dedicated to a fantasy figure, the "Comtesse d'Abegg" and are based on the ABEGG note sequence. His first compositions also include the Papillons op. 2 (1829–1832), a cycle of small piano pieces that Schumann dedicated to his three sisters-in-law. He assigned certain text passages from the novel Flegeljahre by Jean Paul to the individual pieces , recognizable by Schumann's marginal notes in his copy of the novel.
Of the early compositions, in connection with Schumann's grueling finger exercises, the Toccata op. 7, begun in 1829 and completed in 1833 in its final form, is worth mentioning, a highly virtuoso piece with particular strain on the outer, actually weaker fingers.
In the spring of 1831 Schumann entered into a relationship with a young woman whom he called "Christel" in his diaries. On June 8, 1831, his birthday, he gave her the Covenant of David name " Charitas ". The Schumann biographer John Worthen was the first to suspect that the mistress was a maid of the Wieck family. An attempt to identify her with the Leipzig “maid” Johanne Christiane Apitzsch (1806–1838) failed. The Schumann researcher Gerd Nauhaus obtained Robert Schumann's diary entry “A little girl. (a. 5th, I think) ”on the presumed birth of an illegitimate daughter of“ Christel ”in January 1837, but considered a fatherhood of Schumann to be excluded from his entries in his diary due to the temporal relationships. Shortly before, Schumann had already ended the relationship. Schumann noted the last encounter with her and the payment of 2 thalers "[a] n Charitas for Christmas" on December 27, 1837. Whether Schumann contracted syphilis at "Charitas" , as his memories of September 1855 suggest, is controversial .
In the second half of 1833 Schumann got into a psychological crisis with delusions and suicidal ideas, which he described in a review of his diary as "the most terrible melancholy". A doctor gave him hopes that he could overcome this crisis by marriage. In 1834 he got engaged to Ernestine von Fricken (née von Zedtwitz ), who he thought would “save” him. He thought the fiancée was the daughter of a wealthy Bohemian baron . It was true that it was a Bohemian nobility, but Ernestine was an adopted child and not entitled to inheritance. Schumann broke off the engagement before the end of a year, but set the young lady a musical monument: the Carnaval (1834/1835). He quoted the name of the Bohemian town of Asch , from which the von Fricken family came, at the beginning of most of the pieces in the cycle with the pitch sequence A – Es – C – H or A – C – H. These tone sequences also appear in Schumann's name and in Fasching , as the cycle was originally supposed to be called. One piece is entitled Estrella ; this pseudonym means Ernestine von Fricken. Chiarina, the title of another piece, refers to Clara Wieck. His Symphonic Etudes , begun in 1833 as orchestral studies by Florestan and Eusebius and published in 1837 as the XII Études Symphoniques , are not so much studies in the literal sense as they are variations on a theme presented at the beginning that comes from Ernestine von Fricken's father Ignaz von Fricken. This is meant in the footnote on the second page of the first edition: "Les notes de la melody sont de la Composition d'un amateur."
The League of David
In 1833 a group of young artists had formed around Schumann, who regularly gathered in the Leipzig pub Zum Arabischen Coffe Baum . They called themselves Bundlers of David and saw themselves as the antithesis of the “ Philistines ”, the philistines . The role models were the Serapion brothers around ETA Hoffmann. In the tradition of the secret societies popular at the time, the Bundestag members had imaginary names. As with Hoffmann, the names of the members stood for real people on the one hand, but increasingly for literary figures with special artistic and aesthetic views on the other. The union and the imaginary names play a role in some of Schumann's works, in addition to the Carnaval, for example, in the Davidsbündlertanzen , and also in articles in the Neue Zeitschrift für Musik .
new music magazine
Together with Friedrich Wieck, Ludwig Schuncke of the same age († December 7, 1834 in Leipzig) and a few other friends, Schumann founded the Neue Leipziger Zeitschrift für Musik in April 1834, which was renamed Neue Zeitschrift für Musik in 1835 and thus competed with the Allgemeine Musikische Zeitung in which he himself had published in 1831 an important contribution on Chopin's op. 2, the Variations on "Là ci darem la mano" de "Don Juan" de Mozart . Since the co-founders could hardly find time for the project, he took over most of the work as editor and editor for ten years and also wrote many articles himself. In July 1844, Schumann handed over the management of the magazine to its author Oswald Lorenz . Schumann formulated the general direction of the magazine in the first issue of the 1835 volume: “To recognize [T] he old times and their works, to draw attention to how new artistic beauties can only be strengthened from such a pure source - then the last past as an inartistic one to fight against, for which only the highly advanced of the mechanical has given some substitute - to finally prepare a young, poetic future, to help accelerate ”. In his collected writings on music and musicians , which appeared in 1854, he replaced the concept of the young, poetic future with that of the new, poetic time . With this maxim Schumann also recorded his own artistic career from poetizing and composing child and youth to adult composer who, based on the musical poetics of Jean Paul, "strengthened" in the works of Beethoven and especially Johann Sebastian Bach, created his own poetic music . Schumann consequently put his stamp on many of his reviews of works and performances: that of poetic criticism, comparable to E. T. A. Hoffmann , who had written decades earlier under the pseudonym Johannes Kreisler for the Allgemeine Musikische Zeitung in a similar style. Everything is represented in Schumann's texts, serious controversy, subtle ridicule, but also, as in Giacomo Meyerbeer's Huguenots, sneer.
Like the other authors, Schumann wrote under numerous pseudonyms and abbreviations. He himself used over thirty, including the names of the fictional characters Florestan and Eusebius . Florestan embodied the passionate Schumann, Eusebius the withdrawn Schumann. Master Raro , for whom Friedrich Wieck was the godfather, was the figure of a counselor. Schumann used the different characters to represent different perspectives on works.
Personal and professional obstacles
Robert Schumann and Clara Wieck, who were already musically closely connected through the variation theme of Claras op. 3 and Roberts op. 5 designed by Robert in 1830, became lovers in 1835: "The first kiss in the N ovembe r." Clara's father undertook in the Then everything to prevent any contact between the newly in love. Nothing was possible anymore, no meeting, rarely letters that were sent under almost conspiratorial circumstances, glances only from a distance. In August 1837 Robert Schumann and Clara Wieck got secretly engaged. In a letter dated August 13, 1837, Schumann asked Clara Wieck for her consent to ask Friedrich Wieck for her hand. She should give her father an attached letter with his marriage proposal. “Write me a simple yes […].” Clara replied immediately: “You only ask for a simple 'yes'? Such a little word - so important! […] [I] I do it […]. ”At the beginning of September 1837 the letter was handed over after some hesitation. Friedrich Wieck initially left Clara in the dark. On September 18, Schumann told Clara about his subsequent conversation with Wieck, who ruled out a marriage: “This conversation with your father was terrible [...]. I am attacked at the very roots of my life. "
Schumann originally wanted to dedicate the Kreisleriana , completed in 1838, to Clara Wieck, but refrained from doing so at Clara's request, as she feared an escalation of the disputes with Friedrich Wieck. The cycle is mentally indebted to the writer ETA Hoffmann , who not only used his Kapellmeister Kreisler as a pseudonym for the Leipzig musical newspaper , but also elevated him to literary character. Finally, Schumann dedicated the Kreisleriana to Frédéric Chopin , for whom he harbored great admiration. How Chopin reacted to this and what he thought of other works by Schumann is largely unknown. In any case, he did not value the Carnaval , and in his piano lessons he did not use anything from Schumann.
Other pianists also behaved cautiously towards Schumann's pieces: Franz Liszt , who had included some Schumann's works in his repertoire, suffered a "great fiasco" by his own admission. Even Clara, who made a significant contribution to the greater popularity of Schumann's piano works, only played one or the other piece at her public concerts. The audience had different tastes. Ludwig van Beethoven was revered, Mendelssohn Bartholdy , Chopin and Scarlatti were popular. Sigismund Thalberg and Friedrich Kalkbrenner were often heard at the time, but also Henri Herz , who served as a model for 20-year-old Schumann and whom he later attacked for his shallow piano music.
From October 3, 1838 to April 5, 1839, Schumann lived in Vienna , where he lived in a room at Schönlaterngasse No. 679 (today No. 7a) on the first floor. He met numerous musician colleagues there and tried in particular to establish his Neue Zeitschrift für Musik , but failed because of the rejection of the Viennese publishers Tobias Haslinger and Anton Diabelli , to whom he had been referred by Count Joseph Sedlnitzky , the head of the censorship authority. As Schumann had feared, it turned out that "nobody liked the newspaper as too young Germany-wise". Nevertheless, the stay in Vienna brought an important result: Schumann discovered Ferdinand Schubert 's still unpublished Great Symphony in C major by his deceased brother Franz Schubert , took care of its printing and handed it over to Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy , to whom it was posthumously on March 31, 1839 in Leipzig premiered.
In July 1839, Robert Schumann and Clara Wieck tried to end the seemingly hopeless situation with a lawsuit in court, which was aimed at the fact that either Clara's father should consent to the marriage or that consent should be obtained ex officio. In order to improve his position in the trial against Wieck, Schumann successfully applied for a doctorate from the University of Jena . On February 24, 1840, the philosophy faculty awarded him a doctorate in absentia . To this end, Schumann had submitted a handwritten curriculum vitae, moral certificates and several essays that he had written and rated as “doctoral theses”.
As early as July 16, 1840, Robert Schumann and Clara Wieck set up their first joint apartment, in which they lived throughout their entire time in Leipzig. It was located at Inselstrasse No. 5 (today No. 18, Schumann-Haus ), in the Leipzig district, where book and music publishers had also settled - according to Clara, “a small, cozy, but friendly lodging”. Personalities from Leipzig and international music life such as Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy , Hector Berlioz , Franz Liszt and Ignaz Moscheles were welcome there in the period that followed; In a musician's household, the entertainment of the guests with chamber music and readings was a matter of course.
On August 1, 1840, the court granted the marriage license. On September 12th, one day before Clara Wieck's 21st birthday, the couple married in the memorial church of Schönefeld near Leipzig, dined and celebrated with an aunt Clara's in Leipzig and made an afternoon excursion to the English garden of the Zweinaundorf manor .
First years of marriage in Leipzig
In his marriage to Clara, Schumann always tried to influence her life and work. He didn't want her to go on with her concert activities. As early as 1839 he had written to her: "The first year of our marriage you should forget the artist, you should live nothing but yourself and your house and your husband [...]." On the other hand, he encouraged her to compose herself. His goal was musical togetherness in unity. In 1841 the couple published twelve poems from Rückert's Liebesfrühling for song and pianoforte as op. 37 (Robert Schumann) and op. 12 (Clara Schumann) without revealing the authorship of the individual songs. Schumann particularly valued Clara as a critic in the creation and revision of his piano compositions and sometimes followed her advice. B. in the case of the night pieces op. 23. In the case of the piano sonata in G minor, op. 22, he had already composed a new final movement in 1838 at Clara's insistence. The mutual appreciation and criticism of the works was encouraged by Robert Schumann in the first entry in the joint marriage diary of September 13, 1840 - addressed to Clara: "An adornment of our diary should [...] be the criticism of our artistic achievements [.]"
1840 was a year of great productivity, in which around half of his entire lied output was created (including the Liederkreis op. 39 and the Dichterliebe op. 48); the year is therefore often referred to as his "song year". In 1841 Schumann composed his Symphony No. 1 in B flat major , the Spring Symphony . It was premiered on March 31, 1841 under the baton of Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy. The composition, which was completed in a very short time, and the overwhelming public success of this symphony were seen by Robert and Clara Schumann as confirmation that they had decided against all odds for a joint artistic life. Accordingly, Friedrich Wieck described the work to Schumann as a "symphony of contradictions". In the same year Schumann completed the symphony in D minor . First performed on December 6, 1841, it was not well received by the audience. Schumann revised it 12 years later, and it is known today as his fourth and final symphony.
1842 was Schumann's "Chamber Music Year". The three string quartets op. 41 (June / July), the piano quintet in E flat major op. 44 (September / October), the piano quartet op. 47 (October / November) and the Phantasiestücke op. 88 for piano and violin were written in close succession and violoncello (December).
In 1843 Schumann was a brief teacher at the Leipzig Conservatory in the subjects of piano, composition and score playing. The year 1843 was dominated by the composition and the rehearsal of Paradise and the Peri op. 50 for solos, choir and orchestra. The premiere - for the benefit of the conservatory - took place on December 3, 1843 in the Gewandhaus.
During this time, Friedrich Wieck tried to help Schumann by repeatedly referring to the exemplary nature of his music in his writings - not only in the interpretations of his daughter Clara - and him alongside Frédéric Chopin , Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy , Ignaz Moscheles and Carl Maria von Weber declared to be his artistic role models. With a reconciliation letter of January 21, 1843 to Clara Schumann and a subsequent visit by Clara to her father in Dresden, contact between Friedrich Wieck and the Schumann couple was re-established. In a letter dated December 15, Friedrich Wieck addressed Schumann directly. It says: “We can no longer stand far from each other, towards Clara and the world. You are now also a father of a family - why long explanations? ”Wieck assured Schumann of his sympathy for his talent and his“ beautiful and true aspirations ”. He signed the letter with "Your Father Ms. Wieck". However, Robert Schumann remained reserved towards Friedrich Wieck.
