Ludwig Tieck

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Ludwig Tieck, after a painting by Joseph Karl Stieler from 1838 [1] Tieck in more mature years
Ludwig Tieck, after a painting by Joseph Karl Stieler from 1838
Tieck in more mature years
Ludwig Tieck signature.png

Johann Ludwig Tieck (born May 31, 1773 in Berlin ; † April 28, 1853 there ), often just Ludwig Tieck , was a German poet , writer , editor and translator of Romanticism . He also published under the pseudonyms Peter Lebrecht and Gottlieb Färber .


Youth, studies and first successes

Göttingen memorial plaque for the student Ludwig Tieck

Born on May 31, 1773, Tieck grew up in Berlin on Roßstrasse near the Cöllnischer Fischmarkt as the son of a master rope maker together with his younger siblings Friedrich and Sophie . From 1782 he attended the Friedrich-Werdersche Gymnasium , which was under Friedrich Gedike's direction , where he closely followed Wilhelm Heinrich Wackenroder . He wrote his first poetic works during his school days.

From 1792 he studied history, philology, old and new literature in Halle (Saale) (1792), Göttingen (1792/1793, 1793/1794) and Erlangen (1793, there together with Wackenroder). The real goal of his studies was probably to train as a freelance writer; even then he was deeply concerned with Shakespeare . During his studies in Erlangen he made trips with Wackenroder to Nuremberg and through Franconian Switzerland to the Fichtel Mountains , but also to the baroque Weissenstein Castle near Pommersfelden ; He recorded the experiences on these tours in what became famous travelogues . In 1794 Tieck broke off his studies and returned to Berlin (until 1799). There he began to study law, which he also dropped out. In Friedrich Nicolai's collection of Straussfedern , he published entertainment literature and literary experiments from the spirit of the late Enlightenment from 1795 (so Die Freunde 1797); some of the prose pieces were created as a collaborative effort with his sister Sophie.

Friedrich Tieck : Ludwig Tieck and his sister Sophie , marble relief, 1796
Ludwig Tieck, reading (silhouette by Luise Duttenhofer, probably made around 1823) Puss in Boots, title page of the first edition, 1797
Ludwig Tieck, reading ( silhouette by Luise Duttenhofer , probably made around 1823)
Puss in Boots , title page of the first edition, 1797

At the same time his first short stories and novels appeared Peter Lebrecht, a story without adventures (1795, two volumes), William Lovell (1795–1796, three volumes) and Abdallah (1795). From that time on, Tieck took part in Wackenroder's writings ( pourings from the heart of an art-loving monastery brother , published at the end of 1796, and fantasies about art, for friends of art , 1799). Making his transition to the real Romanticism, Tieck undertook the now dramatic-satirical, now simply narrative adaptation of old folk tales and fairy tales, which he published under the title Volksmärchen by Peter Lebrecht (Berlin 1797, three volumes). With the artist novel Franz Sternbald's Walks (completed in 1797, published in 1798), Tieck set the direction for the romantic novels ( Novalis , Joseph von Eichendorff ).

At the end of 1797, Tieck met Friedrich Schlegel for the first time . After he married Amalie Alberti, a daughter of the preacher Alberti, in Hamburg in 1798 and had the child Dorothea Tieck with her, he stayed in Jena from 1799–1800 , where he stayed with the two Schlegel brothers (Friedrich and August Wilhelm Schlegel ) , Novalis, Clemens Brentano , Johann Gottlieb Fichte and Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling entered into friendly relations. Together, the circle formed the so-called Jena Early Romanticism . For the theories developed by the Schlegels, Tieck provided the literary examples (and vice versa). He also got to know Goethe and Schiller. In 1801 Tieck and Friedrich Schlegel moved to Dresden.

In Ziebingen

In 1802 Tieck moved with the family to Ziebingen , east of Frankfurt (Oder) , to the estate of his old friend Burgsdorff ; he had invited the poet. Tieck lived there until 1819, albeit with several, sometimes longer interruptions. During this time there was close contact with the nearby Madlitz estate west of the Oder, which belonged to the von Finckenstein family, who were related to Burgsdorff . Tieck entered into a relationship with Henriette von Finckenstein (1774–1847), who accompanied him to Dresden in 1819 and finally to Berlin two decades later.

