Louis Ferdinand of Prussia (1772-1806)

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Louis Ferdinand of Prussia (painting by Jean-Laurent Mosnier , 1799)

Friedrich Ludwig Christian of Prussia (called Prince Louis Ferdinand of Prussia ; also Der Prussische Apoll ; * November 18, 1772 in Friedrichsfelde Palace near Berlin ; † October 10, 1806 in Wöhlsdorf ) was a Prussian prince from the House of Hohenzollern , general, composer and Pianist .

Name form and ancestry

The third son of Prince Ferdinand of Prussia and his wife, born Princess Anna Elisabeth Luise of Brandenburg-Schwedt , and nephew of King Frederick the Great , was given the baptismal name Friedrich Ludwig Christian, was called Louis and was immediately given the nickname Ferdinand (after his father ), so that he could be distinguished from his 2nd degree nephew, also named Louis, Prince Friedrich Ludwig Karl of Prussia (1773–1796).

Reports and sources from Louis Ferdinand's lifetime indicate that his biological father was not Prince Ferdinand, but the court master of his mother, Friedrich Wilhelm Carl Graf von Schmettau , or perhaps Duke Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel . However, these assumptions, which should be rated as “rumors and gossip”, cannot be considered proven.


The house on the Saalfeld market square where Louis Ferdinand stayed before his death
Heroic death of Prince Louis Ferdinand near Saalfeld , 1895. In the foreground, the French NCO Guindey (wrongly shown with the French cuirassier- Pallasch, model 1802/03, with a straight blade) and a regimental comrade in battle with Louis Ferdinand. Another Frenchman approaches in the background, but from the 9th Hussars.

Louis Ferdinand embarked on a military career in the Prussian Army . He fought in the First Coalition War in 1792/94 near Longwy and Verdun , participated in the Valmy cannonade and was wounded during the siege of Mainz . As major general (since July 17, 1793) he took part in the battle of Kaiserslautern in November 1793 . On February 23, 1795, Louis Ferdinand was appointed chief of the "von Baden" infantry regiment . In the further course of the war he was commanded from the end of May 1796 as a brigadier to the corps of Duke Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand of Braunschweig , which was intended to cover the demarcation line in Westphalia. On the occasion of the review at Petershagen , Louis Ferdinand was promoted to lieutenant general on June 2, 1799 with a patent from May 20, 1799 .

On September 27, 1802, he took over the post of provost in Magdeburg Cathedral from his late uncle Heinrich von Prussia .

In 1805 Louis Ferdinand belonged to the circle of people around Queen Luise , Freiherr vom Stein and General Ernst von Rüchel , who stood for opposing Napoleon . Together they tried to convince the king of this. On May 10, 1805, von Stein submitted a corresponding memorandum. The king refused, but eventually gave in to the onslaught and ordered mobilization .


As commander of a Prussian vanguard, Louis Ferdinand was killed in action near Saalfeld on October 10, 1806 , four days before the battle of Jena and Auerstedt . The prince was killed by the French maréchal des logis Jean-Baptiste Guindey (1785-1813) of the 10th hussar regiment. This received the cross of the Legion of Honor , but no promotion. Napoleon refused the latter, remarking that a prince imprisoned would have been better. Guindey later advanced to lieutenant en premier and sous-adjudant major (deputy regimental adjutant).

In historiography, it is still controversial today whether Guindey defeated the prince alone or whether comrades assisted him ( Richard Knötel's well-known graphic depiction of the heroic death of the prince Louis Ferdinand near Saalfeld takes up the latter version). However, the version of death in individual combat is likely: Guindey reported that he initially pursued the prince who was fleeing on horseback and, when his horse stumbled over a fence while jumping over a fence, he injured the back of the head with a blade. Louis Ferdinand continued to fight despite the serious wound (!), Whereupon Guindey claims to have killed him with a blow in the chest. It is more likely, however, that the blow in the head already put the prince out of action or even killed him. The version of the killing by an "honest" blow from the front portrays Guindey in a more heroic light.

