August Wilhelm Schlegel

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August Wilhelm Schlegel
Signature August Wilhelm Schlegel (cropped) .jpg

August Wilhelm Schlegel von Gottleben , since 1812 August Wilhelm von Schlegel (born September 5 or September 8, 1767 in Hanover ; †  May 12, 1845 in Bonn ), was a German literary historian and critic , translator , ancient philologist and Indologist . He taught at the University of Jena from 1795 , from 1798 to 1801 as an associate professor. Together with his wife Caroline , his brother Friedrich and his later wife Dorothea , Johann Gottlieb Fichte and later Ludwig Tieck and Novalis , he shaped the new "romantic school" . As a translator, he made outstanding contributions to Italian, Spanish and Portuguese literature; but his main achievement is the translation of 17 of Shakespeare's plays .


Domenico Quaglio : Market Church St. Georgii et Jacobi, market square and town hall in Hanover , 1832


August Wilhelm Schlegel was the fourth son of the Evangelical Lutheran pastor Johann Adolf Schlegel , who originally came from Saxony. His father was a pastor at the Marktkirche in Hanover. The mother Johanna Christiane Erdmuthe Hübsch (1735–1811) was the daughter of a math teacher in Schulpforta . The couple had a total of eight sons and two daughters. The family was artistically and intellectually open-minded. August graduated from high school in Hanover.


The house Herengracht 476 in Amsterdam, taken in 1994

Schlegel initially studied theology in Göttingen (1786) , but decided on philology when he found a mentor in Gottfried August Bürger , who gave him insights into the practice of translation from classical and modern languages. August Wilhelm Schlegel became a diligent student of the classical philologist Christian Gottlob Heyne . As early as June of the next year he earned an academic prize for a Latin treatise on Homeric geography (printed in 1788). During this time he met Caroline Böhmer and Wilhelm von Humboldt . In 1789 his brother Carl August Schlegel died at the age of 28 in the Hanoverian regimental service in Madras . Around 1790 his youngest brother Friedrich moved to Göttingen to live with him. The two brothers were influenced by Johann Gottfried Herder , Immanuel Kant , Tiberius Hemsterhuis , Johann Joachim Winckelmann and Karl Theodor von Dalberg . August Wilhelm Schlegel undertook a partial translation of Dante's Divina Commedia and a translation of Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream (1789). In 1791 he finished his studies.

From 1791 to 1795 he was tutor of Willem Ferdinand Mogge Muilman (1778–1849), later director of the Nederlandsche Bank , at Gouden Bocht in Amsterdam . When his future wife Caroline Böhmer was arrested by the Prussian military, Schlegel took part in the efforts to get her released and brought her from Kronberg im Taunus to Leipzig and finally to a peasant family in the neighboring town of Lucka . Then he returned to Amsterdam. Since Schlegel began correspondence with Schiller in 1794, he was active as a critic and reviewer in the Horen published by Schiller . He first went to his mother, then to Braunschweig. Here he met Caroline Böhmer again. Schlegel was hoping for a job at the Collegium Carolinum , but then went to Jena and gave lectures on aesthetics there . In the next four years he wrote about three hundred, sometimes extremely extensive reviews, mostly for the Jenaer Allgemeine Literatur-Zeitung .


On July 1, 1796, he celebrated his wedding to Caroline Böhmer. Friedrich followed his brother August and his wife to Jena. The relationship with Schiller was initially good. That changed when Schlegel criticized Schiller's song about the bell , in which everything and everyone was mentioned and that contained factual errors (the clapper was not mentioned and the mixture of the components - in the case of bell casting , it was tin and copper - was also incorrect ). The then disgruntled Schiller attacked Schlegel in the Xenien (published in the Muses Almanac for the year 1797 ). Friedrich Schlegel's hurtful review of Schiller's magazine Die Horen led to a final break in May 1797. The brothers decided in October 1797 to publish a magazine themselves, Athenaeum , which appeared twice a year from May 1798 until 1800. It is considered to be the linguistic organ of Jena early romanticism . In it the French Revolution , the work of Goethe and Fichte's theory of science were discussed. The content mostly consisted of fragments . Schlegel had already announced his translation of Shakespeare's works in 1796, which appeared from 1797 to 1810 and comprised 17  dramas in 14 volumes. This translation, later supplemented by Dorothea Tieck and Wolf Heinrich Graf von Baudissin , is the standard German translation to this day. In 1798 Schlegel met Ludwig Tieck during a two-month stay in Berlin .