During his first decade in Ziebingen, Tieck undertook several long journeys: 1803 with Burgsdorff to southern Germany, from 1804 to 1806 with his family via Munich to Rome and 1808 to 1810 to Munich and Vienna.

Important works had already appeared before these literarily rather unproductive years: Prince Zerbino, or the journey to good taste (1799), Franz Sternbald's wanderings (Berlin 1798), a novel that glorified old German art, in which his friend Wackenroder probably also had a conceptual part had, and romantic poems (Jena 1799-1800, 2 volumes) with the tragedy life and death of the Heil. Genoveva (separate, Berlin 1820) and the comedy Emperor Octavianus (Jena 1804), based on an old folk book , works in which the author had given himself wholeheartedly to the romantic direction. He also published a translation of Don Quixote by Cervantes (1799-1801), the translation of a number of Shakespeare ascribed but dubious plays under the title Old English Theater (1811), an adaptation of Ulrich von Lichtenstein's service for women (Tübing. 1812) and one Selection of dramatic pieces by Rosenplüt, Hans Sachs, Ayrer, Gryphius and Lohenstein ( Deutsches Theater , Berlin 1817, 2 volumes) and gave under the title Phantasus (Berlin 1812–1817, 3 volumes; 2nd edition Berlin 1844–1845, 3 volumes) a collection of earlier fairy tales and plays, expanded by new stories and the fairy tale show Fortunat , which again attracted the interest of the German reading public more strongly to Tieck. In fact, fairy tales and stories such as Der wreue Eckart , Die Elfen , Der Pokal , Der blond Eckbert etc. will probably maintain their formal merits because of their poetic rank for a long time. In the war year 1813 the poet was in Prague; after the peace he made long trips to London and Paris, mainly in the interest of a major work on Shakespeare which he never completed.

In Dresden

Memorial plaque in Dresden

1819–1841 he lived in Dresden . Despite the contradiction between Tieck's intellectual refinement and the triviality of Dresden fiction, he succeeded in gathering a circle around him that was decisive for his views on art, mainly through his dramatic lectures, which took place almost every evening and which were known throughout Germany recognized.

As the dramaturge of the court theater , he gained a significant degree of effectiveness in the 1820s, which, of course, was often spoiled by the cabal and lies of the trivial opposing party. As a poet, since settling in Dresden, he has used the form of the novella almost exclusively. The entirety of his novellas (complete collection, Berlin 1852–1854, 12 volumes) showed his great narrative talent. In the most perfect he gave true works of art in which a really poetic task was solved by purely poetic means; with numerous others, on the other hand, he paved the way for those dubious conversational novellas in which the epic element takes a back seat and the story only becomes the vehicle for the presentation of certain opinions and educational results. The most important of the first category include: The paintings , The travelers , The old man from the mountains , The society in the country , The engagement , Musical sorrows and joys , The abundance of life and others

Painting by Carl Christian Vogel von Vogelstein on a Berlin commemorative stamp from 1973

Among the historical novels, The Returning Greek Emperor , The Death of the Poet and, above all, the unfinished turmoil in the Cevennes claim to have lasting significance. In all of these novels not only the simple grace of the presentation, but also the variety of lively and typical characters and the profundity of the poetic idea delight. In the prosaic novellas, too, Tieck showed his mastery of presentation. His last major work, Vittoria Accorombona (1840), was created under the influence of the New French Romanticism and, despite the splendor of colors, left a predominantly embarrassing impression.

Tieck's other literary activities were also very pronounced during the Dresden period. In 1826 he took over the editing and completion of the Shakespeare translation begun by August Wilhelm Schlegel and edited the writings of Heinrich von Kleist (Berlin 1821), which were followed by the collected works of the same poet (Berlin 1826, 3 volumes). Johann Gottfried Schnabel's Die Insel Felsenburg (Breslau 1827), Lenz's collected writings (1828) and Shakespeare's pre-school (Leipzig 1823–1829, 2 volumes) etc. were accompanied by prefaces and treatises of lasting value. The Dramaturgische Blätter (1826/1852; complete edition 1852) grew out of his dramaturgical-critical activity . Tieck had a rather distant relationship with the Dresdner Liederkreis .