During an autopsy of the corpse, it was also found that the stab in the chest came from a straight blade, as is common with Degen or Pallasch . However, hussars were mostly equipped with sabers (curved blades). The punch in the chest could possibly have been inflicted post mortem on someone who was already lying on the ground - perhaps by a "cocky" French looter (Louis Ferdinand's body was partially stripped when it was found and robbed of personal property). This fits Guindey's statement that after Louis Ferdinand's death he took the dead general's papers and brought them to his superiors. He had to leave the body itself and its material effects to French looters. Perhaps on this occasion Guindey had already witnessed the sword thrust through the prince's chest and had recognized the opportunity now presented to him to enhance his behavior. Or one of Guindey's superiors, whom he led to the corpse, fell victim to the dead prince who was known in France as an enemy of the French. Such desecration of a corpse could have harmed the reputation of the perpetrator if it had become known, which is why Guindey took the "guilt" on himself and used it to his advantage.

After Louis Ferdinand's death, his body was buried in the princely crypt of the Johanneskirche in Saalfeld and five years later, in 1811, transferred to the Berlin Cathedral .


Louis Ferdinand had several illegitimate children.

A daughter with Eberhardine Charlotte Justine von Schlieben . She later married the Bavarian stable master Heinrich von Drechsel:

  • Caroline Henriette Bentley (* 1789 in Berlin)

Two children with Friederike Susanne Henriette Fromme (1783–1828) who were raised to the hereditary Prussian nobility on March 3, 1810 under the name "von Wildenbruch":

⚭ August 9, 1837 Ernestine von Langen (1805-1858)
⚭ April 26, 1860 Flora Nicolovius (* May 28, 1811 - May 21, 1879). She was the daughter of the Prussian ministerial official Georg Heinrich Ludwig Nicolovius and his wife Luise Maria Anna, geb. Schlosser, who was Goethe's niece as the daughter of Johann Georg Schlosser and Cornelia Goethe .
  • Emilie Henriette Luise Blanca (* August 22, 1804 in Berlin, † April 20, 1887), called Blanche ⚭ October 19, 1826 Friedrich Erhard von Röder (* November 19, 1798; † August 2, 1858) son of General Friedrich Erhard von Röder .

The name "Wildenbruch" refers to the Wildenbruch estate of Louis Ferdinand's maternal grandfather. Via Louis von Wildenbruch, envoy to the Ottoman Empire, Prince Louis Ferdinand is the grandfather of the writer Ernst von Wildenbruch , grandfather in law of the philosopher Paul Graf Yorck von Wartenburg and great-great-grandfather of the resistance fighter Peter Graf Yorck von Wartenburg . He also had two sons (twins) with the French Countess Maria Adelaide de la Grange:


Musical career

How Louis Ferdinand came to his skills as a pianist and composer and who his teachers were is not completely clear. His musical abilities were first mentioned in his sister Luise's diary . In 1783, she compared Louis Ferdinand's “amazing progress” on the piano with that of his brother Heinrich on the violin. During this time, his father had a small court orchestra. Here Louis Ferdinand may have received suggestions and possibly lessons from members of the band. For 1790 a "Musikus Fleischmann" comes into question as a teacher.

Until her death in 1787, Louis Ferdinand had cordial contact with his aunt, Princess Anna Amalie von Prussia , who was a musician and composer trained by Johann Philipp Kirnberger , a student of Bach . Memories of his sister Luise von Prussia and the dedication of a composition by Anna Amalie to Louis Ferdinand and his brother Heinrich are evidence of the musical suggestions Louis Ferdinand received from Anna Amalie. She was able to convey to him the aesthetics and composition techniques of Johann Sebastian Bach's generation of students.

Louis Ferdinand: Sketch for op. 4,
melody with figured bass

Louis Ferdinand's op. 7, a fugue for piano, and sketches for the Variations op. 4, in which he designed the accompaniment with figured basses , point to this. Both works show that Louis Ferdinand's musical craft was based on older music, but did not follow its aesthetic.

A diary entry by Louis Ferdinand's sister Luise shows that Anna Amalie's brother Prince Heinrich of Prussia in Rheinsberg also played an important role in Louis Ferdinand's musical career:

“Louis liked it a lot in Rheinsberg. In his passion for music, the prince's band offered him all the tools he wanted, and he let her play his compositions and developed more and more a talent that would have made an artist lucky. "

From a letter from Louis Ferdinand from 1795 one can conclude that he taught himself the basics of composing, at least in part. He wrote:

"[...] although I have studied composition over and over again, I could not achieve anything that would have been good enough [...]"