Title page and vignette of the first edition of Schiller's Muses-Almanac for the year 1796

In 1799 the two brothers, August Wilhelm's wife Caroline and Dorothea Veit, lived together for six months in Jena - in the rear building, An der Leutra 5. "Little Jena had become a spiritual metropolis." This "romantic flat-sharing community" formed that The core of the Jena Romanticism and published in the Muses Almanac . The authors broke with many conventions: they mixed poems and ballads, little fairy tales, etc into their novels; they often referred to Goethe's works (" The Sorrows of Young Werther ", " Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship Years "). For his part, Goethe asked August Wilhelm Schlegel several times during his time in Jena for advice on metrics . He valued Schlegel as a literary historian and critic, as a translator and as a person. As a poet he thought he was less important. In the struggle against rationalism , the Schlegel brothers took Goethe's side.

A first collection of August Wilhelm Schlegel's poems appeared in 1800. However, his satires turned out to be fresher and more immediate than his poetry . Its center and climax was the sensitive-romantic drama in two acts of Kotzebue ’s Rescue or the Virtuous Exile , full of malicious and funny allusions to most of the attacked’s works and to his latest fate in Russia and Siberia.

As a poet Schlegel experienced failures. At the beginning of 1802, his classical drama Ion , based on an original by Euripides , but without Greek formal elements such as prologue and chorus, failed. The piece was part of a contemporary trend of appropriating antiquity through modernization or “romanticization”. Goethe also took a stand. As theater director he had tried to rehearse and perform, but reproached Schlegel for missing the respect due Euripides when he revised the Ion .

Schlegel around 1800


Schlegel now lived in Berlin. There he held the lecture series on beautiful literature and art from 1801 to 1804 , in which he presented the literatures of classical antiquity, the Germanic and Provencal Middle Ages and the Romanesque (especially Spanish and Italian) modern times as equal. In addition to the Jena lectures on philosophical art theory (1798–1799) and the lectures on encyclopedia , also held in Berlin from 1803–1804 , the Berlin lectures on beautiful literature and art are the main source for August Wilhelm Schlegel's linguistic philosophical concepts , which, in addition to those of Wilhelm von Humboldt as the most significant contribution of the early 19th century to this complex of topics. In the spirit of Herder and Winckelmann, Schlegel demanded and attempted a connection between philosophical theory and the history of art; He saw the mediating link between the two in the criticism . The Berlin years were “Schlegel's heyday, also in social life”.


Coppet Castle, residence of Madame de Staël

In the spring of 1802, Caroline and August Wilhelm Schlegel decided to dissolve their marriage. This succeeded only after overcoming several obstacles on May 17, 1803. Caroline married Friedrich Schelling soon afterwards . After the marriage was dissolved, Schlegel was literary advisor and secretary to Madame de Staël until 1817 , who recently lived separately from the writer Benjamin Constant . Schlegel met her in Berlin in the spring of 1804. For a generous salary he was appointed educator of Madame de Staël's children. A few weeks later they visited Caroline and Schelling in Würzburg.