As the financial worries grew, Clara Schumann went on a concert tour again in January 1844, including to Russia, which brought her 6000 thalers. Schumann accompanied her, in the eyes of Clara's admirers, often only as the husband of a pianist known throughout Europe. Schumann's 1st Symphony was performed in a private concert in Saint Petersburg.
In 1844 Schumann's hopes of succeeding Mendelssohn Bartholdy at the Leipzig Gewandhaus were dashed. Schumann then moved to Dresden with his family on December 15, 1844 . The following period up to 1846 was marked by illnesses, he complained of exhaustion, weak nerves, anxiety, dizzy spells - and he became melancholy. He may have had bipolar disorder , also known as manic-depressive illness. It cannot be ruled out that syphilis acquired earlier contributed to the clinical picture.
As he had often done before, Schumann fought his depressive phases through contrapuntal studies. The works for pedal pianos op. 56, 58 and 60, the fugues op. 72 and the canon from op. 124 were created. The symphony in C major (now known as No. 2) also has thematic and compositional features Remember Bach's works and their “rare states of mind”. Schumann himself suspected that composing this symphony had a therapeutic effect on him. Looking back, on April 2, 1849, he wrote to the conductor Georg Dietrich Otten in Hamburg : “I wrote the symphony in December 1845 while still half ill; I feel as if one has to listen to this to her. Only in the last sentence did I start to feel myself again; I really got better after finishing the whole work. ”In general, Schumann was very productive in Dresden. Among other things, he completed his Piano Concerto in A minor op.54 in 1845 , wrote his opera Genoveva op.81 (1847/48) and the incidental music Manfred op.115 (1848), as well as numerous works in other genres: piano works, chamber music, songs, Choral singing, works for choir and orchestra.
In November 1847, Schumann replaced Ferdinand Hiller as "Liedmeister" of the Dresdener Liedertafel , a men's choir . In order to be able to perform works for a larger mixed choir, he founded the Association for Choral Singing at the beginning of 1848 and took over its management.
In 1848/49 Dresden developed into a stronghold of the German revolutionary movement. Robert Schumann was in favor of the republican form of government, but - unlike Richard Wagner , whom Schumann had met in mid-October 1830 - did not publicly advocate it. On April 10, 1849 he wrote to Ferdinand Hiller: “I was very hardworking all this time - it was my most fertile year - as if the external storms drove people more inside, so I found only a counterbalance to that of So terrible on the outside. ”When the Dresden uprising broke out on May 3, 1849 , and Schumann was to be called to a security guard on May 5, he fled with his family to Maxen to the manor of the Serre family, who were friends. The arrogance of aristocrats who also fled to Maxen contributed to the fact that the Schumanns moved to Kreischa after a few days , where Schumann found peace and quiet to compose. Back in Dresden, Schumann fell into a creative frenzy, which contributed to the fact that the revolutionary period became a particularly creative phase for him. His republican sentiments are expressed in the Drei Freiheitsgesänge composed for his choir in 1848 and the Four Marches op. 76 for piano published in 1849 . On November 7, 1849, the music critic Louis Ehlert moved to the Königli. Prussia. Staats-Kriegs- und Friedenszeitung summarized: “[He] r tried everything. That is the criterion of a genius. [...] His productive power is so enormous, he has so overwhelmed us with works of all kinds in recent years that he is already well known in many parts of Germany. "
Schumann's repeated efforts to secure the post of Leipzig Gewandhauskapellmeister failed, and before his plan to become Hofkapellmeister in Dresden became concrete and successful, he received the offer in December 1849 to succeed Ferdinand Hiller as Municipal Music Director in Düsseldorf . The contractual partner at the time was the Musikverein (today the Städtischer Musikverein zu Düsseldorf ). The Schumanns initially hesitated to leave Saxony, which they knew, but on September 1, 1850, they left Dresden for the west.
Municipal Music Director
Robert Schumann's reception in Düsseldorf was warm: the orchestra and choir had rehearsed some of his pieces. There was a ball and a supper especially for him. Schumann was introduced to artistic circles by Hiller. The enthusiasm of the Rhinelander infected Schumann: In 1850, in addition to many other new works, in November and December he also composed his 3rd symphony in E flat major, the so-called Rhenish .
As the city's music director, Schumann had a wide range of tasks: leading the orchestra consisting of professional musicians and amateurs, which was supported by the city's general music association , and leading the choral society, whose members came from the middle and upper classes. He had to plan, study and conduct ten subscription concerts with these two associations per winter season. In addition, he was obliged to hold four major performances in two Catholic churches in Düsseldorf. In addition, he had to prepare and carry out the Düsseldorf part of the Niederrheinische Musikfest, which was organized jointly with Cologne and Aachen .
Schumann felt challenged by these tasks to direct a substantial part of his compositional activities towards the general public. He succeeded particularly with his 3rd symphony , the revised D minor symphony (the later 4th symphony) and the "fairy tale" The Rose Pilgrimage for solos, choir and piano (also in the later arrangement with orchestra) as well as with works a genre newly created by Schumann: the ballad as a concert piece of music for solo voices, choir and orchestra . In this context, his orchestral overtures are "among several of the most beautiful tragedies", such as Schiller's Bride of Messina and Shakespeare's Julius Caesar . Soirees served him from 1851 as a compositional experimental field for his new chamber music works.
Already in the first season problems arose during rehearsals with the orchestra and especially with the choir that Schumann could not get under control. When the 8th subscription concert, which was almost exclusively devoted to his own compositions, was very critically reviewed, he noted in the budget book: “Concerns about staying in D.” His initiative, which went beyond his service obligations, to maintain artistically high-quality chamber music with a quartet , he had to do after a few months to give up.
The difficulties Schumann had with the choir and orchestra increased in the course of his engagement in Düsseldorf. Health problems of a physical and mental nature reduced his ability to communicate more and more during rehearsals and performances. In 1842 he had refused to conduct in a letter to Theodor Avé Lallemant: “You release me from the direction of my symphony. I'm so short-sighted that I can't see a note or a person. ”But now he lacked the appropriate self-assessment. In terms of the requirements and personality structure, he was actually unsuitable for the Düsseldorf office. Schumann's tragic loss of reality was reinforced by Clara Schumann's attitude. She had encouraged him to take the job. She was a great support to him as a répétiteur , especially during choir rehearsals , but, like Schumann, in misjudgment of the facts, put all the blame for the escalating difficulties on others and tried to shield him from attacks. Nevertheless, Schumann lost the trust and support of the choristers and musicians. Several times he had to be represented by the piano teacher and male choir conductor Julius Tausch. The last time Schumann achieved success in Düsseldorf on March 3, 1853, was the performance of his revised D minor symphony op.120.
Meeting with Johannes Brahms
The visit of Johannes Brahms , whom he held in high esteem as a composer and won over him as a friend, brought about a change in Schumann's personal well-being . A new creative surge, which had already started in August 1853, and making music together with the three young artists Johannes Brahms, Joseph Joachim and Albert Dietrich brought Schumann great artistic satisfaction. One expression of this is the FAE sonata for violin and piano written by Albert Dietrich, Johannes Brahms and Robert Schumann in October for Joseph Joachim . The concertante works for piano and violin that were created during this period represent a final high point in Schumann's work. Schumann was enthusiastic about Brahms' ability as a pianist and composer. It caused the music publisher Breitkopf & Härtel to publish some works by Brahms. He also published - five years after his last article for the Neue Zeitschrift für Musik ( Franz Brendel had been the editor since 1845 ) - under the title Neue Bahnen an eulogy for Brahms, "who is ideally called to utter the highest expression of the time" . Brahms felt Schumann's prophetic words as an obligation and a burden, they increased his uncertainty about his own compositions. He destroyed many of the works that had been created up to then and fell into a compositional crisis. For five years he was looking for a promising perspective. Ultimately, Brahms found himself on the path that Schumann had prophesied with the Serenades op. 11 and 16 as well as his 1st Piano Concerto op. 15, which was created in a long process of transformation .
End of career, last successes
An uproar in an orchestra rehearsal for the 1st subscription concert of the winter season 1853/54 led to Schumann being asked by the Musikverein's committee to only conduct his own works in future and to hand over the leadership. Schumann then resigned on October 1, 1854 and no longer appeared at the conductor's podium for the concert on November 10, 1853. Now he also stopped composing.
From November 24th to December 22nd, 1853, Schumann accompanied his wife on a concert tour through Holland. In addition to Schumann's Piano Concerto in A minor, Op. 54, Clara also played Schumann's Concerto Allegro in D minor, Op. 134, the Piano Quintet, Op. 44, and the Piano Quartet, Op. 47. Schumann's 1st and 2nd symphonies were and also were acclaimed The Rose Pilgerfahrt op. 112 met the taste of the audience, who celebrated Schumann as a celebrity. On January 17, 1854, Schumann wrote: “In all cities we were welcomed with joy, indeed with many honors. I was amazed to see how my music is almost more at home in Holland than in the fatherland. ”Two days later, the couple traveled to Hanover, where Clara gave concerts and played Joseph Joachim Schumann's Fantasy for Violin and Orchestra, Op. 131. Schumann's last productive activities before the crisis of 1854 were the creation of an anthology called poets' gardens for music and the writing of the preface for his collected writings on music and musicians .
The fall into the Rhine
On February 10, 1854, Schumann's psychological suffering intensified by leaps and bounds. He mainly complained about "hearing defects". Tones, chords, entire musical pieces raged in his head and robbed him of sleep. Schumann's medical records published in 2006 suggest a connection with syphilis . But bipolar disorder and other causes can also be considered. On February 12, 1854, Schumann mentioned in a letter to Julius Stern in Berlin, with which he had considered a change of position, “[...] the local conditions [...], in which, of course, there is no particular harmony, much like the 1st Accord in the finale of the 9th symphony ”. On February 17th, he wrote down a theme for piano one night, which he thought had made him hear "Angels as greetings from Mendelssohn and Schubert", and on which he wrote variations from February 18th to 26th.
In the meantime, Schumann was observed day and night by his wife and children and was already under medical supervision, but was nevertheless able to leave the apartment at Bilker Straße 1032 (today No. 15) in an unobserved moment on February 27, 1854. He headed for the nearby Oberkassel pontoon bridge , climbed over the railing and, after throwing his wedding ring into the water, plunged into the river. He was rescued by bridge master Joseph Jüngermann and other unknown men, escorted home and looked after by a doctor who had been called. Clara Schumann was not allowed to see him. She and her children sought refuge with a friend. From the suicide attempt and how Schumann had been found, she was taught only 1856th
On March 4, 1854, at his own request, Schumann was admitted to the institute for the treatment and care of the mentally ill and insane, which had been opened by the psychiatrist Franz Richarz in 1844, in Endeich near Bonn . He had already prepared a watch, money, note paper and nibs, as well as cigars. When he left, he did not ask about the absent children or Clara Schumann. His position as music director initially remained vacant; the salary was continued to be paid to the family until the new year.
Schumann's illness and the circumstances surrounding his placement in Endenich have always been the cause of suspicions and rumors. A typical example can be read in various biographies of Robert and Clara Schumann. Then Robert Schumann decided to go to a mental hospital because he saw himself as a “criminal” who could “harm his wife”. This has not been proven by facts and is now highly controversial. There is nothing about this in his diary entries, which last until February 17th. On the other hand, Berthold Litzmann's Clara Schumann biography could be the starting point for this; because Litzmann was the first to quote from Clara Schumann's diary, in which the days and nights from February 21 to February 26, 1856 are recorded. This led to the fact that later three chronologically divergent facts were inadmissibly drawn together from it: “[He] r always said he was a criminal and should actually always read the Bible [...] In the nights he often had moments when he was asked me to leave him because he might do me some harm! […] Suddenly at 9 1/2 o'clock he got up from the sofa and wanted his clothes because he said he had to go to the insane asylum because he was no longer in control of his senses and could not know what he was doing at night That would end. ”Litzmann received access to this diary from the eldest Schumann daughter Marie.
In 2006, the Endeich medical records on Schumann's stay and treatment were published. Together with letter references, diary and household book entries as well as contemporary reports, they provide a picture of the history and course of Schumann's illness. However, neither medical professionals nor musicologists of today agree on the assessment of this material. The external circumstances are certain, the interpretations of which, however, turn out to be different.
Diagnoses and therapies
In the clinic's admission book, the diagnosis was “delusional melancholy”. Later, "Paralysia" was added by an unknown hand. The results of the autopsy carried out by Richarz and Peters immediately after Schumann's death indicated paralysie générale incomplète (incomplete paralysis).
There was no special therapy for paralysis in Endeich. On the other hand, therapies were available for the “delusional melancholy”. The overall therapeutic concept, according to which Richarz ran his clinic, was the reform psychiatric concept "no-restraint", "no compulsion". The main idea here was to avoid mechanical coercive measures against the patient. In the medical reports, however, it can be read that Schumann was put in a straitjacket at least once.
The traditional treatment of "melancholy with delusion" consisted in the drainage of stagnant, sickening juices. In addition to the almost daily enema, Schumann therefore received many laxatives and diarrhea. The creation of fontanelles, artificial foci of pus, was also practiced twice by Schumann. Schumann received further medication for anemia, restlessness, refusal to eat and loss of appetite. If Schumann refused to take drugs despite being forced, they were mixed into his food and drinks. In addition, he received lukewarm baths and cold ablutions. He was sometimes forbidden to play the piano when he was extremely agitated. He was then temporarily taken away from his music and books. In order for Schumann to calm down, contacts with his family and close people were initially suspended. They were only to be resumed if Schumann asked for them.