The gout-suffering Tieck bows to the Prussian king. Caricature from Ungern-Sternberg's satirical novel Tutu (1848)

In Berlin

Grave on the Dreifaltigkeitskirchhof II in Berlin-Kreuzberg

In 1841 King Friedrich Wilhelm IV called the poet to Berlin, where he was mostly chained to the house due to sickness and very lonely due to the death of almost all close relatives, and although he lived an honorable and carefree, but on the whole very resigned age. King Friedrich Wilhelm IV., Who held him in high regard, appointed him on May 31, 1842, as a founding member of the newly founded Prussian order Pour le Mérite for sciences and arts. The critical writings appeared in two volumes (1848).

Ludwig Tieck died on April 28, 1853 and was buried in the Trinity Cemetery II ; King Friedrich Wilhelm IV preceded the funeral procession. The honor grave of the city of Berlin is in field B, G1.

Tieck's often contradictory nature can not only be explained by the dichotomy of his education, in which the rationalism of the 18th century and the mystical romanticism continually fought each other, but is mostly also due to the improvisational, random-dependent talent of his talent, which seldom assigned him pure elaboration of his witty and lively drafts.


The Society of Authors has been awarding the Schlegel-Tieck Prize for German-English translations since 1965 . In 1999 the asteroid (8056) Tieck was named after him.


Total expenditure

There is no comprehensive edition of works that could meet scientific standards. In some cases, one has to fall back on the individual editions or the edition of the fonts that Tieck provided himself .

  • Fonts . 28 volumes. Berlin: Reimer, 1828–1854 (online in the “Arno Schmidt Reference Library” ).
  • Works in four volumes . According to the text of the writings from 1828–1854, taking into account the first prints, ed. as well as with an afterword and notes by Marianne Thalmann. Four volumes. Munich: Winkler, 1963–1966.
  • Fonts . In twelve volumes. Edited by Hans P. Balmes, Manfred Frank [et al.]. Frankfurt am Main: Deutscher Klassiker-Verlag, 1986 ff.
    • Volume 1: Youth Works. The summer night. Writings 1789–1793 . Edited by Achim Hölter, 1991 (= Bibliothek deutscher Klassiker, 64).
    • Volume 6: Phantasus . 1985 (= Library of German Classics, 2).
    • Volume 7: Poems , ed. by Ruprecht Wimmer , 1995 (= Library of German Classics, 124).
    • Volume 11: The young master carpenter. The Scarecrow. The old book. Stubbornness and mood. Writings 1834–1836 . Edited by Uwe Schweikert, 1988 (= Library of German Classics, 35).
    • Volume 12: Vittoria Accorombona. Abundance of life. Solitude of the forest. Writings 1836-1852 . Edited by Uwe Schweikert, 1986 (= Library of German Classics, 13).

Individual works (selection)

Letters (selection)

Letters from and to Tieck have been published very numerous, but often as dependent and difficult to access.

  • Letters to Ludwig Tieck. Selected u. ed. by Karl von Holtei . Four volumes. Breslau: Trewendt 1864.
  • Letters of Ludwig Tieck . Hitherto unpublished. 1792-1853. Collected and edited by Edwin H. Zeydel, Percy Matenko and Robert Herndon Fife. New York: Modern Language Assoc. of America, 1937; Reprint: Millwood, NY: Kraus Reprint Co., 1973.
  • Ludwig Tieck and Ida von Lüttichau in their letters . Edited by Otto Fiebiger . Dresden, 1937 (communications from the Dresden History Association, issue 32).
  • Letters to and from Ludwig Tieck and his circle. Unpublished letters from the period of German romanticism, including the unpublished correspondence of Sophie and Ludwig Tieck . Collected and edited by Percy Matenko, Edwin H. Zeydel, Bertha M. Masche. Chapel Hill: Univ. of North Carolina Press, [1967] (= Studies in the Germanic Languages ​​& Literatures, No. 57). ISBN 0-8078-8057-4 .
  • Ludwig Tieck . Edited by Uwe Schweikert. Three volumes. Munich: Heimeran, 1971 (= poet about their poems. Volume 9 / I – III).
  • Ludwig Tieck and the Schlegel brothers. Letters . On the basis of the edition arranged by Henry Lüdeke, reissued and commented by Edgar Lohner. Munich: Winkler, 1972.