The Château d'Acosta, Île-de-France

Karl Viktor von Bonstetten (a Bernese statesman who was overthrown by the revolution), the Geneva historian Jean-Charles-Léonard Simonde de Sismondi , the Duke Mathieu de Montmorency-Laval , Benjamin Constant and later Adelbert belonged to her circle of friends at her Coppet Castle on Lake Geneva by Chamisso . In 1804 Friedrich traveled to Coppet, to his brother and Mme de Staël; At the end of the year, de Staël and Schlegel traveled to Italy. In 1804 Schlegel published bouquets of Italian, Spanish and Portuguese poetry with exemplary transcriptions from Dante, Petrarca , at which he had repeatedly tried himself since his university years, Giovanni Boccaccio , Torquato Tasso , Giovanni Battista Guarini , Jorge de Montemayor , Cervantes and Luís de Camões . Schlegel published the essay On Spanish Theater , an exuberant eulogy for Calderón, in his brother's magazine “ Europa ” . At the end of June 1805 he had returned to Coppet with Madame de Staël. With her he spent most of the following winter in Geneva and in the spring of 1806 traveled to France. In 1806 he was in Auxerre and Rouen , in 1807 in Aubergenville and stayed at the Castle d'Acosta . In May 1807 they drove back to Coppet. In December 1807 they visited Schelling and his wife in Munich. Then he went to Vienna without Madame de Staël.

The climax of these years, in addition to his translation of Hamlet , were the lectures held in Vienna in 1808 on dramatic art and literature (published 1809–1811), which arose from his Shakespeare and Calderón translations (1803–1809), and on the spread of the romantic Ideas contributed. Translations appeared in France and America; after the Italian translation, further translations followed a. a. into Spanish, Portuguese, Polish, Russian. Despite his ancient philological training and despite his proximity to Goethe's Weimar Classicism and Wilhelm von Humboldt, Schlegel took the view that the great medieval and early modern poets Dante, Cervantes, Calderón, and Shakespeare were the main models of modern poetry.

Schlegel went to Dresden and Weimar in May 1808 with Madame de Staël, with whom he was evidently unhappy and jealously in love. Since he was accused of being an opponent of Napoleon, France and French literature, the prefect expelled him from all over the French empire, even from Coppet. In 1811 he completed his poetic activity by and large with the two-volume collection of his poetic works . With her he escaped to Stockholm via Vienna, Kiev, Moscow and Saint Petersburg. He entered the service of Jean Baptiste Bernadotte , the future King of Sweden , as a councilor and secretary . From a safe distance, Schlegel took part in political journalism against Napoleon from Sweden. He published a. a. a work on the continental system and its influence on Sweden . In the spring of 1813 he followed Bernadotte to the headquarters of the Northern Army in Stralsund. In 1813 he dealt with the Battle of the Nations near Leipzig . During the reign of the Hundred Days he was in Paris with Madame de Staël until Napoleon's return from Elba in March 1815 had them both leave for Coppet. The next year in Florence he worked on etymological, antiquarian and art-historical studies. He stayed with Madame de Staël until her death and then remained closely connected to her daughter Albertine and her husband, Duke Victor de Broglie and their children (they visited him in Bonn in 1834). When Madame de Staël died in 1817, he married Sophie Paulus, daughter of the theologian Heinrich Eberhard Gottlob Paulus, in Heidelberg . He moved to Bonn, where he became professor for literary and art history at the newly founded university. Since he couldn't get Sophie to follow him, the marriage broke up after a few weeks.


Bhagavata Purana Manuscript, 18th century
Schlegel's grave in Bonn's old cemetery

In 1818 he became the holder of the first chair for Indology in Germany at the newly founded University of Bonn . In the same year he went on a trip to the Rhine with his brother Friedrich. In Bonn he was Heinrich Heine's literature teacher in 1819/1820 . August Wilhelm Schlegel had letters made for the typesetting of the Indian Devanagari alphabet in Paris in order to print the first Sanskrit texts in Europe. The first book was the Bhagavad Gita in 1823 with a Latin translation by Schlegel himself. Between 1818 and 1825 he worked on the publication of an Indian library . Schlegel financed the typesetting and printing himself. The Latin translation of the Ramayana appeared in three volumes from 1829 to 1838, and the Latin translation of Hitopadesha appeared in two volumes in 1829 and 1831, respectively . The Norwegian Christian Lassen continued this work as his student and successor. Schlegel knew how to underline his fame with his residence-like house at Sandkaule 529 in Bonn. His appearance with a carriage, servant and in a fashionable Parisian suit made his vanity proverbial in Bonn. In 1824/25 he was the rector of the university.