The daily records of Richarz and his colleague Peters record the frequent ups and downs of Schumann's condition. Clear thinking, hallucinations and delusional ideas alternated throughout Schumann's entire time in Endeich, often facing each other suddenly and mingling. In the early days there was hope of being able to calm Schumann down and thus heal him. Between Schumann's first letter to Clara Schumann in September 1854 and his last letter to her in May 1855, an active phase with a wide range of external contacts emerged. After that, the transcripts and the written and oral information from the doctors became more and more pessimistic.
In the first phase of immobilization, the doctors made Schumann's contacts outside, especially with his family, dependent on his desire for them. But Schumann, who on April 11, 1854, said that he had "done too much evil" and that "it was ordered by the highest authority that he should be burned in hell", showed no interest in this. Since he was allowed to leave the house under the supervision of a guard, he went for walks as far as Bonn. As in his youth, he occupied himself intensively with chess and played dominoes more often. But he remained withdrawn. Peters complained that his silence "makes exploring his inner life very difficult or not at all".
Schumann's outward-looking phase began after he had spoken to Peters in September, shortly before the 14th wedding anniversary, that Düsseldorf had perished and that Clara and the children were dead. In order to take this madness away from him, Peters asked Clara Schumann for a letter to her husband. This is how the first correspondence took place since the briefing. With regard to Schumann's first letter to Clara, Peters wrote in the medical report of September 15, 1854: "[...] while writing a lot of hearing voices, (his wife is insane)." From now on Schumann took an active part in life outside the institution. He also corresponded with his children, Johannes Brahms, Joseph Joachim and with publishers. Between September 1854 and May 1855 he wrote about 25 letters, 18 of which have survived. During this time Schumann often expressed the wish to be able to leave Endeich again. Now and then he played the piano. He studied compositions by Brahms, for example his Variations on a Theme by Robert Schumann, Op. 9, in which, as in the Variations on the same theme by Clara Schumann, the theme of variations from Claras Op. 3 and Roberts Op. 5 is interwoven and the connection between them shows three people. On January 11, 1855, he had his first visit, from Johannes Brahms. Shortly afterwards, on January 22nd, 1855, according to the medical report, he had "a fit of great fear that the guard had poisoned him, that he was going insane, that he would have to be taken to a madhouse and carefully kept." In the spring of 1855, Schumann felt persecuted by the “nemesis” and an “evil woman” and said that a “demon was taking his language away from him”. In the meantime, however, he was able to compose: in March 1855 he was working on his accompaniments to Paganini's Caprices. In the same month he corresponded with the publisher Fritz Simrock about his works and in April 1855 he personally brought the printing copy for the piano reduction of his festival overture with singing to the Rheinweinlied op. 123 to him in Bonn. New releases of his compositions, which Clara Schumann and Johannes Brahms mainly took care of, were sent to him. He regularly followed the reports in the magazine Signals for the Musical World . Able to communicate with the outside world, hallucinations and delusional ideas increasingly caught up with him. The medical records also recorded speech disorders, outbursts of anger, states of restlessness, hours of roaring and screaming, and occasional aggression towards guards and doctors. Again and again, however, Schumann had relaxed times in which the impression arose that his condition was improving. Overall, in this active phase, Schumann tried to lead a self-determined life in Endeich and strove to leave the institution as soon as possible. Since he was prevented from doing so, he announced on May 4, 1855, that he would write to a notary who should sue the doctor. But this did not happen.
On May 5, 1855, Schumann wrote his last letter to Clara Schumann. In it he announced a more detailed letter ("There is a shadow blowing in it"), but it did not materialize. After that, he no longer corresponded with anyone, even though he was asked to, and withdrew into himself. On May 9, 1855, he asked for the last time to be left home. He also sometimes played the piano. Joseph Joachim reported that Schumann was only able to render his own compositions mutilated. Joseph von Wasielewski heard Schumann fantasizing on the piano in the summer of 1855. He described his game as inedible and compared it to a machine whose mechanism has been destroyed. Schumann often had conversations with himself and with imaginary people. He was less and less able to organize his thoughts and suffered from memories of previous moral failures. In this connection he also noted that he had been syphilitic in 1831 and had been treated with arsenic. He had not completely lost his creative abilities: in January 1856 he composed a fugue. On May 1, 1856, it was mentioned in the medical records for the last time that Schumann played the piano. Most of the time he was barely able to express himself in an understandable way, not even when Johannes Brahms visited him in April and June 1856. Clara Schumann's plan of April 1856 to bring Schumann to Düsseldorf and look after him there herself was not realized. From mid-July 1856, Schumann ate less and less. On July 26th, 1856 he had "twitches in various muscles, face and limbs". Rattling of mucus suggested pneumonia.
Joseph Joachim , Johannes Brahms and Bettina von Arnim visited him and reported differently about his condition. While Bettina von Arnim considered Schumann to be healthy and the doctor to be sick, Brahms and Joachim recognized the progressive decline of Schumann's personality during their visits.
The first visitor who was allowed to see Schumann was Joseph Joachim. On December 24, 1854, he was able to speak to Schumann for half an hour and brought him a picture of Schumann's children and new compositions by Brahms, Woldemar Bargiel and himself. Schumann looked open-minded but unfocused. He "brought forward a lot of delusions of a melancholy character based on auditory hallucinations, which, however, refer to them as unfounded and ridiculous". Joachim's three visits in May 1855 served, among other things, to check whether Bettina von Arnim's assertions were true. Overall, however, they gave a clear picture of Schumann's further decline and the honest efforts of the doctors to find a cure.
Brahms saw Schumann on March 31 and August 19, 1854 without being able to speak to him. On January 11, February 23, and April 2, 1855, however, both were able to talk in detail. During his visit in February Brahms Schumann brought a picture of Clara Schumann with him and told him about Clara's family life in Düsseldorf and about her concert tours. Schumann was doing so well that he was able to make music on the square piano with Brahms and to accompany him on part of the way to the Bonn train station when he said goodbye under the supervision of a guard. On the way, Schumann spoke of the fact that he sometimes wished to get away from Endenich. In February 1856, Brahms wanted Schumann to be moved to a cold water facility, but abandoned the plan because of Schumann's poor condition. On April 10, 1856, Brahms found Schumann in a precarious condition. Schumann could no longer speak intelligibly. On June 8, 1856, Brahms brought him a large Stieler 's atlas for his birthday , from which Schumann subsequently compiled alphabetical indices from a Schuberth atlas obtained in March 1855.
Clara Schumann was denied visits to Endenich from the start for medical reasons. In the summer of 1854 she asked Peters in a letter to let her know as soon as a visit could take place without prejudice to her husband. It was only when Schumann's end was recognizable that she was called to Endenich on July 23, 1856. She wanted to visit the irretrievably sick person immediately, but on the advice of the doctors and Brahms who was traveling with her, she refrained from doing so, although she was already in Endenich. Schumann did not see them until July 27, 1856, two days before his death. She was sure he recognized her. At that time, Schumann had already refused to eat.
Robert Schumann died on July 29; no one was present. On the evening of July 31, 1856, he was buried in the old cemetery in Bonn. From Clara Schumann's diary: "His dearest friends [Johannes Brahms, Joseph Joachim and Albert Dietrich] went ahead, I followed (unnoticed), and that was the best way, certainly in his [Robert Schumann's] sense!"
Clara Schumann outlived her husband by 40 years. She was buried next to him in the common grave of honor .
Robert Schumann's family
- Emilie (1796–1825): Suffered from severe depression and committed suicide.
- Eduard (1799–1839): continued the company after August Schumann's death; was married to Maria Therese nee Semmel (1805–1887), one daughter.
- Carl (1801–1849), printer and publisher in Schneeberg ; Robert Schumann had a particularly warm relationship with him and his wife Rosalie née Illing (1809–1833).
- Julius (1805–1833), bookseller in Zwickau, married to Emilie Sophie Wilhelmine née Lorenz (1810–1860); four children.
- Marie (September 1, 1841 - November 14, 1929): Godfather was a. Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy, Marie had close ties to Clara Schumann, ran the household; accompanied her mother on concert tours, taught her mother's pupils, was Clara Schumann's assistant at the Hoch Conservatory in Frankfurt.
- Elise (April 25, 1843 - July 1, 1928): piano teacher in Frankfurt, married to the businessman Louis Sommerhoff, four children.
- Julie (March 11, 1845 - November 10, 1872): most of the time she lived with friends of Clara Schumann in the south because of her endangered health; married to Count Vittorio Amadeo Radicati di Marmorito, died at the age of 27 during her third pregnancy. Brahms dedicated the Alto Rhapsody, Op. 53, and his Variations on a Theme by Robert Schumann, Op. 23, to her. Robert Schumann composed the Sonata, Op. 118, No. 1 for his daughter.
- Emil (February 8, 1846 - June 22, 1847): died as a toddler, godmother was the singer Livia Frege .
- Ludwig (January 20, 1848 - January 9, 1899): unsuccessful school attendance, discontinued vocational training; Diagnosed as mentally ill, he lived for almost 30 years in the state care facility for the incurable mentally ill in Colditz Castle .
- Ferdinand (July 16, 1849 - June 6, 1891): became a bank clerk in Berlin; married to Antonie née Deutsch, seven children; became a drug addict and lived on his mother's support.
- Eugenie (December 1, 1851 - September 25, 1938): spent most of her childhood and youth with a friend of Clara Schumann's or in boarding schools due to her mother's necessary concert activities, before she went to her mother for about 20 years at the age of 20 and her eldest sister Marie moved to Frankfurt; then lived for 20 years as a piano teacher in England; her partner was the singer Marie Fillunger .
- Felix (June 11, 1854 - February 16, 1879): was born about three months after Schumann's time in the mental hospital began. Robert Schumann decided in a letter to his wife dated September 18, 1854, to choose the first name Felix from three given names at the registry office: “If you want to know which name is my favorite, you can guess it, the one Unforgettable! ”This was the name of Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy, who died on November 4th, 1847. Musical career and law studies failed; literary attempts; died of pulmonary tuberculosis at the age of 24 .
As early as 1817, even before the first piano lessons, Robert Schumann composed some piano pieces according to his own statements. From 1822 he designed several major musical projects with a larger cast, which he was only able to realize to a limited extent. In his project book he recorded his early, later discarded, partly unfinished and unpublished works during his lifetime, including the setting of the 150th Psalm (1822), Fragments of an Opera (1822/23), 11 songs (1827/28), 8 polonaises for piano four hands (1827), variations on a theme by Prince Louis Ferdinand of Prussia for piano (1828), a piano quintet in C minor (1828/29) and the beginning of a piano concerto in F major (1830). When permanent complaints in the right hand thwarted a career as a virtuoso, Schumann devoted himself entirely to composing. The first published work was the Abegg Variations op.1 , published in 1831 under the name Thème sur le nom Abegg varié pour le pianoforte .
Op. 1 to op. 23, composed between 1827 and 1839, are exclusively works for solo piano. In the following years Schumann devoted himself systematically and with a focus to other genres one after the other. Songs, orchestral works and concertante works, chamber music, oratorios, incidental music, choral music, an opera, polyphonic works for piano, pedal grand piano and organ, works for children and young people as well as sacred music were created. The last valid works are the so-called Geistervariationen on a separate theme in E flat major for piano (1854) and the piano accompaniments to the 24 Caprices for solo violin by Paganini, which were written in Endenich. In addition, two choral movements and some fugues were written in Endenich, but these have been lost.