Translations (selection)

  • Cervantes , Don Quixote . Four volumes. Berlin 1799-1801; Reprint 1852–53.
  • Works by Shakespeare, together with August Wilhelm Schlegel , Wolf von Baudissin and Tieck's daughter Dorothea Tieck :
    • Tieck was not yet involved in the first edition (1797–1810) .
    • First edition of Schlegel-Tieck's translation in 9 volumes 1825–1833.
    • Second edition 1839–1840.
    • Third edition 1843–1844.
  • Old English theater . Two volumes. Berlin 1811.
  • Ralf G. Päsler: Ludwig Tiecks 'book of heroes'. Texts and materials, Stuttgart 2018, ISBN 978-3-7776-2691-8 (the copies and notations from manuscripts that were then in Rome on which the 'Heldenbuch' is based are now in the Stadtmuseum Berlin; digitized: https: // sammlung- ).


Research literature (in reverse chronological order)


Introductions, overviews, manuals

  • Ludwig Tieck: Life - Work - Effect . Edited by Claudia Stockinger and Stefan Scherer. Berlin [including]: de Gruyter 2011, ISBN 978-3-11-018383-2 , e- ISBN 978-3-11-021747-6 .
  • Konrad Feilchenfeldt, Ursula Hudson, York-Gothart Mix, Nicholas Saul (eds.): Between Enlightenment and Romanticism. New perspectives in research . Königshausen & Neumann, Würzburg 2006, ISBN 978-3-8260-3432-9 (= Publications of the Institute of Germanic Studies London, Volume 89),
  • Roger Paulin: Ludwig Tieck , Stuttgart: Metzler 1987, ISBN 3-476-10185-1 (= Metzler Collection; 185).
  • Ludwig Tieck . Edited by Wulf Segebrecht, Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft 1976, ISBN 3-534-06131-4 (= ways of research ; 386), [Introduction by W. Segebrecht, essays by Karl Rosenkranz (1838), Jakob Minor (1884), Hans Mörtl (1925), Hermann Grumbel (1929), Friedrich Gundolf (1929), Robert Minder (1937), Marianne Thalmann (1958), Joachim Müller (1958/59), Emil Staiger (1960), Paul Gerhard Klussmann (1964) , Gerhard Kluge (1969), Heinz Schlaffer (1969); with a register of the treated works by Ludwig Tieck].
  • Wilhelm BernhardiTieck, Ludwig . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 38, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1894, pp. 251-276.


  • Marek Zybura:  Tieck, Johann Ludwig. In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 26, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 2016, ISBN 978-3-428-11207-5 , pp. 252-254 ( digitized version ).
  • Armin Gebhardt: Ludwig Tieck. Life and complete works of the "King of Romanticism" , Marburg: Tectum 1998, ISBN 978-3-8288-9001-5
  • Thomas Ziegner: Ludwig Tieck. Proteus, pump genius and arch-poet. Life and Work , Frankfurt am Main: RG Fischer 1990. ISBN 3-89406-118-9
  • Klaus Rek: The poet life of Ludwig Tieck. Biography , Berlin: Independent publishing house bookstore Ackerstraße 1991, ISBN 3-86172-018-3
  • Roger Paulin: Ludwig Tieck. A literary biography , Munich: Beck 1988, ISBN 3-406-33199-8
  • Klaus Günzel : King of Romanticism. The life of the poet Ludwig Tieck in letters, personal testimonies and reports , Berlin: Verlag der Nation 1981, ISBN 3-8052-0344-6
  • Rudolf Köpke: Ludwig Tieck. Memories from the life of the poet after his oral and written communications , 2 vol., Leipzig: Brockhaus 1855 (facsimile print: Darmstadt 1970). PDF as part of the "Arno Schmidt Reference Library"