Like Humboldt and Franz Bopp, he was one of the founders of comparative literature . H. of comparative linguistics and philology. But he was not only interested in pure philology. He expressly writes that he hopes that the comparative linguistic research will also provide information about the “natural history of man” and the “purity of blood” (“pureté du sang”, cf. oeuvres ) of the groups of people he describes.

With increasing age, the famous Schlegel was often the target of criticism (such as his student Heinrich Heine ), who mocked his vanity and his marriage to Sophie Paulus. His lectures on the theory and history of the visual arts , which he held in Berlin in 1827, were a failure. The conflict that arose between the brothers was no longer bridged and in 1828 led to August Wilhelm's public distancing from Friedrich. In 1841 he traveled to Berlin again to publish the Collected Works of Frederick the Great , but returned to Bonn after a semester.

He died on May 12, 1845 in Bonn. His grave is there in the old cemetery .


August Wilhelm Schlegel is considered the most important linguistic philosopher of early German Romanticism and a co-founder of ancient Indian philology. He worked on Schiller's Horen , the Musenalmanach and the Jenaer Allgemeine Literatur-Zeitung . With his brother Friedrich he shared the editorial board of the Athenaeum magazine . Later he was editor of the Indian Library . He wrote sonnets , ballads and dramas in literary works . If his own literary works remained insignificant and unsuccessful, his services to German literature as a translator, partly together with Ludwig Tieck (and his daughter Dorothea and Wolf von Baudissin ), are indubitable and authoritative. Together with his brother Friedrich, August Wilhelm Schlegel is considered to be the most important initiator of literary romanticism in Germany. Both gathered a circle of high-ranking writers such as Novalis , Ludwig Tieck and Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling around them and laid the foundation for a literary movement that dominated the first third of the 19th century and still found numerous followers afterwards.


Streets in Germany were named after him, including in Bonn and Lünen an der Lippe. The Society of Authors has been awarding the Schlegel-Tieck Prize for German-English translations since 1965 .



The Royal Library of Dresden acquired large parts of August Wilhelm Schlegel's estate in 1873 . Further parts of the estate were bought in 1998 from private Swiss collections at Christie's in London for the Saxon State and University Library Dresden (SLUB) with special funds from the Free State of Saxony and presented to the public for the first time in 2004. With around 650 of a total of around 3,100 letters to Schlegel as well as manuscripts for poems, translations, lectures, reviews and scientific articles, the SLUB thus owns the largest part of his written estate. Since 2012, the correspondence from August Wilhelm Schlegel's estate has been published in a digital edition by the SLUB Dresden together with the Philipps University of Marburg and the Trier Center for Digital Humanities with financial support from the German Research Foundation . The project brings together more than 5,000 letters that have been printed and handwritten in various institutions in one digital edition.