It is very questionable that, as reported by the Allgemeine Musikalische Zeitung in 1812, the pianist and composer Heinrich Gerhard von Lentz was a teacher of Louis Ferdinand. This report obviously goes back to Lentz himself and was then repeated several times, but not confirmed by any reliable source. A time for such a lesson could not be determined. The assumption that Lentz refused to enter Louis Ferdinand's service is also not proven. Lentz as the teacher of Louis Ferdinand could, however, explain his tendency towards virtuoso brilliance and his knowledge of figured bass.

It was only from the time when Louis Ferdinand was considered an accomplished pianist and improviser that clear and meaningful documents about his musical work were found. They confirm the influence that the composers and pianists Ludwig van Beethoven and Johann Ladislaus Dussek had.

Relationship to Beethoven

Comparison of
L. v. Beethoven, op.31 / 2 and
Louis Ferdinand, op.9 (autograph)

At a meeting in Berlin in 1796, Beethoven said appreciatively, “The prince does not play royal or princely, but like a capable piano player.” Under Beethoven's influence, Louis Ferdinand composed the first works intended for publication, in which he even quoted Beethoven's motifs For example, a motif from the first movement of his op. 31/2 in the Rondo op. 9 and in the Trio op. 10 is documented that Louis Ferdinand acquired the sheet music of Beethoven's sonatas for piano and violin op. 12 in Hamburg in 1799 and also 6 book of music paper for your own composing. Louis Ferdinand was able to play these sonatas with the violinist Pierre Rode , who visited Hamburg several times between 1795 and 1803 and to whom he later dedicated his piano quartet op. 6. In 1804 Louis Ferdinand met Beethoven while on a diplomatic mission in Vienna. Three months later, Beethoven dedicated his 3rd piano concerto to him. Beethoven's mentor, Prince Franz Joseph Maximilian von Lobkowitz , took on Louis Ferdinand and enabled him to listen to Beethoven's 3rd Symphony several times in a row in one of his Bohemian castles . After Louis Ferdinand's death in 1806, Lobkowitz might have inspired Beethoven to write the final title of this symphony. Thereafter, "composed to celebrate the memory of a great man" refers to Louis Ferdinand. His great interest in Beethoven's compositions is also evidenced by the acquisition of the sheet music for the sonatas for piano and violin op. 30 and op. 47 as well as the piano sonata op. 53 in 1806. A few days before his death, Louis carried Ferdinand to his quarters at the Rudolstadt Heidecksburg Beethoven's compositions on the piano.

Relationship with Johann Ladislaus Dussek

Louis Ferdinand met Johann Ladislaus Dussek at the beginning of February 1800 in Hamburg and became his composition student. However, they parted ways again after a very short time, as Louis Ferdinand had to leave Hamburg on February 18. The fact that the contact between the two of them did not break off is shown by the fact that Dussek dedicated his piano quartet in E flat major (C197) to Louis Ferdinand in 1803. The sources suggest brief re-encounters between 1800 and 1804, but only after Dussek's arrival in Berlin at the beginning of 1804 are the meetings clearly documented. Dussek took part in the world premiere of Louis Ferdinand's quintet op. 1 as a pianist. In May, Louis took Ferdinand Dussek with him to his garrison town of Magdeburg . From then until Louis Ferdinand's death, Dussek was the prince's teacher, chamber music partner, partner and drinking companion, without a permanent contract having been concluded. Nothing is known about the nature of the composition lessons. A mutual influence of the two composers can be assumed, but so far has only been explored in a hint. When Dussek joined Louis Ferdinand's entourage , a new period began in Louis Ferdinand's oeuvre , in which operas 2, 6, 8, 11 and 12 were completed. The two composers got along very well not only musically, as Louis Ferdinand's adjutant Carl Graf von Nostitz described:

“[...] and at 6 o'clock table. Here women and the company of lively men awaited us […] Selected dishes and good wine, especially champagne […], quenched hunger and thirst, but the meal […] was lengthened by music and the alternation of cheerful relaxation far beyond the usual measure. There was a piano next to the prince. One turn and he fell into the conversation with tone chords, which Dussek then continued on another instrument. This often resulted in a musical competition between the two of them, one could call it a musical conversation, which made all the sensations of the soul, stimulated by words, sound more lively in enchanting tones. "

The court conductor Friedrich Wilhelms II and Friedrich Wilhelms III belonged to this artist community at times . , Friedrich Heinrich Himmel , to whom Louis Ferdinand dedicated his quintet op. 1 in 1803.

From 1804 Dussek took over the publication of the prince's works until after his death. He was allowed to keep the publisher's fees. Louis Ferdinand was less concerned with spreading his works and making a profit from them than with easily legible sheet music for his own music making. With his "Elégie Harmonique sur la Mort de Son Altesse Royale le Prince Louis Ferdinand de Prusse en Forme de Sonate pour le Piano-Forte" in F sharp minor, composed after 1806, Dussek Louis Ferdinand set a musical monument.

Rahel Levin's “Salon” as a podium for Louis Ferdinand and a place for intellectual and artistic inspiration

Louis Ferdinand's fondness to cultivate private social and artistic contact with people who stimulated him across all class and origin barriers found its fulfillment, apart from in the artist community with Dussek and Himmel, above all in the Berlin “salons” run by women. Although he frequented the "salons" preferred and shaped by aristocrats and diplomats, such as that of Duchess Dorothea von Kurland and that of his sister Luise, the bourgeois "salons", such as that of Henriette von , were really important for his development Crayen , but especially Rahel Levin's .

Rahel Levin , later - after her marriage to Karl August Varnhagen von Ense - known as Rahel Varnhagen von Ense, was the first unmarried woman to lead what she herself called "Society" or "our Kreiß", the first phase of which until shortly after Louis Ferdinand's death and the defeat of Prussia that followed shortly afterwards lasted. At the end of May 1800, Rahel Levin wrote in a letter:

“Do you know who else has made my acquaintance? Prince Louis. I find him thoroughly amiable. [...] He should not have enjoyed such acquaintance yet. He will hear proper attic truth. "

Whether the “attic truth” that was given with it, influenced by the early romanticism of Louis Ferdinand's musical aesthetics and his composing, still needs to be examined more closely. The intellectual and artistic, especially literary elite of Berlin met in their apartment on the top floor, but also in other rooms in the Levin house on Jägerstrasse. Achim von Arnim, Ludwig Börne, Bettina and Clemens Brentano , Adelbert von Chamisso , Friedrich de la Motte Fouqué , Alexander and Wilhelm von Humboldt , Heinrich von Kleist , Jean Paul , Friedrich Schlegel , Friedrich Schleiermacher and Ludwig Tieck frequented the city . Who Louis Ferdinand actually got to know in Rahel Levin's salon is only hinted at in the literature. Since Louis Ferdinand did not comment on his musical aesthetic attitudes and testimonials from others are missing, it can only be assumed that his artistic development was influenced by the conversations in Rahel Levin's salon and by the literary and aesthetic writings of the early Romanticists . It is known that Louis Ferdinand attended August Wilhelm Schlegel's lectures , but it is not known which topics and contents he heard.

Louis Ferdinand surrendered to the stimulating conversations, the champagne and the charm of the ladies with Rahel Levin. Here he met Pauline Wiesel , who became his lover. He himself excelled as a pianist and improviser. Hugo Franz Altgraf zu Salm-Reifferscheidt described his game as “bold and powerful, often touching, mostly bizarre, always of the highest mastery”.

Classification of music history

As for Frédéric Chopin , Franz Liszt , Johannes Brahms and many others, Robert Schumann also found a striking characterization for Louis Ferdinand. He considered the "most romantic of all princely sons" to be the "romantic of the classical period."