Until around 1845 Robert Schumann worked on his works on the piano. After that he composed mostly at the standing desk and occasionally used the piano as a control instrument. From Schumann's diary: "I wrote most, almost everything, the smallest of my pieces in inspiration, a lot with incredible speed, such as my 1st symphony in B flat major in four days, a song circle of twenty pieces as well, the peri in (as well) relatively short time. Only from Jr. in 1845, where I started all in the mind to invent and develop, is a very different kind has to develop to compose bego n s. "
- Eight polonaises for piano four hands or op. (1828)
- Abegg Variations op. 1 (1829/1830)
- Papillons op. 2 (1829-1832)
- Studies for the pianoforte after Caprices by Paganini op.3 (1832)
- Intermezzi op.4 (1832)
- Impromptus on a romance by Clara Wieck op.5 (1st version: 1833; 2nd version: 1850)
- League of David dances . 18 character pieces op.6 (1837)
- Toccata in C major op.7 (early version: 1829/1830; final version: 1833)
- Allegro op.8 (1831–1832)
- Carnaval op.9 (1833 and winter 1834/1835)
- Six Concert Etudes after Caprices by Paganini op.10 (1832/1833)
- Piano Sonata No. 1 in F sharp minor, Op. 11 (1832–1835)
- Fantasiestücke op.12 (1837; No. 7: probably as early as 1836)
- Twelve Symphonic Etudes, Op. 13 (1st version: 1834–1835, possibly also 1836; 2nd version: 1849–1851)
- Piano Sonata No. 3 in F minor, Op. 14 ("Concerto without Orchestra"; 1st version: 1835/1836; 2nd version: between April 1850 and June 1852)
- Scenes from Children, Op. 15 (1838; Nos. 6 and 9: probably as early as 1837)
- Kreisleriana op. 16 (1838)
- Fantasy in C major op.17 (1836/1838)
- Arabesque op. 18 (1838–1839)
- Blumenstück op.19 (1838–1839)
- Humoresque op.20 (1838–1839)
- Novellettes op.21 (1838)
- Piano Sonata No. 2 in G minor, Op. 22 (June 1830, 1833, October 1835 and December 1838)
- Night Pieces op. 23 (1839/1840)
- Faschingsschwank from Vienna . Fantasy pictures for piano op. 26 (No. 1–4: 1839; No. 5: probably winter 1839/1840)
- Three romances op.28 (1839)
- Scherzo, Gigue, Romanze and Fughette op. 32 (No. 1–3: 1838; No. 4: October 1839)
- Andante and Variations in B flat major for two pianos op.46 (1843; original version for two pianos, two cellos and horn)
- Studies for pedal pianos . Six pieces in canonical form op.56 (1845)
- Sketches for pedal grand piano op.58 (1845)
- Six fugues on BACH for organ or pedal piano op.60 (1845; revision: 1846)
- Images from the east . Six Impromptus op.66 (four hands) (1848)
- Album for the Young, op.68 (1848)
- Four fugues op.72 (1845)
- Four marches op.76 (1849)
- Forest scenes . Nine pieces op.82 (1848–1849)
- Twelve Piano Pieces for Four Hands for Small and Large Children, Op. 85 (1849)
- Colorful leaves . Fourteen Piano Pieces op. 99 (1834/1835 [?] - 1849; compilation of the album: late 1850)
- Ball scenes . Nine characteristic clay pieces (four hands) op.109 (1849/1851)
- Three Fantasy Pieces op.111 (1851)
- Three Piano Sonatas for Young People, Op. 118 (1853)
- Album sheets . 20 piano pieces op.124 (1832/1833, 1835–1839, 1841, 1843, 1845, 1853)
- Seven Piano Pieces in Fughette Form, Op. 126 (1853)
- Children's ball . Six easy dance pieces op.130 (four hands; 1853; No. 3: probably 1850)
- Chants of the Morning op.133 (1853)
- Piano accompaniments to all 24 caprices from Paganini's Op. 1 WoO 25 (1853–1855)
- Theme with variations in E flat major ("Geistervariationen"; 1854)
- Symphony in G minor WoO 29, called Youth Symphony or Zwickau Symphony (1832–33), incomplete (two movements completed, two others sketched)
- No. 1 in B flat major op.38, Spring Symphony (1841)
- No. 2 in C major op. 61 (1845/1846, revision 1846–47)
- No. 3 in E flat major op.97, Rheinische (1850)
- No. 4 in D minor op.120 (first version 1841, revision to the final version 1851)
Other orchestral works
- Overture, Scherzo and Finale op.52 (1841)
- Overture in C minor to Schiller's drama The Bride of Messina op. 100 (1850–51)
- Overture in F minor to Shakespeare's drama Julius Caesar op.128 (1851)
- Overture in B minor to Goethe's verse epic Hermann and Dorothea op.136 (1851)
- Concerto for piano and orchestra in A minor op.54 (original version of the 1st movement: May 1841; revision: August 1841, January 1843, again until the end of July 1845; 2nd and 3rd movements: 1845)
- Concert piece for four horns and large orchestra in F major op. 86 (February 18 to March 11, 1849); also version for piano and orchestra by the composer
- Introduction and Allegro appassionato. Concert piece for piano and orchestra, Op. 92 (September 18-26, 1849)
- Concerto for violoncello and orchestra in A minor, Op. 129 (October / November 1850); also version for violin and orchestra by the composer
- Concert Allegro with Introduction for Piano and Orchestra, Op. 134 (August 24-30, 1853)
- Fantasy in C major for violin and orchestra op.131 (1853)
- Concerto for violin and orchestra in D minor WoO 1 (September 21 to October 3, 1853)
Choral works with orchestra (selection)
For choir and orchestra
- Nachtlied op. 108
For solos, choir and orchestra
- Paradise and the Peri . Seal from Lalla Rookh by Thomas Moore op.50 (text: 1841–1842; sketching and elaboration: 1843)
- Adventlied op. 71
- Requiem for Mignon from Goethe's Wilhelm Meister op.98b (1849)
- The Rose Pilgrimage op.112 (poem by Heinrich Moritz Horn ; 1851)
- Manfred . Dramatic poem in three sections after Lord Byron for eleven speaking roles, seven solo parts, five-part choir and orchestra op.115 (1848)
- The prince . Ballad for op.116
- Overture with singing to the Rheinweinlied for tenor, choir and orchestra op.123 (1853)
- The singer's curse . Ballade after Ludwig Uhland op.139 (text: 1851; sketches and score: January 1852; revised on October 9, 1852)
- From the page and the king's daughter . Ballad op.140
- The luck of Edenhall op. 143
- New Year's Song op.144
- Missa sacra (Mass in C minor) op.147 (February to April 1852; offertory and version with organ accompaniment: March 1853)
- Requiem op.148 (1852)
- Scenes from Goethe's Faust WoO 3 (1844-1853)
- Three String Quartets, Op. 41, No. 1 in A minor, No. 2 in F major, No. 3 in A major (1842)
- Piano quintet in E flat major op.44 (September / October 1842)
- Piano quartet in E flat major op.47 (October / November 1842)
- Trio for piano, violin and violoncello No. 1 in D minor op.63 (1847)
- Adagio and Allegro for piano and horn (violin or cello ad libitum) op. 70 (February 14-17, 1849)
- Three Fantasy Pieces for Piano and Clarinet (Oboe d'amore, Violin or Violoncello ad libitum) op. 73 (11-13, possibly February 15, 1849)
- Trio for piano, violin and violoncello No. 2 in F major op. 80 (sketching and elaboration: August 2-4, 1847, revision: September 26th to November 1st, 1847 and April 5-9, 1849)
- Fantasiestücke op. 88 for piano, violin and violoncello
- Three romances for oboe and piano (violin or clarinet ad libitum) op. 94 (December 7-12, 1849)
- Five pieces in folk tone for violoncello (violin ad libitum) and piano op. 102 (April 13-15 and April 17, 1849)
- Violin Sonata No. 1 in A minor, Op. 105 (September 12-16, 1851)
- Trio for piano, violin and violoncello No. 3 in G minor, Op. 110 (October 2–9, 1851)
- Fairy tale pictures for piano and viola (violin ad libitum) op. 113 (March 1–4, 1851)
- Violin Sonata No. 2 in D minor, Op. 121 (October 26th to November 2nd, 1851), dedicated to "the dear friend and master Ferdinand David "
- Tales of fairy tales for clarinet (violin ad libitum), viola and piano op.132 (October 9-11, 1853)
- Violin Sonata No. 3 in A minor WoO 2 (including movements II and IV from the FAE Sonata , a joint composition by Robert Schumann, Johannes Brahms and Albert Dietrich ) (October 21 to November 1, 1853)
- Liederkreis after Heinrich Heine for a voice and piano op.24 (February 1840)
- Myrtles . Liederkreis for voice and piano op.25 (January to April 1840)
- Three poems after Emanuel Geibel for polyphonic voice and piano op.29 (No. 1 and 2: end of July / beginning of August 1840; No. 3: October 1840)
- Three poems after Emanuel Geibel for voice and piano op.30 (July 31 to August 2, 1840)
- Three chants after Adelbert von Chamisso for voice and piano op.31 (July 13 and 14, 1840)
- Twelve songs based on Justinus Kerner . A series of songs for voice and piano op.35 (November 20 to December 29, 1840)
- Twelve poems from Friedrich Rückert's Liebesfrühling for voice and piano (with Clara Schumann) op.37 (1841)
- Liederkreis op.39 after Joseph Freiherrn von Eichendorff for voice and piano (May 1 to May 20, 1840; revised 1849)
- Woman love and life . Eight songs after Adelbert von Chamisso for voice and piano op.42 (sketch: July 11th and 12th, elaboration: August 1840, revision: May 7th 1843)
- Poetry love . Circle of songs from Heinrich Heine's book of songs for voice and piano op.48 (May 24 to June 1, 1840)
- Belsatzar . Ballad after Heinrich Heine for a low voice and piano op.57 (February 7, 1840)
- Songs for the Young, Op. 79 (end of April - end of June 1849)
- Sechs Gesänge op.89 (1850, libretti by Wilfried von der Neun )
- Songs and Chants op.96 (1850)
- Six songs op.107 (1851/52)
- Poems by Queen Maria Stuart for voice and piano op. 135 (9-10, 13-15 and 16 December 1852)
- Six songs for four-part male singing, op.33 (1840)
- Five songs for mixed choir, op.55 (1846)
- Four chants for mixed choir, op.59 (1846)
- Three songs for male choir, op.62 (1847)
- Ritornelle in canonical ways for polyphonic male singing, op.65 (1847)
- Romances and Ballads for Mixed Choir, Book 1, op.67 (March / April 1849)
- Romances for female voices with piano ad libitum, Book 1 op. 69 (1849)
- Romances and ballads for mixed choir, volume 2, op.75 (March / April 1849)
- Romances for female voices with piano ad libitum, volume 2 op. 91 (1849)
- Four double-choir chants for mixed choir a cappella, op. 141 (1849) [Actually: "Four double choir chants for larger choral societies" (based on the edition by Clara Schumann, Breitkopf & Härtel 1887)]
- Romances and Ballads for Choir, Book 3, op.145 (1849)
- Romances and Ballads for Choir, Book 4, op.146 (1849)
- Genoveva op. 81 (1847/48)
Robert Schumann was initially mainly perceived as a music critic in professional circles and among music lovers. His early published works from Opus 1 to Opus 23, which were reserved for solo piano, were only known to a few.
With the takeover of the editor-in-chief of the Neue Zeitschrift für Musik in 1835, Schumann became at least known as a reviewer in Germany and also in France and had contacts to the European and American music centers through an extensive network of correspondents. This made it easier for him to find publishers for his works. As a composer, however, he was still in the shadow of Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy.
In 1837, Franz Liszt was the first reviewer to present Schumann's piano works in detail to the interested public. Inspired by Hector Berlioz, whose Symphonie fantastique had analyzed Schumann in the piano version of Franz Liszt two years earlier in detail, and asked by the publisher Maurice Schlesinger , he discussed in the Revue et Gazette musicale de Paris op Schumann. 5, Op. 11 and Op 14. These works were already available to Berlioz and Liszt in French editions, since German and French music publishers had agreed on parallel editions of new music in Germany and France. Liszt saw Schumann's works as examples of a musical poetics that he himself was striving for and as an expression of a new ideal of progressive composing. In the following years he occasionally included parts from Schumann's piano cycles, for example from the Carnaval, in his concert programs, but without being successful with the audience. He later performed orchestral works, concerts, the third section of scenes from Goethe's Faust , Manfred and the opera Genoveva . In 1855 he described Schumann as a pioneer of the musical progress party in Germany.
From 1840 onwards, broader circles became aware of Schumann's compositions. His piano-accompanied songs were bought and sung by amateurs who were enthusiastic about music, and were included in their programs by singers such as Wilhelmine Schröder-Devrient and Jenny Lind and also performed in concerts organized by Clara Schumann. With his 1st symphony and the piano concerto as well as with the piano quintet and the piano quartet , he had his first major successes, especially through performances under Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy and with his wife Clara Schumann at the piano. Now he was recognized throughout Europe as a composer and got to know many international composers and instrumentalists personally, some of whom had come to Leipzig for him or to study with Mendelssohn Bartholdy.
Schumann only occasionally published his own works as supplements to his magazine. From 1831 onwards, publications in carefully selected publishers were more important: Kistner (Leipzig) from 1831, Hofmeister (Leipzig) from 1832, Friese (Leipzig) from 1834, Haslinger (Vienna) from 1836, Breitkopf & Härtel (Leipzig) from 1837, Schuberth (Hamburg and Leipzig) from 1841, Whistling (Leipzig) from 1843, Simrock (Bonn) from 1844, Peters (Leipzig) from 1844, Senff (Leipzig) from 1850, Arnold (Elberfeld) from 1852 and several small publishers from 1840.
About two thirds of his 156 works from various genres, published with or without opus numbers, appeared between 1846 and 1854. His four symphonies and Das Paradies und die Peri were most successful . His opera Genoveva was a great success at the world premiere.
Schumann's works were performed in New York City as early as 1848 - the first Das Paradies und die Peri on April 4, 1848 with an audience of 2,000. The first prints of Schumann's works appeared in New York in 1850 after the Julius Schuberth publishing house had established a branch there.
After 1850, Schumann was viewed as a role model and teacher by the representatives of the national schools of Northern and Eastern Europe. In 1869 the Moscow publishing house Petr Jurgensen published a complete edition of Schumann's piano works. Tchaikovsky said in 1871 that "the music of the second half of this century will go down in the history of art as a period which later generations will call Schumann's".
In France, composers of several generations, for example Georges Bizet , César Franck , Gabriel Fauré and Claude Debussy , grappled with Schumann's compositions. Polarization had occurred in Germany. There Schumann and his works were oppressed and devalued by Richard Wagner and Wagnerism, especially after Friedrich Nietzsche had described Schumann in 1886 as “just another German event”. In return, Schumann was stylized as an informant for the Anti-Wagnerians.