  • (Translator) W. Shakespeare: Dramatic works . Nine volumes. Unger, Berlin 1797-1810.
    • New edition, supplemented and explained by Ludwig Tieck. Part 1-9. Reimer, Berlin 1825-1833.
  • (Ed. With Friedrich Schlegel) Athenaeum . Three volumes. Vieweg (Vol. 1) and Frölich (Vol. 2–3), Berlin 1798–1800.
    • Athenaeum. A magazine from 1798–1800 by August Wilhelm Schlegel and Friedrich Schlegel. Selected and edited by Curt Grützmacher . Rowohlt, Reinbek near Hamburg 1969.
  • Gate of honor and triumphal arch for the theater president von Kotzebue on his hoped-for return to the fatherland. [1800].
  • Poems. Cotta, Tübingen 1800.
  • Characteristics and reviews. Two volumes. Nicolovius, Königsberg 1801.
  • (Ed. With Ludwig Tieck) Muses Almanac for the year 1802. Cotta, Tübingen 1802.
  • To the audience. Complaint of a desecration committed in the Jenaische Allgemeine Literatur-Zeitung . Cotta, Tübingen 1802.
  • Poetry cycle Die Sylbenmaße . First printed in: Friedrich Schlegel (Hrsg.): Europa . Volume 1,2 (1803), p. 117 f. ( Google Books ).
  • Ion. A play. Perthes, Hamburg 1803.
  • (Transl.) Bouquets of Italian, Spanish and Portuguese poetry. Berlin 1803.
  • (Transl.) Spanish theater. Two volumes. Berlin 1803-1809
  • About dramatic art and literature. Lectures in three volumes. Mohr & Zimmer, Heidelberg 1809–11.
  • Poetic works. Two volumes. Mohr & Zimmer, Heidelberg 1811.
  • (Ed.) Indian Library. Three volumes (of volume 3 only issue 1). Weber, Bonn 1820-30.
  • (Translator) Bhagavad-Gita. Weber, Bonn 1823.
  • The trip on the Rhine of the King of Prussia on the Cologne steamship Friedrich Wilhelm for the inauguration of the same on September 14, 1825. Sung about in Latin. Along with a German translation by Justizrath Bardua in Berlin. For the burned down town of Friesac. Nauck, Berlin 1825.
  • Critical Writings. Two volumes. Reimer, Berlin 1828.
  • At Goethe's birth celebration on August 28, 1829
  • Réflexions sur l'étude des Langues Asiatiques suivies d'une lettre à M. Horace Hayman Wilson. Weber, Bonn 1832.
  • Essais littéraires et historiques. Weber, Bonn 1842.
  • (Transl.) Spanish theater . Published by Eduard Böcking . Ten volumes. Weidmann, Leipzig 1845.
  • All works . Published by Eduard Böcking. 16 volumes (I-XII: Complete Works ; XIII-XV: Œuvres, écrites en français ; XVI: Opuscula, quae Schlegelius latine scripta reliquit ). Leipzig 1846-48. Neudruck Verlag Olms, Hildesheim 1971 f.
  • Ralf Georg Czapla, Franca Victoria Schankweiler (ed.): My dear Marie - Werthester Herr Professor. The correspondence between August Wilhelm von Schlegel and his Bonn housekeeper Marie Löbel . Bernstein-Verlag, Bonn 2012.