This assessment shows the still existing dilemma: the investigations into Louis Ferdinand's works uncovered classical and early romantic characteristics e.g. B. in the form and harmony of his musical language, without having so far succeeded in conclusively judging Louis Ferdinand's position in music history. His relationships with Beethoven have been examined most closely. His musical relationship with Dussek and Himmel, as well as with composers that are ignored or forgotten today, such as Franz Danzi , Anton Franz Josef Eberl , Alexander Klengel , Franz Seraphinus Lauska , Andreas Jakob Romberg , Johann Schadeck and above all Daniel Gottlieb Steibelt , still needs more detailed analysis. It is not certain that he was known to Franz Schubert and influenced him. Robert Schumann saw him alongside Franz Schubert as an important stimulus for himself and his generation.

In the only more extensive, style-critical study of the works of Louis Ferdinand from 1935, Robert Hahn attempted to fathom the relationships between Louis Ferdinand and the music of his time. He supported Robert Schumann's characterization of Louis Ferdinand as a “romantic of the classical period”, but also showed that the seemingly romantic characteristics of Louis Ferdinand's musical language are clearly indebted to the brilliant virtuoso music around 1800 and above all to the sensitive compositional style of Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach .

Reception history

With his decision to publish his works, which were actually composed for his own needs, Louis Ferdinand also faced public criticism. Above all, the Allgemeine Musikalische Zeitung in Leipzig reported several times about him as a pianist and composer as well as about his works and their performance. This newspaper, which was read throughout the German-speaking region, thus became one of the most important sources for studying the reception of Louis Ferdinand's works. During Louis Ferdinand's lifetime, however, only one quartet (presumably op. 5) and the Notturno 0p. 8, each with Dussek at the piano, performed in public.

Where and by whom to what extent the works of Louis Ferdinand, which were mostly printed only in incorrect parts, were bought has not yet been documented.

Louis Ferdinand already had a large following in Vienna during his lifetime. After his death, his works became known there mainly in arrangements for piano four hands and for two pianos by Johann Andreas Streicher and Carl Czerny , among others , and were used for private domestic music-making. Johann Friedrich Reichardt reported on a private performance of Louis Ferdinand's op. 6 in the Streichers' house. After 1844 the printing of such edits was stopped.

Between 1842 and 1848 Franz Liszt performed the quartet op. 6 "with great success". He used themes from this work in an Elégie sur des motifs du Prince Louis Ferdinand, composed in 1843 and revised in 1847.

Around 1850 the interest in Louis Ferdinand's compositions died out. Only after the turn of the century, in the wake of the Prussian-influenced nationalism, was there a renewed interest in Louis Ferdinand as a military and patriotic role model and as a composer. Kaiser Wilhelm II initiated a new or first edition of the scores of Louis Ferdinand's works published in 1910 . It contains operas 1–6 as well as 9 and 10.


Published during Louis Ferdinand's lifetime, first prints partly only in parts:

  • Quintet in C minor for pianoforte, 2 violins, viola, and violoncello, op.1
  • Trio in A flat major for piano, violin and violoncello, op.2
  • Trio in E flat major for pianoforte, violin and cello, op.3
  • Andante with variations in B flat major for pianoforte, violin, viola and cello, op.4
  • Quartet in E flat major for pianoforte, violin, viola and violoncello, op.5
  • Quartet in F minor for pianoforte, violin, viola and cello, op.6
  • Large Trio in E flat major for pianoforte, violin and violoncello, op.10
  • Larghetto varié pour le pianoforte avec accompagnement de violon, alto, violoncelle et basse obligés, op.11

Published after Louis Ferdinand's death:

  • Fugue à quatre voix pour le piano, op.7
  • Notturno pour le pianoforte, flûte, violon, viola, violoncelle obligé et deux cors ad libitum, op.8
  • Rondo in B flat major for piano and orchestra, op.9
  • Otetto pour le pianoforte, clarinette, 2 cors, 2 violes and 2 violoncelles obligés, op.12
  • Rondo pour le pianoforte avec accompagnement de l'orchestre, op.13

Post fame

Louis Ferdinand's contemporary General Friedrich August Ludwig von der Marwitz gave him a differentiated assessment in his memoirs:

The memorial stone for Louis Ferdinand erected in 1808
The monument created by Schinkel and Tieck
The Prince's sarcophagus in the Hohenzollern Crypt of the Berlin Cathedral (No. 73)