After Schumann's death, Clara Schumann and Johannes Brahms were the first to publicly perform his early piano works. Before that, this mainly happened in private or in house concerts. As early as January 1862, the critic Eduard Hanslick stated that among pianists it had meanwhile become “partly a need, partly a fashion, so at least it had become inevitable” to put Schumann on the program. And in 1863 he noted that after it had become fashionable to play Bach and Schumann in all concerts, every teenage girl believed she had to deal with the most difficult of these two composers.
Clara Schumann and Johannes Brahms published Robert Schumann's works between 1879 and 1893 as a kind of complete edition. However, some of Schumann's late compositions have not been included in this edition, and a critical report and further philological information are missing.
Even during the German Empire and afterwards especially during the Nazi regime , Schumann was interpreted and propagated more and more narrowly as a German national. Gustav Mahler and, in his successor, the composers of the Schönberg School, however, turned against both the new German devaluation and the German national appropriation of Schumann by emphasizing, among other things, his novel, structural qualities.
In National Socialist musicology, Schumann was elevated to a typically German genius and at the same time reduced to a composer of inwardness. He was stylized as an anti-Semite who criticized and rejected Mendelssohn as a Jew. To prove this, primary sources have been trimmed and falsified. The violin concerto in D minor was premiered in 1937 in a mutilated arrangement. It was intended to replace Mendelssohn Bartholdy's extremely popular violin concerto.
With the late work discussion since the late 20th century and the availability of many primary sources that were previously difficult to access, the view of Schumann's works and thus also of his last compositions changed. The violin concerto is now being played in its original version. Robert Schumann's works are extensively present in concert life, at music academies and in musicology and are offered almost completely on data carriers. The emerging New Robert Schumann Complete Edition (RSA) offers a new basis for research and practice . It is published by the Robert Schumann Society. V. Düsseldorf in connection with the Robert-Schumann-Haus Zwickau . It is being developed by the Robert Schumann Research Center in Düsseldorf .
Despite many individual studies on Schumann's reception, there is still no comprehensive, scientific account of the reception history of Schumann's works.
One of the most famous instruments on which Robert Schumann played was Conrad Graf's grand piano , which he gave to Robert and Clara in 1839 on the occasion of their wedding. This instrument was in Schumann's study in Düsseldorf; later Clara Schumann gave it to the composer Johannes Brahms. After changing a few places of residence, it was finally given to the Society of Friends of Music in Vienna; it is now exhibited in the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna.
Robert Schumann competitions and Schumann festivals
Round birthdays or days of death often provide an occasion for festive events or music competitions . The International Robert Schumann Competition was launched on the 100th anniversary of his death . In 1960, on his 150th birthday, the “II. Schumann Competition ”in the subjects of singing and string quartet and another Schumann Festival in Zwickau. With the third competition, this competition finally “moved” to Zwickau. The International Robert Schumann Choir Competition has also been held in Zwickau every four years since 1992, organized by the Förderverein Interkultur e. V.
Another center of Schumann festivals is Düsseldorf , which, for example, is organizing a 17-day Schumann festival in 2010 on the occasion of its 200th birthday.
Since 1998 the "Verein Schumannhaus Bonn e. V. ”annually the Schumann Festival in Bonn , until 2012 in late autumn, since 2013 for the first time in spring from the end of May to the beginning of June.
Since 2000, the honorary members of the art and culture association "Robert Schumann" Kreischa e. V. organizes the Schumanniade (which takes place every two years) in Kreischa and Maxen . Renowned artists from home and abroad always appear at the three-day festival. by Peter Schreier , the honorary chairman of the association, to Kreischa.
Monuments and plaques
- 1875: Robert Schumann monument at the Moritzbastei in Leipzig
- 1880: Memorial for Schumann's grave in the old cemetery in Bonn by Adolf von Donndorf
- 1901: Robert Schumann monument on the main market in Zwickau by Johannes Hartmann
- 1901: Robert Schumann memorial plaque in Aš / Asch ( Czech Republic )
- 1986: Robert Schumann stele on the Zwingerteich behind the Semperoper in Dresden by Charlotte Sommer-Landgraf
- 1997: Bust of Robert Schumann in the Kurpark zu Kreischa (near Dresden , Saxony ) by Hans Kazzer
- 2006: Robert Schumann memorial in front of the Schumannhaus in Bonn-Endenich by Alfred Hrdlicka
Institutions and buildings
- 1920: Robert Schumann Society Zwickau, newly founded in 1957
- 1947: Robert Schumann Conservatory in Zwickau
- 1956: Robert Schumann House as a national memorial and museum on Zwickau's main market
- 1964: Robert Schumann Prize of the City of Zwickau
- 1972: Robert Schumann University of Applied Sciences Düsseldorf (since 1935 the "Robert Schumann Conservatory" of the city of Düsseldorf)
- 1979: Robert Schumann Society Düsseldorf
- 1983: Robert Schumann Philharmonic in Chemnitz
- 1991: Robert-Schumann-Gymnasium Leipzig
- 2012: Robert Schumann Prize for Poetry and Music from the Academy of Sciences and Literature in Mainz
Geographical and astronomical objects
- Mount Schumann , mountain on Alexander I Island, Antarctica
- (4003) Schumann , asteroid of the main belt
Postage stamps and commemorative coin
Postage stamp from the Deutsche Bundespost (1956) on the 100th anniversary of death
Postage stamp from the Deutsche Post of the GDR (1956) on the 100th anniversary of death
German postage stamp from 2010 for the 200th birthday
Together with the postage stamp for the 200th birthday in 2010, a 10 euro commemorative coin of the Federal Republic of Germany was issued.
- Memories of Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy - from 1835 until his death . Handwriting around 1848. In: Musik- Konzept, Volume 14/15, pp. 99–122 ( full text on Wikisource ); Reprint: edition text + kritik, Munich 1980
- Musical house and life rules . In: Neue Zeitschrift für Musik , 1850, Volume 32, Supplement to No. 36 (May 3, 1850), pp. 1–4 ( full text on Wikisource )
- Collected writings on music and musicians . Georg Wigand, Leipzig 1854 ( full text on Wikisource )
- F. Gustav Jansen , Robert Schumann's letters. New series , Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel 1886 ( digitized version ).
- F. Gustav Jansen, Robert Schumann's letters. New episode . 2nd probably and improved edition, Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel 1904 ( archive.org ).
- Hermann Erler , Robert Schumann's Life. Described from his letters by Hermann Erler. With numerous explanations and an appendix, containing the essays by R. Schumann’s , Berlin: Ries & Erler 1887, 2 volumes ( digitized ) that have not been included in the “Gesammelte Schriften” .
- Reverie . Germany, 1943. With Mathias Wieman (Robert Schumann), Hilde Krahl (Clara Schumann), Friedrich Kayßler (Friedrich Wieck), Ullrich Haupt (Johannes Brahms). Director: Harald Braun .
- Clara Schumann's great love . USA, 1947. Starring: Katharine Hepburn (Clara Schumann), Paul Henreid (Robert Schumann), also: Leo G. Carroll , Henry Daniell . Directed by Clarence Brown .
- Spring symphony . BRD, 1982. Starring: Nastassja Kinski (Clara Schumann), Herbert Grönemeyer (Robert Schumann), also André Heller , Rolf Hoppe , Gidon Kremer , Bernhard Wicki . Director: Peter Schamoni ; Book: Peter Schamoni and Hans Neunzig.
- Dr. Robert Schumann, devil romantic . Germany, 1999. Starring: Michael Maertens (Robert Schumann), Bettina Kurth (Clara Wieck), also: Will Quadflieg , Ulrich Wildgruber , Monica Bleibtreu . Director: Ernst-Günter Seibt , Christine Soetbeer .
- Beloved Clara . Germany, France, Hungary, 2008. Starring: Martina Gedeck (Clara Schumann), Pascal Greggory (Robert Schumann) and Malik Zidi (Johannes Brahms). Director: Helma Sanders-Brahms .
- Homage to Robert Schumann . Germany, 2010. With Marie Versini (Clara Schumann) and Timur Sergeynia. Directed by Pierre Viallet.
- Robert Schumann's lost dreams. Documentary and scenic documentary, international co-production (MDR, WDR, SWR, SF Schweizer Fernsehen, VRT Canvas, Tonhalle Düsseldorf, Schumann Network and merkur.tv), 2010, 43′30 min., Written and directed by Volker Schmidt-Sondermann and Axel Fuhrmann, first broadcast: March 14, 2010, ARD, film information from ARD and the Schumann portal .
- Schumann in Heidelberg. Documentary and scenic documentation, Germany, 2011, 29 min., Script and director: Nele Münchmeyer, production: SWR , series: Musical travel guide, first broadcast: September 9, 2012 on SWR, film information from ARD .
Overall presentations and biographies
- Hermann Abert : Robert Schumann. Harmonie-Verlag, Berlin 1903 ( full text at zeno.org).
- Wolfgang Boetticher : Robert Schumann - Introduction to Personality and Work. Berlin 1941. Revised new edition under the title: Robert Schumann - Life and Work. Noetzel Verlag 2004, ISBN 3-7959-0804-3 .
- André Boucourechliev : Robert Schumann in personal testimonies and photo documents . Rowohlt, Reinbek near Hamburg 1958.
- Ernst Burger : Robert Schumann - A life chronicle in pictures and documents. Schott Verlag, Mainz 1999, ISBN 3-7957-0343-3 .
- Judith Chernaik: Schumann: the faces and the masks. Alfred A. Knopf, New York 2018, ISBN 978-0-451-49446-7
- Martin Demmler: Robert Schumann. "I cried in a dream". A biography. Reclam, Leipzig 2006, ISBN 3-379-00869-9 .
- Arnfried Edler : Robert Schumann and his time. 3rd, corrected and enlarged edition. Laaber-Verlag, 2008, ISBN 978-3-89007-653-9 .
- Arnfried Edler: Robert Schumann (= knowledge in the Beck series. 2474). Munich 2009, ISBN 978-3-406-56274-7 .
- Martin Geck : Robert Schumann: man and musician of the romantic. Biography. Siedler, Munich 2010, ISBN 978-3-88680-897-7 .
- Peter Gülke : Robert Schumann. Happiness and misery of romance. Zsolnay, Vienna 2010, ISBN 978-3-552-05492-9 .
- Helmut Loos: Robert Schumann: Work and Life. Edition Steinbauer, Vienna 2010, ISBN 978-3-902494-44-3 .
- Barbara Meier : Robert Schumann. Revised new edition. Rowohlt Verlag, Reinbek near Hamburg 2010, ISBN 978-3-499-50714-4 .
- Michael Musgrave: The life of Schumann. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge et al. 2011, ISBN 978-0-521-80248-2 .
- Ulrich Tadday (Ed.): Schumann Handbook. Kassel / Stuttgart 2006, ISBN 3-476-01671-4 .
- Wilhelm Joseph von Wasielewski : Robert Schumann. A biography . Dresden 1858. 4th, revised and increased edition, ed. by Waldemar von Wasielewski, Breitkopf & Härtel, Leipzig 1906. Reprint of the 4th edition: Sendet, Walluf b. Wiesbaden 1972.
Articles in reference books
- Arnfried Edler, Joachim Draheim, Irmgard Knechtges-Obrecht: Schumann, Robert. In: Music in the past and present. 2nd, revised edition. Person part, volume 15. Kassel et al. 2006, col. 257-328.
- Gerd Nauhaus: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 23, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 2007, ISBN 978-3-428-11204-3 , pp. 742-746 ( version ). In:
- Wilhelm Joseph von Wasielewski: Schumann, Robert . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 33, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1891, pp. 44-55.
- Bernhard R. Appel (Ed.): Robert Schumann in Endenich (1854-1856). Medical records, letters, and contemporary reports. Schott Verlag, Mainz 2006, ISBN 3-7957-0527-4 .
- Joachim Bauer, Jens Blecher (ed.): The "academic" Schumann and the Jena doctorate from 1840 (= series of publications of the Leipzig University Archives. Volume 14). Leipziger Universitätsverlag, Leipzig 2010, ISBN 978-3-86583-530-7 .
- Veronika Beci : Robert and Clara Schumann. Music and passion. Artemis & Winkler, Düsseldorf 2006, ISBN 3-538-07223-X .
- Bodo Bischoff : Monument to Beethoven. The development of Robert Schumann's reception of Beethoven. Cologne 1994, ISBN 3-925366-26-1 .
- Bodo Bischoff: Robert Schumann's Bach picture. In: Michael Heinemann, Hans-Joachim Hinrichsen (Ed.): Bach and posterity. Volume 1: 1750-1850. Laaber 1997, ISBN 3-89007-322-0 , pp. 421-499.
- Bodo Bischoff: “Turning the strength to sacred music remains the artist's highest goal.” On the religiosity in the life and work of Robert Schumann. In: Gotthard Fermor (Ed.): Spirituality of Music. Religion in the work of Beethoven and Schumann. Rheinbach 2006, ISBN 3-87062-081-1 , pp. 55-80.
- Bodo Bischoff: Separation, grief and death in the life and work of Robert Schumann. In: Gotthard Fermor (Ed.): Spirituality of Music. Religion in the work of Beethoven and Schumann. Rheinbach 2006, ISBN 3-87062-081-1 , pp. 81-105.