Studies on special topics

  • Norman Kasper : Hunch as the present. The discovery of pure visibility in Ludwig Tieck's early novels , Paderborn: Fink 2014, ISBN 978-3-7705-5556-7
  • Cord-Friedrich Berghahn: The risk of autonomy. Studies on Karl Philipp Moritz, Wilhelm von Humboldt, Heinrich Gentz, Friedrich Gilly and Ludwig Tieck , (= Germanic-Romance monthly: supplement 47) Heidelberg: Winter 2012, ISBN 978-3-8253-5988-1
  • York-Gothart Mix : 'Lucri bonus odor' or how enlightened is Friedrich Nicolai? Constituents of cultural self-perception and perception of others in the travel reports about Franconia by Fr. Nicolai, W. Wackenroder and L. Tieck . In: Rainer Falk, Alexander Košenina (eds.): Friedrich Nicolai and the Berlin Enlightenment , Wehrhahn Verlag, Hanover 2008, ISBN 978-3-86525-081-0 , pp. 339–358.
  • Christian Krepold: The Walther picture of the romantics between “universal poetry ” and denominationalism. On Tieck, Uhland and Eichendorff's "History of Germany's Poetic Literature" . In: Thomas Bein (Hrsg.): The medieval and the modern Walther. Contributions to motifs, poetics, tradition and reception , Frankfurt am Main et al. 2007 (= Walther Studies 5), pp. 47–67.
  • York-Gothart mix : art religion and money. Ludwig Tieck, the Schlegel brothers and the competition on the literary market around 1800 . In: 'Let us, since it is granted to us, be sensible!' Ludwig Tieck (1773-1853) , ed. from the Institute for German Literature at the Humboldt University in Berlin with the collaboration of Heidrun Markert, Peter Lang, Berlin et al. 2004, ISBN 978-3-03910-419-2 , pp. 241-258.
  • Stefan Scherer : Funny game paintings. Tieck and the romantic drama , Berlin / New York: de Gruyter 2003, ISBN 3-11-017774-9 (= sources and research on literary and cultural history, 26).
  • Achim Hölter: Early Romanticism - Early Comparative Literature. Collected articles on Ludwig Tieck , Frankfurt am Main, among others: Lang 2001, ISBN 3-631-37100-4 (= Helicon; 27).
  • Alexandra Kertz-Welzel : The Transcendence of Feelings. Relationships between music and feeling in Wackenroder / Tieck and the musical aesthetics of romanticism , St. Ingbert: Röhrig Universitätsverlag 2001, ISBN 3-86110-278-1 (= Saarbrücker Contributions to Literary Studies, No. 71).
  • Lutz Hagestedt: Similarity and Difference. Aspects of the conception of reality in Ludwig Tieck's late novels and short stories , Munich: Belleville 1997, ISBN 978-3-923646-66-1
  • Christine Harte: Ludwig Tiecks historical novels. Investigations into the development of his storytelling , Bern et al: Lang, 1997, ISBN 3-906759-13-X
  • Franz-Josef Deiters : "The curtain finally falls for the last time, the audience goes home". Literary Post Theater: Ludwig Tiecks "Puss in Boots" and "The Wrong World". In: Ders .: The de-worldization of the stage. On the mediology of the theater of the classical episteme . Berlin: Erich Schmidt Verlag, 2015, ISBN 978-3-503-16517-9 , pp. 139-171.
  • Mara Nottelmann-Feil: Ludwig Tiecks Reception of Antiquity. Literary criticism and reflection of Greek and Roman poetry in the theoretical and poetic work of Tiecks , Frankfurt am Main and others: Lang, 1996, ISBN 3-631-49971-X (= microcosm; 43).
  • Wolfgang Rath: Ludwig Tieck. The forgotten genius. Studies on his narrative work , Paderborn ao: Schöningh, 1996. ISBN 3-506-77021-7
  • Burkhard Pöschel: “At the center of the most wonderful events”. Attempts on the literary examination of social modernity in Ludwig Tieck's late narrative work , Bielefeld: Aisthesis-Verl., 1994, ISBN 3-925670-99-8
  • Marek Zybura: Ludwig Tieck as translator and editor. On the early romantic idea of ​​a “German world literature” , Heidelberg: Winter 1994, ISBN 3-8253-0189-3 (= contributions to modern literary history; F. 3, volume 131).
  • Christoph Brecht: The dangerous speech. Language reflection and narrative structure in the prose of Ludwig Tiecks , Tübingen: Niemeyer 1993.