“It was extraordinary about him, and something extraordinary would have become of him if our war had not been ended by the Peace of Basel (where he was only twenty-three years old). But he came back to his garrison, Magdeburg, and even if he received his regiment in the best possible shape, this occupation was far too insignificant for his ambitious spirit and was settled in a few hours every day with the old soldiers of the time. Since his repeated requests to be allowed to take part in the campaigns in the Austrian and, in 1799, the Russian army, were refused at any time - and ought to be refused because of the political situation into which we had now thrown ourselves - he spent thirteen Years actually in idleness and thrown into distractions. He exerted himself on the most tiring and dangerous hunts, on the most aggressive rides, and then enjoyed himself with friends who flocked in large numbers - as always in such cases - at the table and with the girls. [...]
All of this would still go on, but with this all-round tension of his forces he gave in to the drink. In 1806 he drank nothing but champagne, and began to drink it as soon as he got up, so that by noon he would certainly have finished six bottles and would not last more than a dozen during the day. But there was not the slightest trace of drunkenness ever to be noticed in him, nor was his physical beauty and blooming appearance in the least gone. Probably sickness and weakness would have broken in all of a sudden if he had lived longer. "

Louis Ferdinand's early death made him particularly popular. In 1857 Theodor Fontane dedicated a poem to him , which begins with the following description:

"Raised six feet high, to
look at a god of war,
the darling of comrades,
the idol of beautiful women,
blue-eyed, blonde, daring,
and in the young hand,
the old Prussian sword -
Prince Louis Ferdinand."


Today in Wöhlsdorf near Saalfeld two memorials commemorate the Prussian prince who fell there. The first, a simple memorial stone, was erected in 1808 on the initiative of the Erfurt district president and a lieutenant from Romberg with the support of Duke Ernst I of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld . In 1821, Karl Friedrich Schinkel was finally commissioned to create another monument. The sculptor Christian Friedrich Tieck created a relief plate made of bronzed cast iron that depicts a grieving genius. Louis Ferdinand's sister Luise von Radziwill took over the costs . The monument was inaugurated on October 19, 1823, the 10th anniversary of the Battle of Leipzig . Today it is located directly on the B 85 between Saalfeld and Rudolstadt .

See also


Web links

Commons : Louis Ferdinand von Prussia (1772–1806)  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