  • Michael Bernays : On the genesis of Schlegel's Shakespeare. Leipzig 1872 ( digitized ; new edition: Celtis, Berlin 2013, ISBN 978-3-944253-02-2 ).
  • Ernst Behler: The Schlegel Brothers' magazines. A contribution to the history of German romanticism. Darmstadt 1983.
  • Ernst Behler: Socrates and the Greek tragedy: Nietzsche and the Schlegel brothers on the origin of modernity. In: Ders .: Studies on Romanticism and Idealistic Philosophy. Volume 2, Paderborn 1993, pp. 143-156.
  • Ernst Behler : 'The theory of art is its history': Herder and the Schlegel brothers. In: Ders .: Studies on Romanticism and Idealistic Philosophy. Volume 2, Paderborn 1993, pp. 187-205.
  • Héctor Canal: Universal Romantic Philology. Studies on August Wilhelm Schlegel. Universitätsverlag Winter, Heidelberg 2018, ISBN 978-3-8253-6729-9 .
  • Peter Gebhardt: AW Schlegel's Shakespeare Translation: Investigations into his translation process using the example of Hamlet. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1970 (digitized version) .
  • Edith Höltenschmidt: The Middle Ages reception of the Schlegel brothers. Ferdinand Schöningh, Paderborn a. a., 2000.
  • Johannes John:  Schlegel, August Wilhelm von. In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 23, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 2007, ISBN 978-3-428-11204-3 , pp. 38-40 ( digitized version ).
  • Agnes Kornbacher: August Wilhelm Schlegel's influence on the essay 'On epic and dramatic poetry by Goethe and Schiller' (1797). In: Goethe-Jahrbuch 115, 1998, pp. 63–67.
  • York-Gothart mix : art religion and money. Ludwig Tieck, the Schlegel brothers and the competition on the literary market around 1800. In: Institute for German Literature at the Humboldt University in Berlin (Ed.) With the collaboration of Heidrun Markert: “Let us be sensible, since we are allowed to ! “Ludwig Tieck (1773-1853). Peter Lang, Berlin et al. 2004, ISBN 3-03910-419-5 , pp. 241-258.
  • York-Gothart Mix, Jochen Strobel (Ed.): The European August Wilhelm Schlegel. Romantic culture transfer - romantic worlds of knowledge . Walter de Gruyter, Berlin 2010, ISBN 978-3-11-022846-5 .
  • Franz MunckerSchlegel, August Wilhelm von . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 31, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1890, pp. 354-368.
  • Günter Niggl: The beginnings of romantic literary historiography: Friedrich and August Wilhelm Schlegel. In: Ders .: Studies on the literature of the Goethe era. Berlin 2001, pp. 247-263.
  • Roger Paulin: The life of August Wilhelm Schlegel. Cosmopolitan of art and poetry. Open Book Publishers, Cambridge 2016, ISBN 978-1-909254-96-1 .
  • Ulrike Schenk-Lenzen: The unequal relationship between art and criticism. On the literary criticism of August Wilhelm Schlegel. Wuerzburg 1991.
  • Ruth Schirmer : August Wilhelm Schlegel and his time. A life in Bonn. Bouvier, Bonn 1986, ISBN 3-416-01990-3 .
  • Andreas Wistoff: The German romanticism in public literary criticism. The reviews of romanticism in the "Allgemeine Literatur-Zeitung" and the "Jenaische Allgemeine Literatur-Zeitung" 1795–1812. Bonn / Berlin 1992.
  • Jochen Strobel : August Wilhelm Schlegel. Romantic and cosmopolitan. Theiss, Darmstadt 2017, ISBN 978-3-8062-3613-2 .

Web links

Wikisource: August Wilhelm Schlegel  - Sources and full texts
Commons : August Wilhelm Schlegel  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Digitized and full texts