Ingrid Bodsch (ed.): Between poetry and music. Robert Schumann - early and late. Book and catalog accompanying the exhibition; [an exhibition by the StadtMuseum Bonn and the Robert Schumann Society Zwickau e. V .; Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Haus, Bonn, June 29 - October 8, 2006, Robert-Schumann-Haus Zwickau and Galerie am Domhof, Zwickau, October 22, 2006 - January 14, 2007]. Bonn et al .: Stroemfeld 2006, ISBN 3-86600-000-6 . In this:
- Ute Bär: “I would like to support young, honestly aspiring artists.” Robert Schumann's relationships with Ruppert Becker, Albrecht Dietrich and Wilhelm Joseph von Wasielewski. P. 143.
- Ute Bär: Ruppert Becker. Notes. P. 185.
- Beatrix Borchard : An alliance of kindred spirits: Robert Schumann, Clara Schumann, Joseph Joachim and Johannes Brahms. P. 231.
- Linda Ma-Kircher: Robert Schumann in Vienna. P. 89.
- Irmgard Knechtges-Obrecht: Robert Schumann in Düsseldorf. P. 121.
- Gerd Nauhaus : The young Schumann. Life and poetry. P. 17.
- Gerd Nauhaus: Robert Schumann. Pilgrimages for young men. P. 41.
- Uwe Henrik Peters : Robert Schumann. Melancholy states of mind and creative power. P. 107.
- Michael Struck : The works from Robert Schumann's creative years in Düsseldorf. P. 253.
- Thomas Synofzik : "... which I shouldn't have published ..." Robert Schumann's compositional beginnings. P. 51.
- Ingrid Bodsch (Ed.): On the way with Schumann. A travel companion for music lovers. Verlag StadtMuseum Bonn, Bonn 2010, ISBN 978-3-931878-27-6 .
- Edda Burger-Güntert: Robert Schumann's Scenes from Goethe's Faust - Poetry and Music. Rombach Verlag, Freiburg i. Br. 2006, ISBN 3-7930-9455-3 .
- Martin Demmler: Schumann's symphonies. A musical factory guide. Beck, Munich 2004, ISBN 3-406-44811-9 ( preview in Google book search).
- Michael Heinemann : Robert Schumann: Dichterliebe. Analytical miniatures. Verlag Dohr, Bergheim 2017, ISBN 978-3-86846-146-6 .
- Lene Hoffmann , Volly Tanner : City Talks from Leipzig. Gmeiner, Meßkirch 2014, ISBN 978-3-8392-1634-7 (Chapter 30: "Killing the Philistines!" Robert Schumann revolted in the Café Zum Arabischen Coffe Baum ).
- Dagmar Hoffmann-Axthelm: Robert Schumann. A musical-psychological study. Reclam, Stuttgart 2010, ISBN 978-3-15-020201-2 .
- Leander Hotaki: Robert Schumann's collection of mottos. Transmission, commentary, introduction. Freiburg i. Br. 1998, ISBN 3-7930-9173-2 .
- Reinhard Kapp : Studies on Robert Schumann's late work . Schneider, Tutzing 1984, ISBN 3-7952-0415-1 (part of the dissertation Berlin, FU 1982).
- Siegfried Kross: Robert Schumann in the area of tension between Romanticism and Biedermeier. Memorial speech. In: Bonner Geschichtsblätter. 33: 89-109 (1981).
- Helmut Loos (Ed.): Robert Schumann. Interpretations of his works. 2 volumes. Laaber-Verlag, 2005, ISBN 3-89007-447-2 .
- Ingo Müller: Mask play and soul language. On the aesthetics of Heinrich Heine's book of songs and Robert Schumann's Heine settings (= Rombach Science). Volume 1: Heinrich Heine's poetry aesthetics and Robert Schumann's song aesthetics . Baden-Baden 2020, ISBN 978-3-96821-006-3 . Volume 2: Heinrich Heine's book of songs and Robert Schumann's Heine settings . Baden-Baden 2020, ISBN 978-3-96821-009-4 .
- Gerd Nauhaus, Ingrid Bodsch (ed.): Poet garden for music. An anthology for lovers of literature and music. StadtMuseum Bonn, Bonn, and Stroemfeld-Verlag, Frankfurt / Basel 2007, ISBN 978-3-86600-003-2 .
- Gerd Nauhaus, Ingrid Bodsch (eds.): Clara and Robert Schumann. Marriage diaries. StadtMuseum Bonn, Bonn, and Stroemfeld-Verlag, Frankfurt / Basel 2007, ISBN 978-3-86600-002-5 .
- Uwe Henrik Peters: Robert Schumann. 13 days to Endeich. ANA Publishers, Cologne 2009, ISBN 978-3-931906-06-1 .
- Uwe Henrik Peters: Trapped in the madhouse. Robert Schumann. ANA Publishers, Cologne 2010, ISBN 978-3-931906-07-8 .
- Udo Rauchfleisch : Robert Schumann. A psychoanalytic approach. Verlag Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2004, ISBN 3-525-01627-1 .
- Michael Struck: The controversial late instrumental works of Schumann (= Hamburg Contributions to Musicology , Volume 29). Hamburg 1984, ISBN 3-88979-007-0 .
- Schumann studies. Edited on behalf of the Robert Schumann Society Zwickau e. V. von Gerd Nauhaus et al., Studiopunkt-Verlag Sinzig 1988-2015, .
- Schumann research. Edited by the Robert Schumann Society Düsseldorf, Schott Mainz et al. 1984-2013.
- Margit L. McCorkle: Robert Schumann. Thematic-bibliographical catalog of works. Munich 2003. = Robert Schumann catalog raisonné (RSW).
- Peter Härtling : Schumann's shadow. Novel. 2nd Edition. Kiepenheuer & Witsch, Cologne 1996, ISBN 3-462-02557-0 .
- Corinna Hesse: Robert Schumann - Life in Music. The Schumann audio book. A sounding biography with music . Silberfuchs-Verlag, 2010, ISBN 978-3-940665-17-1 .
- Jörg Handstein: Robert Schumann - "The Inner Voice". The Schumann audio biography (4 CDs). 2018. Label: BR-Klassik 900916
- Jörg Demus . Robert Schumann, Clara Schumann "Schumann's Clavier". Fortepiano by Conrad Graf 1839.
- Alexander Melnikov . Robert Schumann "Piano Concerto". Erard 1837, strings 1847, fortepiano.
- Penelope Crawford. Robert Schumann "Children's Scenes Op.15 - Abegg Variations Op.1". Fortepiano by Conrad Graf 1835.
- Catalog of works by opus numbers : sheet music and audio files in the International Music Score Library Project
- Works by and about Robert Schumann in the German Digital Library
- Works by and about Robert Schumann in the catalog of the German National Library
- Works by Robert Schumann in the Gutenberg-DE project
- Works by Robert Schumann at Zeno.org .
- Literature on Robert Schumann in the bibliography of music literature
- Information on Robert Schumann and catalog raisonné on Klassika.info
- koelnklavier.de - Robert Schumann: Collected writings on music and musicians (Leipzig, 1854; in excerpts)
- Schumann portal of the Schumann network Bonn
- Digitized Schumann autographs in the ULB Bonn
- Digitized editions of the romances and ballads for voice and piano (op.45, op.49, op.53, op.64) in the ULB Düsseldorf
- Robert Schumann in the song portal of the Society for Music History in Baden-Württemberg
- Robert Schumann dossier - texts and links to programs about Schumann's life and works in BR-Klassik
- Sheet music and audio files by Robert Schumann in the International Music Score Library Project
- Notes in the public domain by Robert Schumann in the Choral Public Domain Library - ChoralWiki (English)
- Free digital scores by Robert Schumann in the OpenScore Lieder Corpus
- www.kreusch-sheet-music.net - Notes in the public domain by Robert Schumann
- Complete edition (1879-1893)
- The Schumann House in Bonn-Endenich
- Schumann House in Leipzig
- Robert Schumann Society Zwickau e. V.
- Robert Schumann House Zwickau: Archive and Research Center
- Robert Schumann Society Düsseldorf e. V.
- Art and culture association "Robert Schumann" Kreischa e. V.
- The occasional middle name Alexander is not used.
- Songs by Robert Schumann, sorted by years. In: klassika.info, accessed on May 10, 2019.
- Margit L. McCorkle: Robert Schumann. Thematic-bibliographical catalog of works. Munich 2003, p. 913 f.
- Aigi Heero: Poetry of Music: On Intermediality in Robert Schumann's early writings (PDF)
- Bernhard R. Appel: From the idea to the work. Robert Schumann's creative process. Mainz 2010, pp. 53-55.
- Ernst Burger: Robert Schumann. Schott, Mainz 1999, p. 190 f.
A judgment that Batka attributed to the new German composer Felix Draeseke as early as 1891 : Richard Batka : Schumann. Reclam, Leipzig 1891. p. 77.
Also with Armin Gebhardt: Robert Schumann. Life and work in Dresden. Marburg 1998, p. 9.
- Arno Forchert: Schumann's late work in the scientific discussion. In: Bernhard R. Appel (Ed.): Schumann in Düsseldorf. Mainz 1993, pp. 9-23.
- Arnfried Edler: Robert Schumann. In: Music in the past and present. 2nd, revised edition, personal section, volume 15. Kassel et al. 2006, Col. 258 f.
- Gerd Nauhaus: Robert's mother - a Zeitzerin? Lengthy search for clues and final clarification. In: Zeitz and its surroundings. Past present Future. No. 9 1/2012, pp. 3–5, here pp. 3–4 (PDF online) . Retrieved August 5, 2020.
- Ernst Burger: Robert Schumann. Schott, Mainz 1999, p. 13.
- Georg Eismann: Robert Schumann. A source work about his life and work. Leipzig 1956, Volume 1, p. 15; Original: Life sketch from 1840, submitted to the University of Jena when obtaining the doctoral degree.
- Robert Schumann: Diaries . Volume 2, ed. by Gerd Nauhaus, Leipzig 1987, p. 402.
- Ernst Burger: Robert Schumann. Schott, Mainz 1999, p. 50.
- Protocol to the literary association , D-Zsch, Sign. 4871, VII, C, 4-A3.
- Emil Flechsig: Memories of Robert Schumann . In: Neue Zeitschrift für Musik , Issue 7/8, July / August 1956.
- Georg Eismann: Robert Schumann. A source work about his life and work. Leipzig 1956, Volume 1, p. 18.
- Carl Ernst Richter: Biography of August Schumann. Zwickau 1826. Quoted in Paul Julius Möbius: About Robert Schumann's illness . Leipzig 1906, p. 7.
- Ernst Burger: Robert Schumann. Schott, Mainz 1999, p. 45.
- Gerd Nauhaus: Robert Schumann . In: Sächsische Lebensbilder , Volume 4. Ed. By the Saxon Academy of Sciences in Leipzig. Leipzig 1999, p. 299 f.
- Helge Dvorak: Biographical Lexicon of the German Burschenschaft. Volume II: Artists. Winter, Heidelberg 2018, ISBN 978-3-8253-6813-5 , pp. 633–636.
- Universitätsarchiv Leipzig (UAL): Holdings Rector: Rep. II, chap. IV No. 8 d. Investigation against the Leipzig fraternity (approx. 1835), p. 59. Entry for Robert Schumann.
- Letter to Flechsig of March 17, 1828. In: Youth letters from Robert Schumann, communicated by Clara Schumann from the originals. 4th edition. Leipzig 1914, p. 15 ( digitized at archive.org ).
- Ernst Burger: Robert Schumann. Schott, Mainz 1999, p. 67.
- Ernst Burger: Robert Schumann. Schott, Mainz 1999, p. 54.
- Schumann and his poets: Report on the 4th International Schumann Symposium on June 13 and 14, 1991 as part of the 4th Schumann Festival, Düsseldorf. Edited by Matthias Wendt, Mainz et al. 1993.
- Directory of the lectures to be given at the University of Leipzig in the summer of 1828. In: uni-leipzig.de, accessed on September 7, 2015.
- Robert Schumann: Hottentottiana (D-Zsch, Sign. 4871, VII, A, 2, a / b / c-A3), see Georg Eismann: Robert Schumann. Diaries. Volume 1, p. 84.
- Letter to the mother dated May 21, 1828 - Internet Archive .
- Friedrich Wieck in a letter from Robert Schumann's mother dated August 9, 1830, quoted from Ernst Burger: Robert Schumann. Schott, Mainz 1999, p. 87.
- Quoted in Ernst Burger: Robert Schumann. Schott, Mainz 1999, p. 64.
- Ernst Burger: Robert Schumann. Schott, Mainz 1999, p. 55.
- Matriculation of the University of Heidelberg, registration on July 30, 1829 ; the certificate of the University of Heidelberg of September 10, 1830, printed in: Robert and Clara Schumann an Oberrhein und Neckar. [Booklet accompanying the exhibition at Heidelberg University Museum from March 29 to July 8, 2010]. Edited by Claudia Rink. With contributions by Joachim Draheim and Wolfgang Seibold. Publishing house Regionalkultur, Ubstadt-Weiher [u. a.] 2010, ISBN 978-3-89735-638-2 , p. 11 ( uni-heidelberg.de ( memento of November 24, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) [accessed on May 10, 2019]).
- Helge Dvorak: Biographical Lexicon of the German Burschenschaft. Volume II: Artists. Winter, Heidelberg 2018, ISBN 978-3-8253-6813-5 , p. 633.