References and comments

  1. Tobias Debuch: Prince Louis Ferdinand of Prussia (1772–1806) as a musician in the socio-cultural environment of his time. Berlin 2004, p. 9 f.
  2. ^ Regina-Bianca Kubitscheck:  Louis Ferdinand of Prussia. In: Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL). Volume 29, Bautz, Nordhausen 2008, ISBN 978-3-88309-452-6 , Sp. 877-884.
  3. ^ Gerhard Taddey (ed.): Lexicon of German history . Vol. 1, Kröner, Stuttgart 1998, keyword "Louis Ferdinand, Prince of Prussia"
  4. C. Helmuth: Prussische Kriegschronik: Brief description of the campaigns from 1640-1850. Leipzig 1864, p. 327.
  5. Tobias Debuch, Berlin 2004, p. 272 ​​f.
  6. ^ Eckart Klessmann Prince Louis Ferdinand of Prussia.
  7. ^ Johann Friedrich von Schulte:  Klitsche, Theodor Friedrich . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 16, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1882, p. 199 f.
  8. Tobias Debuch, Berlin 2004, p. 52.
  9. Hans Wahl: Prince Louis Ferdinand of Prussia. Munich undated, p. 18.
  10. Tobias Debuch, Berlin 2004, p. 53.
  11. Tobias Debuch, Berlin 2004, p. 58.
  12. Princess von Radziwill, b. Castellane (ed.): Luise von Preußen. Princess Anton Radziwill. Forty-five years from my life (1770–1815). Translated by E. Kraatz, Braunschweig 1812, p. 29 f.
  13. Tobias Debuch, Berlin 2004, p. 62.
  14. Tobias Debuch, Berlin 2004, pp. 64–67
  15. Tobias Debuch, Berlin 2004, p. 62 f.
  16. Tobias Debuch, Berlin 2004, pp. 58–67.
  17. Princess von Radziwill, b. Castellane (ed.): Luise von Preußen. Princess Anton Radziwill. Forty-five years from my life (1770–1815) . Translated by E. Kraatz, Braunschweig 1812, p. 135
  18. Tobias Debuch, Berlin 2004, p. 55.
  19. a b Tobias Debuch, Berlin 2004, p. 56
  20. ^ Robert Hahn: Louis Ferdinand of Prussia as a musician. Breslau 1935, pp. 35-37.
  21. ^ Barbara Hughes McMurty: The Music of Prince Louis Ferdinand. Illinois 1972, p. 67.
  22. Lentz composed in a brilliant style himself and taught composition (figured bass) in Warsaw. See: Irena Poniatowska: Lenz, Lentz , Heinrich Gerhard von . In music past and present. Second edition, personal section, volume 10, Kassel et altera 2003, column 1577
  23. ^ Eckart Kleßmann: Prince Louis Ferdinand of Prussia . Munich 1978, p. 77.
  24. Tobias Debuch, Berlin 2004, pp. 208 f.
  25. See the illustrated excerpt from the facsimile of the autograph of op.9
  26. ^ Christoph Henzel: Louis Ferdinand . In: Music in the past and present . Second edition, Person Part 11, Kassel et altera 2004, column 512.
  27. Eckart Kleßmann, Munich 1978, p. 97.
  28. Tobias Debuch, Berlin 2004, p. 87.
  29. Tobias Debuch, Berlin 2004, p. 162
  30. Eckart Kleßmann, Munich 1978, p. 170 f.
  31. Tobias Debuch, Berlin 2004, pp. 202–214.
  32. Tobias Debuch, Berlin 2004, p. 133.
  33. Eckart Kleßmann, Munich 1978, p. 239.
  34. Eckart Kleßmann, Munich 1978, p. 101.
  35. Eckart Kleßmann, Munich 1978, p. 107 f.
  36. Tobias Debuch, Berlin 2004, p. 101.
  37. Tobias Debuch, Berlin 2004, p. 105 f.
  38. Tobias Debuch, Berlin 2004, p. 111.
  39. Tobias Debuch, Berlin 2004, p. 222.
  40. Eckart Kleßmann, Munich 1978, p. 187.
  41. Tobias Debuch, Berlin 2004, p. 107 ff.
  42. Tobias Debuch, Berlin 2004, p. 139 f.
  43. The term "salon" is placed in quotation marks because it was not used at the time in question. Cf. Ursula Isselstein: The titles of things are the most terrible! Rahel Levin's “First Salon” . In Hartwig Schulz (ed.): Salons of Romanticism. Contributions to a Wiepersdorf colloquium on the theory and history of the salon . P. 175.
  44. ^ Petra Wilhelmy-Dollinger: The Berlin Salon in the 19th Century, 1780-1914 . Berlin 1989, pp. 637-640.
  45. Barbara Hahn: The myth of the salon. Rahel's “attic” as historical fiction . In Hartwig Schulz (ed.): Salons of Romanticism. Contributions to a Wiepersdorf colloquium on the theory and history of the salon . P. 213 ff.
  46. Tobias Debuch, Berlin 2004, p. 23.
  47. Ursula Isselstein: The titles of things are the most terrifying! Rahel Levin's “First Salon” . In Hartwig Schulz (ed.): Salons of Romanticism. Contributions to a Wiepersdorf colloquium on the theory and history of the salon . P. 176 ff.
  48. Tobias Debuch, Berlin 2004, p. 29.
  49. ^ Robert Hahn, Breslau 1935, in many places
  50. AMZ VI, 588; IX, 755; XI, 47 u. 203; X, 391-397; XII, 474; XII, 476; XX.71; XXXIV, 74
  51. ^ Robert Hahn, Breslau 1935, p. 118.
  52. Tobias Debuch, Berlin 2004, p. 196.
  53. Robert Hahn, Breslau 1935, pp. 113–117
  54. ^ Robert Hahn, Breslau 1935, p. 119.
  55. Tobias Debuch, Berlin 2004, p. 17.
  56. Prince Louis Ferdinand on Wikisource