Individual evidence

  1. One of Schlegel's ancestors, Christoph Schlegel (1613–1678), was because of his services as a preacher in Leutschau in 1651 by Emperor Ferdinand III. has been ennobled with the nickname “von Gottleben”, see Christian Ader: The Schlegel de Gottleben family , under Heraldry in the network , accessed on August 27, 2016.
  2. Eduard Engel : History of German Literature from the Beginnings to the Present. Volume 2: The 19th Century and the Present. Leipzig 1907, p. 33.
  3. ^ Gunter E. Grimm , Frank Reiner Max: German poets , Volume 5: Romanticism, Biedermeier and Vormärz. Stuttgart 1990, p. 9.
  4. ^ Hilde Marianne Paulini: August Wilhelm Schlegel and comparative literature. Frankfurt am Main 1985, p. 40.
  5. ^ Karl Aner: Schlegel, August Wilhelm. In: Religion Past and Present . First edition. Volume 5: Raw cypresses . Mohr, Tübingen 1913, column 300.
  6. Gerhard Koch (Ed.): Imhoff , India driver. A travel report from the 18th century in letters and pictures . Wallstein, Göttingen 2001, ISBN 3-89244-483-8 , p. 19.
  7. ^ Achim Hölter : August Wilhelm Schlegel's Göttingen mentors. In: York-Gothart Mix, Jochen Strobel (Ed.): The European August Wilhelm Schlegel. Romantic culture transfer - romantic worlds of knowledge . Walter de Gruyter, Berlin 2010, pp. 13–29.
  8. For the history of the house Herengracht 476 and its inhabitants cf. Herengracht 476 Huis de Vicq. Muilman on the Amsterdamse Grachtenhuizen website (Dutch), accessed on August 27, 2016.
  9. Ernst Behler: Friedrich Schlegel in self-testimonies and image documents (= Rowohlt's monographs. Volume 123). Rowohlt, Reinbek near Hamburg 1966, p. 28.
  10. Hartmut Fröschle : Goethe's relationship to romanticism . Königshausen & Neumann, Würzburg 2002, ISBN 3-8260-2298-X , p. 203.
  11. ^ Exhibition Papiers à Mr. Schlegel in the book museum of the Saxon State Library - State and University Library Dresden (SLUB), 2004: Shakespeare translations. Autograph manuscripts in 14 volumes , accessed on August 27, 2016.
  12. Anselm Salzer : Illustrated history of German literature . Revised and updated by Claus Heinrich and Jutta Münster-Holzlar. Volume 3: From Classical to Romanticism . Naumann and Göbel, Cologne 1996, p. 238.
  13. Gerd Fesser : Jena's golden years. Jena's University celebrates its 450th birthday in February. In Schiller's time, the Saale town was Germany's intellectual metropolis. In: The time. January 17th, 2008 (online)
  14. Hartmut Fröschle: Goethe's relationship to romanticism. Königshausen & Neumann, Würzburg 2002, p. 171.
  15. ^ Exhibition Papiers à Mr. Schlegel in the book museum of the Saxon State Library - State and University Library Dresden, 2004: Ion , accessed on August 27, 2016.
  16. Beatrice Osdrowski: The Schlegel Brothers and the "romantic" drama. A typological comparison of theory and practice of the "romantic" drama in Germany and Spain. Diss. University of Jena, 2004, p. 180 ( online ).
  17. Hartmut Fröschle: Goethe's relationship to romanticism. Königshausen & Neumann, Würzburg 2002, p. 183.
  18. ^ Edgar Lohner: August Wilhelm Schlegel. In: Benno von Wiese : German romantic poets: Your life and work. Second, revised and enlarged edition. Schmidt, Berlin 1983, ISBN 3-503-01664-3 , p. 146.
  19. ^ Frederick Burwick: Mimesis and its romantic reflections. Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park, Pa. 2001, ISBN 0-271-02037-7 , p. 24, footnote 11.
  20. ^ Exhibition Papiers à Mr. Schlegel in the book museum of the Saxon State Library - State and University Library Dresden, 2004: Anne-Germaine von Staël-Holstein. accessed on August 27, 2016.
  21. Anselm Salzer: Illustrated history of German literature . Revised and updated by Claus Heinrich and Jutta Münster-Holzlar. Volume 3: From Classical to Romanticism . Naumann and Göbel, Cologne 1996, p. 239.
  22. ^ Frederick Burwick: Mimesis and its romantic reflections . Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park / PA 2001, ISBN 0-271-02037-7 , p. 24, footnote 12.