- Bernhard Sommerlad : The corps student Robert Schumann. In: then and now . 22: 75-86 (1977). - Harald Pfeiffer: Robert Schumann in Heidelberg. His three semesters in the university town. For the composer's 200th birthday. Leipzig 2010, p. 33 ff. - Thomas Pester: Between Music and Law - The “Boy Year” in Heidelberg 1829/30. In: The academic Schumann and the Jena doctorate from 1840. ed. by Joachim Bauer and Jens Blecher (= Jens Blecher and Gerald Wiemers [Hrsg.]: Publications of the Leipzig University Archives. Vol. 14). Leipzig 2010, pp. 39–48.
- Ernst Burger: Robert Schumann. Schott, Mainz 1999, p. 73.
- Letter to the mother dated August 3, 1829 (digitized version).
- Letter to Therese Schumann dated September 16, 1829.
- Letter to Friedrich Wieck dated November 6, 1829, printed in Ernst Burger: Robert Schumann. Schott, Mainz 1999, p. 78.
- Ernst Burger: Robert Schumann. Schott, Mainz 1999, p. 98 f.
- In the letter of 30 July 1830, his mother said Schumann even from a lifelong battle, "My whole life was a twenty-year struggle between poetry and prose, or call 'it music and jus ." (He was twenty years old. )
- Robert Schumann's mother in a letter to Friedrich Wieck dated August 7, 1830, quoted from Ernst Burger: Robert Schumann. Schott, Mainz 1999, p. 86.
- Bernhard R. Appel: From the idea to the work. Robert Schumann's creative process. Schott, Mainz and others 2010, ISBN 978-3-7957-0683-8 , p. 64 f.
- Ernst Burger: Robert Schumann. Schott, Mainz 1999, p. 104.
- Eric Frederick Jensen: Schumann. Oxford University Press, New York 2001, ISBN 978-0-19-534606-0 . Retrieved August 4, 2015.
- Eric Sams: Schumann's hand injury . In: The Musical Times , 112, No. 1546 (December 1971), pp. 1156-1159, JSTOR 954772 .
- Eckart Altenmüller: The end of the song? - Robert Schumann's silence at the piano. (PDF) p. 101.
- Letter to the mother dated November 6, 1832 (digitized version).
- Bernhard R. Appel: From the idea to the work. Robert Schumann's creative process . Schott, Mainz and others 2010, ISBN 978-3-7957-0683-8 , pp. 60 f.
- Georg Eismann: Robert Schumann. A source work about his life and work. Vol. 1, Leipzig 1956, p. 76.
- Ernst Burger: Robert Schumann. Schott, Mainz 1999, p. 103, images from Schumann's hand copy of the flailing years .
- Ernst Burger: Robert Schumann. Schott, Mainz 1999, p. 94.
- John Worthen: Robert Schumann: Life and Death of a Musician . New Haven and London 2007, p. 72.
- See Klaus Martin Kopitz , Christiane Apitzsch (1806–1838), Robert Schumann's beloved “Charitas”. An identification. In: Thoughts. Journal of the Saxon Academy of Sciences , Issue 13, 2014, pp. 26–54; klaus-martin-kopitz.de (PDF). Quotation from it: “Finally, it should be emphasized once again that there is no proof in the strict sense of the word for the assumption that Christiane Apitzsch could have worked as a maid for the Wieck family and Schumann's lover Christel. Corresponding records have not survived. In this respect, doubts about my hypothesis would be justified without further ado. Everything could just as well have been completely different. "
- Robert Schumann: Diaries . Volume 2, ed. by Gerd Nauhaus, Leipzig 1987, p. 31.
- Robert Schumann: Diaries . Volume 2, ed. by Gerd Nauhaus, Leipzig 1987, p. 459, note 53.
- Robert Schumann: Diaries. Volume 3, ed. by Gerd Nauhaus. Leipzig 1982, p. 34.
- Bernhard R. Appel (ed.): Robert Schumann in Endenich (1854-1856). Medical records, letters, and contemporary reports. Schott, Mainz 2006, p. 326 f.
- Robert Schumann: Diaries. Volume 1: 1827-1838. ed. by Georg Eismann, Leipzig 1971, p. 421.
- Letter to Clara Wieck dated February 11, 1838. In: Eva Weissweiler (Ed.): Clara and Robert Schumann correspondence. Volume I, p. 95 f.
- Arnfried Edler: Robert Schumann. Munich 2009, p. 24 f.
- Wilhelm Joseph von Wasielewski: Robert Schumann. Dresden 1858, p. 141, footnote ( books.google.de ).
- Wilhelm Joseph von Wasielewski: Robert Schumann. Dresden 1858, p. 135 ( books.google.com ).
- Ernst Burger: Robert Schumann. Schott, Mainz 1999, p. 127, Figure 225.
- Ernst Burger: Robert Schumann. Schott, Mainz 1999, pp. 131, 134 and 300.
- An Opus II. In: Allgemeine musical newspaper. No. 49, 1831 ( digitized version - Internet Archive ).
- Annette Vosteen: Introduction . In: New magazine for music (1834-1844) . RIPM, 2011, p. XXI – XXXI ( ripm.org ( memento of September 24, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) [PDF; 334 kB ; accessed on July 18, 2018]).
- Neue Zeitschrift für Musik - Internet Archive 1835, vol. 2, volume 2, p. 3, left column.
- Ernst Burger: Robert Schumann. Schott, Mainz 1999, p. 138.
- Location of the topic in: Georg Eismann: Robert Schumann. Diaries. Volume 1, p. 321.
- Arnfried Edler: Works for piano for two hands until 1840. In: Ulrich Tadday (Hrsg.): Schumann-Handbuch. Stuttgart et altera 2008, p. 217 f.
- Georg Eismann: Robert Schumann. Diaries. Volume 1, p. 421.
- letter quotes from Ernst Burger: Robert Schumann. Schott, Mainz 1999, p. 158.
- Janina Klassen: Clara Schumann. Music and public. Cologne 2009, p. 93 f.
- Eva Weissweiler (ed.): Clara and Robert Schumann correspondence. Volume I, p. 24 ff.
- Ernst Burger: Robert Schumann. Schott, Mainz 1999, p. 162.
- Ernst Burger: Robert Schumann. Schott, Mainz 1999, p. 142.
- Bernhard R. Appel: From the idea to the work. Robert Schumann's creative process . Schott Mainz et altera 2010, p. 38.
- Ernst Burger: Robert Schumann. Schott, Mainz 1999, p. 174.
- Arnfried Edler, Robert Schumann . In: Music in the past and present. 2nd, revised edition, personal section, volume 15. Kassel 2006, column 265.
- Ernst Burger: Robert Schumann. Schott, Mainz 1999, p. 188 f.
- Quoted in full in Wasielewski: Robert Schumann. (books.google.de).
- The "academic" Schumann and the Jena doctorate from 1840 (series of publications by the Leipzig University Archives, Volume 14), ed. by Joachim Bauer and Jens Blecher. Leipziger Universitätsverlag, Leipzig 2010, ISBN 978-3-86583-530-7 .
- Arnfried Edler: Robert Schumann and his time. 3rd, revised and expanded edition. Laaber 2008, p. 36.
- Berthold Litzmann: Clara Schumann. An artist's life. After diaries and letters. Volume 1. Leipzig 1902, p. 426.
- In reality, the spacious floor of a bright new building with music room, study ("Redactionsstübchen"), salon, bedroom, children's room, girls' room, kitchen, bathtub, indoor toilet, wine cellar, coal cellar and kitchen garden. See Janina Klassen: Clara Schumann. Music and public. Cologne et al. 2009, p. 179 f.
- Ernst Burger: Robert Schumann. Schott, Mainz 1999, p. 216.
- Janina Klassen: Clara Schumann. Music and public. Cologne et al. 2009, p. 186.
- Janina Klassen: Clara Schumann. Music and public. Cologne et al. 2009, p. 181.
- Janina Klassen: Clara Schumann. Music and public. Cologne et al. 2009, p. 90.
- The wedding day in Clara Schumann's diary (Litzmann at archive.org).
- Clara and Robert Schumann correspondence. Critical complete edition. Edited by Eva Weissweiler. Vol. 2, Basel, Frankfurt a. M. 1987, p. 571.
- Margit L. McCorkle: Robert Schumann. Thematic-bibliographical catalog of works. Munich 2003, pp. 156–158.
- Margit L. McCorkle: Robert Schumann. Thematic-bibliographical catalog of works. Munich 2003, p. 95.
- Margit L. McCorkle: Robert Schumann. Thematic-bibliographical catalog of works. Munich 2003, p. 90.
- Ernst Burger: Robert Schumann - A life chronicle in pictures and documents. Schott, Mainz 1999, p. 192.
- Arnfried Edler: Robert Schumann and his time. 3rd, revised and expanded edition. Laaber 2008, p. 307.
- Robert Schumann: Diaries. Volume 2. Edited by Gerd Nauhaus. Leipzig 1987, pp. 148 f., 154, 164.
- Margit L. McCorkle: Robert Schumann. Thematic-bibliographical catalog of works. Munich 2003, p. 914.
- Arnfried Edler: Robert Schumann. In: Music in the past and present. 2nd, revised edition, personal section, volume 15. Kassel et al. 2006, col. 269.
- Margit L. McCorkle: Robert Schumann. Thematic-bibliographical catalog of works. Munich 2003, p. 218 f.
- Tomi Mäkelä , Christoph Kammertöns , Lena Esther Ptasczynski (eds.): Friedrich Wieck - Collected writings on music and musicians . Peter Lang, Frankfurt am Main 2019, ISBN 978-3-631-76745-0 , pp. 110, 111, 121, 123, 129 and passim .
- Date of the letter and a quote from it on the website of Wieck's birthplace.
- Ernst Burger: Robert Schumann - A life chronicle in pictures and documents. Schott, Mainz 1999, p. 218.
- Ernst Burger: Robert Schumann - A life chronicle in pictures and documents. Schott, Mainz 1999, p. 222.
- Gudrun Henneberg: Idea and concept of the musical work of art. Tutzing 1983, p. 219.
- Irmgard Knechtges-Obrecht: Robert Schumann op. 61. In: schumann-portal.de, accessed on May 10, 2019.
- Arnfried Edler: Robert Schumann and his time. 3rd, revised and expanded edition. Laaber 2008, p. 49.
- Marcel Prawy , Karin Werner-Jensen: Richard Wagner. Life and work. Wilhelm Goldmann, Munich 1982, p. 319.
- Wilhelm Joseph von Wasielewski: Robert Schumann. Dresden 1858, p. 141.
- Arnfried Edler: Robert Schumann and his time. 3rd, revised and expanded edition. Laaber 2008, p. 52 f.
- Wolfgang Mende: Schumann and the Revolution (PDF; 196 kB).
- Ernst Burger: Robert Schumann. Schott, Mainz 1999, p. 262.
- See the years 1848/1849 in the biography overview www.schumannzwickau.de
- Quoted in Ernst Burger: Robert Schumann. Schott, Mainz 1999, p. 260.
- Timeline in: Schumann Handbook . Edited by Ulrich Tadday, Stuttgart et altera 2008, p. XIX f.
- On Schumann's apartments in Düsseldorf, see Schumann in Düsseldorf. Düsseldorf apartments. Website of the Robert Schumann Society e. V., 2007, accessed March 23, 2013.
- Evidence for the entire chapter Düsseldorf in Arnfried Edler: Robert Schumann. In: Music in the past and present. 2nd, revised edition, personal section, volume 15. Kassel et al. 2006, col. 273-279.
- Robert Schumann's letters. New episode. Edited by Gustav Jansen. Leipzig 1904, p. 214.
- Ernst Burger: Robert Schumann. Schott, Mainz 1999, p. 298.
- Arnfried Edler: Robert Schumann and his time. 3rd, revised and expanded edition. Laaber 2008, p. 319 ff.
- Neue Bahnen - the article at Wikisource
- Christian Martin Schmidt: Brahms, Johannes. In: Music in the past and present. 2nd, revised edition, personal section, volume 3, Kassel and others. 2000, Col. 631 f.
- Letter to August Strackerjan, in: Robert Schumanns Briefe. New episode. 2nd, increased and improved edition. Edited by F. Gustav Jansen, Leipzig 1904, p. 390.
- Ernst Burger: Robert Schumann. Schott, Mainz 1999, pp. 311-314.
- Schumann's records from February 1854 in his household book: Handwriting and transfer published in: Robert Schumann: Tagebücher . Volume 3, ed. by Gerd Nauhaus, Leipzig 1982.
- Bernhard R. Appel (ed.): Robert Schumann in Endenich (1854-1856). Medical records, letters, and contemporary reports . Schott, Mainz, 2006, ISBN 3-7957-0527-4 .
- Cf. Caspar Franzen: Torment of the most terrible melancholy. In: Deutsches Ärzteblatt. 2006, 103 (30), pp. A 2027-2029.
- Letter to Julius Stern dated February 12, 1854. In: Schumann-Briefedition , Series II, Vol. 17: Correspondence with friends and artist colleagues (Clara Schumann's correspondence with correspondents in Berlin 1832 to 1883), ed. by Klaus Martin Kopitz, Eva Katharina Klein, Thomas Synofzik, Cologne 2015, p. 687.
- Bernhard R. Appel (ed.): Robert Schumann in Endenich (1854-1856). Medical records, letters, and contemporary reports. Schott, Mainz 2006, p. 63.
- Ernst Burger: Robert Schumann. Schott, Mainz 1999, p. 314.