  • Michael Hiltscher: Shakespeare's Text in Germany: Textual Criticism and Canonical Issues from the Beginnings to the Middle of the 19th Century , Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang 1993, ISBN 3-631-46363-4 (= Münster monographs on English literature, Volume 12).
  • Horst Preisler: Social criticism. Ludwig Tiecks critical, essayistic and literary historical writings , Stuttgart: Heinz, 1992, ISBN 3-88099-265-7 (= Stuttgart works on German studies; 261).
  • Gerburg Garmann: The dream landscapes of Ludwig Tiecks. Dream journey and individuation process from a romantic perspective , Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag 1989, ISBN 3-531-12041-7
  • Dwight A. Klett: Tieck reception. The picture of Ludwig Tiecks in the German literary histories of the 19th century , Heidelberg: Winter 1989, ISBN 3-533-03957-9 (= contributions to modern literary history; F. 3, volume 79).
  • Peter Wesollek: Ludwig Tieck or the circumnavigator of his interior. Notes on the topic of the miraculous in Tiecks narrative , Wiesbaden: Steiner 1984, ISBN 3-515-03996-1
  • Ingrid Kreuzer : fairytale form and individual story. On text and action structures in works by Ludwig Tieck between 1790 and 1811 , Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht 1983, ISBN 3-525-20756-5
  • Gisela Brinker-Gabler : Poetic-Scientific Medieval Reception. Ludwig Tiecks Renewal of Old German Literature , Stuttgart: Kümmerle 1980, ISBN 3-87452-491-4 (= Göppingen works on German studies; 309).
  • Ernst Ribbat : Ludwig Tieck. Studies on the conception and practice of romantic poetry , Kronberg / Taunus: Athenaeum 1978 ISBN 3-7610-8002-6
  • Johannes P. Kern: Ludwig Tieck. Poet of a crisis , Heidelberg: Stiehm 1977, ISBN 3-7988-0517-2 (= poetry and science; 18).
  • Rosemarie Hellge: Motives and motif structures in Ludwig Tieck , Göppingen: Kümmerle 1974, ISBN 3-87452-238-5 (= Göppingen work on German studies; 123).
  • Armin Giese: The imagination in Ludwig Tieck, its meaning for man and his work , dissertation, University of Hamburg, 1973, 393 pages, OCLC no .: 822750
  • Ralf Stamm: Ludwig Tiecks late novellas. Basis and technique of the miraculous , Stuttgart among others: Kohlhammer 1973, ISBN 3-17-001115-4 (= studies on the poetics and history of literature; 31).
  • Manfred Frank: The problem of “time” in German romanticism. Time consciousness and consciousness of temporality in early romantic philosophy and in Tiecks poetry , Munich: Winkler 1972, ISBN 3-538-07804-1
  • Christian Gneuss: The late Tieck as a critic of the times , Düsseldorf: Bertelsmann, ISBN 3-571-09293-7 (= literature in society; 4).
  • Fritz Brüggemann : Irony as a developmental moment. A contribution to the prehistory of German Romanticism , Jena: 1909 (Reprographic reprint: Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft 1976, ISBN 3-534-06413-5 ).
  • Nikolaus Delius : Die Tieck'sche Shakespearekritik , Bonn: König 1846, reprint: Hildesheim and others: Olms 1981. ISBN 3-487-07043-X


Web links

Wikisource: Ludwig Tieck  - sources and full texts
Commons : Ludwig Tieck  - album with pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Entry "Ludwig Tieck" , in data of the German literature .
  2. ^ Thomas Meißner: Wanderings and circles of friends (places of residence, trips, Ziebingen). In: Claudia Stockinger, Claus Scherer (eds.) Ludwig Tieck. Life - work - effect. de Gruyter, Berlin 2011, pp. 95 and 98.
  3. Thomas Meißner: Wanderings and circles of friends (places of residence, travel, Ziebingen) , in: Claudia Stockinger and Claus Scherer (eds.) Ludwig Tieck. Life - Work - Effect , de Gruyter, Berlin 2011, p. 100.
  4. Online edition of the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek
  5. ^ Dresdner Liederkreis . In: Weber Complete Edition .
  6. The Order Pour le Mérite for Sciences and Arts, The Members of the Order, Volume I (1842-1881). Gebr. Mann-Verlag, Berlin 1975, p. 108.
  7. Minor Planet Circ. 34345 (PDF).