  23. Anselm Salzer: Illustrated history of German literature . Revised and updated by Claus Heinrich and Jutta Münster-Holzlar. Volume 3: From Classical to Romanticism . Naumann and Göbel, Cologne 1996, p. 241.
  24. Edith Höltenschmidt: The Middle Ages Reception of the Schlegel Brothers . Ferdinand Schöningh, Paderborn et al. 2000.
  25. Edith Höltenschmidt: Homer, Shakespeare and the Nibelungs. Aspects of romantic syntheses in AW Schlegel's interpretation of the Nibelungenlied in the Berlin lectures. In: York-Gothart Mix, Jochen Strobel (Ed.): The European August Wilhelm Schlegel. Romantic culture transfer - romantic worlds of knowledge. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin 2010, p. 215-235 .
  26. ^ Exhibition Papiers à Mr. Schlegel in the book museum of the Saxon State Library - State and University Library Dresden, 2004: Letter from Charlotte Ernst to August Wilhelm Schlegel of January 14, 1810 , accessed on August 27, 2016.
  27. ^ Exhibition Papiers à Mr. Schlegel in the book museum of the Saxon State Library - State and University Library Dresden, 2004: Dépêches et lettres interceptées par des partis détachés de l'Armée combinée du nord de l'Allemagne , accessed on August 27, 2016.
  28. A Schlegel portrait in Coppet Castle (Switzerland) by Albert Gregorius (1774–1853) dates from 1817 .
  29. ^ Roger Paulin: The life of August Wilhelm Schlegel. Cosmopolitan of art and poetry . Open Book Publishers, Cambridge 2016, p. 437.
  30. ^ Roger Paulin: The life of August Wilhelm Schlegel. Cosmopolitan of art and poetry . Open Book Publishers, Cambridge 2016, pp. 438-440.
  31. ^ Anil Bhatti: August Wilhelm Schlegel's experiment in India. Culture transfer and science. In: York-Gothart Mix, Jochen Strobel (Ed.): The European August Wilhelm Schlegel. Romantic culture transfer - romantic worlds of knowledge . Walter de Gruyter, Berlin 2010, pp. 237-253.
  32. ^ Exhibition Papiers à Mr. Schlegel in the book museum of the Saxon State Library - State and University Library Dresden, 2004: Specimen novae typographiae Indicae. Litterarum figuras ad elegantissimorum codicum Bibliothecae Regiae Parisiensis exemplaria delineavit , accessed on August 27, 2016.
  33. Volker Zotz : On the blissful islands . Theseus, 2000, pp. 67-68.
  34. ^ Exhibition Papiers à Mr. Schlegel in the book museum of the Saxon State Library - State and University Library Dresden, 2004: Ramayana. Id est carmen epicum de Ramae rebus gestis , accessed August 27, 2016.
  35. ^ Exhibition Papiers à Mr. Schlegel in the book museum of the Saxon State Library - State and University Library Dresden, 2004: Hitopadesas. Id est institutio salutaris , accessed on August 27, 2016.
  36. ^ Arnulf Krause : August Wilhelm von Schlegel (1767-1845), writer and professor in the portal "Rhenish History".
  37. Cf. da Rocha Abreu, Manuel: interjection - racist. In: Frankfurter Rundschau , January 17, 2006, p. 26.
  38. Holger Krahnke: The members of the Academy of Sciences in Göttingen 1751-2001 (= Treatises of the Academy of Sciences in Göttingen, Philological-Historical Class. Volume 3, Vol. 246 = Treatises of the Academy of Sciences in Göttingen, Mathematical-Physical Class. Episode 3, vol. 50). Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2001, ISBN 3-525-82516-1 , p. 213.
  39. ^ Schlegelstraße in the Bonn street cadastre
  40. ^ Sächsische Landesbibliothek: Digital edition of August Wilhelm Schlegel's correspondence , accessed on August 27, 2016.
  41. SLUB Dresden: SLUB treasures on the move: Departure into the romantic universe . ( [accessed on September 14, 2017]). See the two digitized catalogs for cataloging the estate: Reconstructed special catalog of the estate of August Wilhelm v. Schlegel - Mscr.Dresd.e.90 ; Special catalog for the partial written estate of August Wilhelm v. Schlegel - Mscr.Dresd.App.2712 at the Saxon State Library in Dresden.
  42. ^ Digital edition of August Wilhelm Schlegel's correspondence. Retrieved October 27, 2018 .
  43. Review in Deutschlandfunk by Michaela Schmitz on September 3, 2017.