- Bernhard R. Appel (ed.): Robert Schumann in Endenich (1854-1856). Medical records, letters, and contemporary reports. Schott, Mainz 2006, p. 493.
- Bernhard R. Appel (ed.): Robert Schumann in Endenich (1854-1856). Medical records, letters, and contemporary reports. Schott, Mainz 2006, p. 53 f., See especially footnote 27.
- Ernst Burger: Robert Schumann. Schott, Mainz 1999, p. 318.
- Bernhard R. Appel (ed.): Robert Schumann in Endenich (1854-1856). Medical records, letters, and contemporary reports. Verlag, Mainz 2006, p. 113.
- Berthold Litzmann: Clara Schumann. An artist's life. According to diaries and letters , vol. 2, Leipzig 1905, p. 298 f.
- Berthold Litzmann: Clara Schumann. An artist's life. Based on diaries and letters , Vol. 1, Leipzig 1902, foreword.
- Bernhard R. Appel (Ed.): Robert Schumann in Endenich (1854-1856). Medical records, letters, and contemporary reports. Schott, Mainz 2006.
- Bernhard R. Appel (ed.): Robert Schumann in Endenich (1854-1856). Medical records, letters, and contemporary reports. Schott, Mainz 2006, ill. P. 497.
- Bernhard R. Appel (ed.): Robert Schumann in Endenich (1854-1856). Medical records, letters, and contemporary reports. Mainz 2006, ill.p. 401 f.
- Bernhard R. Appel (ed.): Robert Schumann in Endenich (1854-1856). Medical records, letters, and contemporary reports. Schott, Mainz 2006, ill. P. 443.
- Bernhard R. Appel (ed.): Robert Schumann in Endenich (1854-1856). Medical records, letters, and contemporary reports. Schott, Mainz 2006, ill. P. 96.
- Bernhard R. Appel (ed.): Robert Schumann in Endenich (1854-1856). Medical records, letters, and contemporary reports. Schott, Mainz 2006, ill. Pp. 476–479.
- Bernhard R. Appel (Ed.): Robert Schumann in Endenich (1854-1856). Medical records, letters, and contemporary reports. Schott, Mainz 2006, ill. P. 24.
- Ernst Burger: Robert Schumann. Schott, Mainz 1999, p. 323.
- Bernhard R. Appel (ed.): Robert Schumann in Endenich (1854-1856). Medical records, letters, and contemporary reports. Schott, Mainz 2006, pp. 32, 87.
- Schumann as a chess player (chessbase.com); Robert Schumann: Leipziger Lebensbuch (diary) 1831–1838, p. 163 ff., Robert-Schumann-Haus Zwickau, archive no. 4871, VII, A, a, 4-A3.
- Bernhard R. Appel (ed.): Robert Schumann in Endenich (1854-1856). Medical records, letters, and contemporary reports. Schott, Mainz 2006, p. 32.
- Bernhard R. Appel (ed.): Robert Schumann in Endenich (1854-1856). Medical records, letters, and contemporary reports. Schott, Mainz 2006, p. 124.
- Bernhard R. Appel (ed.): Robert Schumann in Endenich (1854-1856). Medical records, letters, and contemporary reports. Schott, Mainz 2006, pp. 132-134.
- Bernhard R. Appel (ed.): Robert Schumann in Endenich (1854-1856). Medical records, letters, and contemporary reports. Schott, Mainz 2006, p. 138.
- Robert Schumann's letters to Brahms , in which he mentions his variations, but does not recognize the origin of the quotation. Quoted on the website of the Schumann portal.
- Quoted from Ernst Burger: Robert Schumann. Schott, Mainz 1999, p. 331.
- Ernst Burger: Robert Schumann. Schott, Mainz 1999, p. 332.
- Bernhard R. Appel (ed.): Robert Schumann in Endenich (1854-1856). Medical records, letters, and contemporary reports. Schott, Mainz 2006, p. 254 and p. 257.
- Bernhard R. Appel (ed.): Robert Schumann in Endenich (1854-1856). Medical records, letters, and contemporary reports. Schott, Mainz 2006, p. 31.
- Bernhard R. Appel (ed.): Robert Schumann in Endenich (1854-1856). Medical records, letters, and contemporary reports. Schott, Mainz 2006, p. 443 ff.
- Bernhard R. Appel (ed.): Robert Schumann in Endenich (1854-1856). Medical records, letters, and contemporary reports. Schott, Mainz 2006, pp. 30-33.
- Bernhard R. Appel (ed.): Robert Schumann in Endenich (1854-1856). Medical records, letters, and contemporary reports. Schott, Mainz 2006, p. 3383.
- Bernhard R. Appel (ed.): Robert Schumann in Endenich (1854-1856). Medical records, letters, and contemporary reports. Schott, Mainz 2006, p. 270.
- Bernhard R. Appel (ed.): Robert Schumann in Endenich (1854-1856). Medical records, letters, and contemporary reports. Schott, Mainz 2006, p. 273.
- Bernhard R. Appel (ed.): Robert Schumann in Endenich (1854-1856). Medical records, letters, and contemporary reports. Schott, Mainz 2006, p. 286.
- Bernhard R. Appel (ed.): Robert Schumann in Endenich (1854-1856). Medical records, letters, and contemporary reports. Schott, Mainz 2006, p. 326.
- Bernhard R. Appel (ed.): Robert Schumann in Endenich (1854-1856). Medical records, letters, and contemporary reports. Schott, Mainz 2006, p. 351.
- Bernhard R. Appel (ed.): Robert Schumann in Endenich (1854-1856). Medical records, letters, and contemporary reports. Schott, Mainz 2006, p. 376.
- Bernhard R. Appel (ed.): Robert Schumann in Endenich (1854-1856). Medical records, letters, and contemporary reports. Schott, Mainz 2006, p. 368.
- Bernhard R. Appel (ed.): Robert Schumann in Endenich (1854-1856). Medical records, letters, and contemporary reports. Schott, Mainz 2006, p. 371 ff.
- Bernhard R. Appel (ed.): Robert Schumann in Endenich (1854-1856). Medical records, letters, and contemporary reports. Schott, Mainz 2006, p. 389 ff.
- Bernhard R. Appel (ed.): Robert Schumann in Endenich (1854-1856). Medical records, letters, and contemporary reports. Schott, Mainz 2006, p. 392.
- Characterization of the three reports in: Helmut Reuter: History of Psychology. Göttingen 2014, p. 106 ( books.google.com ).
- Ernst Burger: Robert Schumann. Schott, Mainz 1999, p. 329.
- Ernst Burger: Robert Schumann. Schott, Mainz 1999, p. 324.
- Bernhard R. Appel (ed.): Robert Schumann in Endenich (1854-1856). Medical records, letters, and contemporary reports. Schott, Mainz 2006, p. 33.
- Bernhard R. Appel (ed.): Robert Schumann in Endenich (1854-1856). Medical records, letters, and contemporary reports. Schott, Mainz 2006, p. 188.
- Bernhard R. Appel (ed.): Robert Schumann in Endenich (1854-1856). Medical records, letters, and contemporary reports. Schott, Mainz 2006, pp. 276-286.
- Letter from Brahms to Cara Schumann about his visit in February 1855, printed by Ernst Burger: Robert Schumann. Schott, Mainz 1999, p. 329.
- Bernhard R. Appel (ed.): Robert Schumann in Endenich (1854-1856). Medical records, letters, and contemporary reports. Schott, Mainz 2006, pp. 244–245.
- Bernhard R. Appel (ed.): Robert Schumann in Endenich (1854-1856). Medical records, letters, and contemporary reports. Schott, Mainz 2006, p. 117.
- Bernhard R. Appel (ed.): Robert Schumann in Endenich (1854-1856). Medical records, letters, and contemporary reports. Schott, Mainz 2006, p. 390.
- Ernst Burger: Robert Schumann. Schott, Mainz 1999, p. 334.
- Quoted in Ernst Burger: Robert Schumann. Schott, Mainz 1999, p. 332.
- The family is shown on the Schumann portal website.
- Characteristics of the eight children on the side of the Leipzig Robert and Clara Schumann Association .
- Ernst Burger: Robert Schumann - A life chronicle in pictures and documents. Schott, Mainz 1999, p. 340 f.
- Bernhard R. Appel (ed.): Robert Schumann in Endenich (1854-1856). Medical records, letters, and contemporary reports. Schott, Mainz 2006, pp. 114 f., 141.
- Composition overview 1822–1933 from the project book on the Robert-Schumann-Haus Zwickau page.
- Arnfried Edler: Robert Schumann. In: Music in the past and present. 2nd, revised edition, personal section, volume 15. Kassel et al. 2006, col. 304-319.
- Robert Schumann: Diaries. Volume 2. Edited by Gerd Nauhaus. Leipzig 1987, p. 402.
- Margit L. McCorkle: Thematic Bibliographical Catalog of Works. Henle, Munich 2003.
- Arnfried Edler: Robert Schumann. In: Music in the past and present. 2nd, revised edition, personal section, volume 15. Kassel et al. 2006, col. 319-321.
- Margit L. McCorkle: Robert Schumann. Thematic-bibliographical catalog of works. Munich 2003, p. 22.
- German version in Liszts Gesammelte Schriften (archive.org).
- Detlef Altenburg : Robert Schumann and Franz Liszt. In: Robert Schumann and French Romanticism. Edited by Ute Bär. Mainz 1997, pp. 125-127.
- Damien Ehrhardt in: Robert Schumann. Personality, work and impact. Edited by Helmut Loos. Leipzig 2011, p. 444.
- Arnfried Edler: Robert Schumann and his time. 3rd, revised and expanded edition. Laaber 2008, p. 340 f.
- Detlef Altenburg: Robert Schumann and Franz Liszt. In: Robert Schumann and French Romanticism. Edited by Ute Bär. Mainz 1997, pp. 131-136.
- Christiane Winkel: Songs. In: Schumann manual. Edited by Ulrich Tadday, Stuttgart et al. 2008, p. 455.
- Ernst Burger: Robert Schumann. Schott, Mainz 1999, p. 196.
- Arnfried Edler: Robert Schumann and his time. 3rd, revised and expanded edition. Laaber 2008, p. 342.
- Margit L. McCorkle: Robert Schumann. Thematic-bibliographical catalog of works. Munich 2003, pp. 27–31.
- Margit L. McCorkle: Robert Schumann. Thematic-bibliographical catalog of works. Munich 2003, p. 24.
- Nancy B. Reich: Robert Schumann's Music in New York City, 1848–1898. In: Schumanniana nova. Festschrift for Gerd Nauhaus on the occasion of his 60th birthday. Edited by Bernhard R. Appel et al., Sinzig, 2002, pp. 570, 579; Pp. 591–595: a list of the first performances of Schumann's works of all genres in New York between 1848 and 1898.
- Svetlana Petuchova: Čajkovskij and Schumann - an attempt. In: Communications 20 of the Tchaikovsky Society. Königstein im Taunus 2013, pp. 4–6.
- Arnfried Edler: Robert Schumann and his time. 3rd, revised and expanded edition. Laaber 2008, p. 345 f.
- Eduard Hanslick: Complete writings. Volume I / 6: Articles and reviews 1862–1863. Vienna 2008, p. 26.
- Eduard Hanslick: Complete writings. Volume I / 6: Articles and reviews 1862–1863. Vienna 2008, p. 246.
- Gerd Nauhaus: Trends in Schumann Research. In: Schumann manual. Edited by Ulrich Tadday, Stuttgart et al. 2008, p. 4.
- Joachim Draheim: Concert works. In: Schumann manual. Edited by Ulrich Tadday. Stuttgart et al. 2008, p. 394.
- Presentation of the Robert Schumann Complete Edition.
- Margit L. McCorkle: Robert Schumann. Thematic-bibliographical catalog of works. Munich 2003, p. 27.
- Litzmann. Clara Schumann - Johannes Brahms. Letter of February 2, 1868.
- Walter Frisch, Kevin C. Karnes. Brahms and his World. Princeton University Press, 2009. ISBN 1400833620 p.78
- 8th International Robert Schumann Choir Competition. 6-10 June 2018 | Zwickau, Germany. (No longer available online.) In: interkultur.com. Interkultur, archived from the original on March 5, 2018 ; accessed on May 10, 2019 .
- MDR Figaro, meinFIGARO from June 5, 2010: Conversation with Peter Schreier about the Schumanniade in Kreischa / Saxony ( memento from April 1, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) (audio no longer available).
- Presentation of the Robert Schumann Society Zwickau .
- Website of the Robert Schumann Society in Düsseldorf .
- State Secretary Dr. Hans Bernhard Beus presents the commemorative coin and stamp “200. Birthday of Robert Schumann ”. Press release no .: 21/2010. (No longer available online.) In: bundesfinanzministerium.de. Federal Ministry of Finance, April 29, 2010, archived from the original on July 29, 2015 ; accessed on July 18, 2018 .
- The book is committed to the Nazi ideology, philologically unreliable and only useful with a critical attitude. Sources were partially mutilated and falsified. See Gerd Nauhaus: Trends in Schumann Research . Retrieved May 8, 2019.
- Third edition at Zeno.org. Fourth edition - Internet Archive .
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||German Romantic composer|
|BIRTH DATE||June 8, 1810|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Zwickau|
|DATE OF DEATH||July 29, 1856|
|PLACE OF DEATH||Endeich near Bonn|