Muses Almanac

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The French model, the Almanac des Muses (1767)

A muse almanac is a form of literary publication that was established in Germany around 1770 and was also very popular in the 19th century .

Model of appeared in Goettingen and Leipzig first German muses almanacs was both in content and in the title since 1765 in Paris at the Publisher Delalain published by Claude-Sixte Sautreau de Marsy published almanac of the Muses . The content of this and the following almanacs were, on the one hand, literary notes and reviews, and, on the other, the first publications of new (mostly short) poems.

German Musenalmanacs 1770–1863

The better known German under the first two Muses-almanacs was that of Johann Christian Dieterich 1770 moved Göttingen Musenalmanach (GMA), which until 1802 in Goettingen appeared (in other publishing places and thereafter until 1805). The suggestion for this publication came from the Göttingen mathematician Abraham Gotthelf Kästner , publisher of the GMA was Heinrich Christian Boie (together with Friedrich Wilhelm Gotter ).

The GMA soon became the mouthpiece of the poetic students of the Göttingen Hainbund : Johann Heinrich Voss , Ludwig Hölty , Johann Martin Miller and his cousin Gottlob Dietrich Miller , Johann Friedrich Hahn , Johann Thomas Ludwig Wehrs , later Johann Anton Leisewitz and others. After the almanac was published in 1774, Boie transferred the editing to Voss, who soon moved to Hamburg (and published his own competing almanac there). As a result, Leopold Friedrich Günther von Goeckingk became the new editor in the spring of 1775 . From 1776 Gottfried August Bürger was co-editor, from 1779 then sole editor. After Bürger's death, Karl Reinhard took over the editorial office in 1795 .

At the same time, the Leipzig Almanac of the German Muses (AdM) was published in Leipzig . The publisher Engelhard Benjamin Schwickert , then notorious as a pirate printer, copied more than just the idea of ​​Dieterich's Muses Almanac and actually managed to get his first edition (including 19 articles "stolen" from the Göttingen Muses Almanac 1770) before it appeared of the "original": his almanac for the year 1770 appeared as early as 1769. The publisher of the Leipzig Almanac was Christian Heinrich Schmid , works by Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock , Christian Fürchtegott Gellert , Johann Wilhelm Ludwig Gleim and Karl Wilhelm Ramler were published . From 1776 the work appeared under the new title Leipziger Musen-Almanach (publisher Friedrich Traugott Hase ), from 1782 publisher Schwickert took over the editor's post. The last edition appeared in 1787.

The third German Muses Almanac was that of Johann Heinrich Voss published (after moving to Hamburg) Hamburg Musenalmanach . The first edition, self-published by Voss in 1776, was a financial loss; For 1777, Voss found the Hamburg publisher Carl Ernst Bohn , who published the other volumes. For the entire period, Voss was the editor of the volumes (hence also called the Vossischer Musenalmanach ), but from 1779 to 1786 together with Goeckingk.

From 1777 a Viennese muse almanac was published (from 1786 under the title Wiener Musen-Almanach ), which became the mouthpiece of young authors of the Austrian Enlightenment. The editor was initially Joseph Franz von Ratschky , co-editor from 1781 Aloys Blumauer , later also Gottlieb Leon (1757-1830) and Martin Joseph Prandstätter . The last edition was published in 1796.

Title page of the first edition of Schiller's Almanac of the Muses

Other similar almanacs were less successful, including Friedrich Schiller's anthology , which was published only once in 1782 . Schiller's second attempt, the Musenalmanach edited by him from 1796 to 1800 , then became the most famous collection of this kind. The first volumes were published by the court bookseller Salomo Michaelis in Neustrelitz. Well-known colleagues of Schiller such as Johann Wolfgang Goethe , Johann Gottfried Herder , Ludwig Tieck , Friedrich Hölderlin and August Wilhelm Schlegel wrote for his almanac. Schiller himself published in his muse almanac for the year 1797 the xenias written together with Goethe , in which they mocked literary grievances, and in the muses almanac for the year 1798 some ballads, including the knight Toggenburg .

Schiller's almanac was followed by the muse almanac by August Wilhelm Schlegel and Ludwig Tieck (Tübingen 1802), by Johann Bernhard Vermehren (Leipzig 1802 and Jena 1803), the muse almanac by Adelbert von Chamisso and Karl August Varnhagen von Ense (1804-1806), the poetic Paperback by Friedrich Schlegel (Berlin 1805-1806) and the Musenalmanach by Leo von Seckendorf (Regensburg 1807-1808).

Soon, however, the musenalmanacs were supplanted by the paperback . It was only when this literature ousted everything metric, poetry , from its content that there was again a need for collections that published a selection of the best new products from the field of lyric and lyric- epic poetry.

In 1830 two muse almanacs appeared side by side: one published by Johann Amadeus Wendt in Leipzig (1830–1839), taken over by Chamisso and Gustav Schwab from 1833 , appeared as a German muse almanac until 1841, last published by Theodor Echtermeyer and Arnold Ruge , the other as Berlin Muses Almanac published by Moritz Veit , only had two years (1830–1831).

Then a number of other short-lived muse almanacs appeared , such as Emil Weber's North German Muses Almanac (Hanover, 1857–58), the East and West Prussian Muses Almanac ( later Prussian Almanac , Königsberg and Berlin, 1856–63) as well as almanacs from representatives of the “Youngest Germans Poetry ”and by students. The Schwerin Muses Almanac (1927 to 1929) and the Mecklenburg Muses Almanac (1930 to 1933) were published in Schwerin in the late twenties / early thirties, edited and published by Christoph Dittmer in Lyra-Verlag.

Student muse almanacs 1842–1947

»Breslau 1842«
"Breslau 1843"
"Göttingen 1896"
"Marburg 1901"
"Munich 1902"

The tradition of the musenalmanacs was taken up and continued by the academic youth. Since the end of the 18th century, throughout the 19th century and into the 20th century - in addition to isolated student collections of poetry - it has produced a number of student muse almanacs, albeit rarely as real periodicals . These publications of minor poetry appeared in various university towns in the German-speaking area. They gave the young authors the opportunity to introduce themselves to a wider audience with their Etudes of poetic secondary lessons” . Her works, which "make no claim [...] to offer something perfect and mature" , were generally viewed with goodwill, as they "consistently carried the trademark of the youthfulness of their authors on their foreheads" .

The poem texts are remarkable as historical documents of social-aesthetic tradition, through which poetological norms can be described as so-called deviation regularities from the established systems of the trivial and whose literary-aesthetic changes over time - from singular metaphors to mass clichés - are empirically proven - Have a quantitative analysis.

Chronology of verified publications

  • »Breslau 1842«
Student Almanac of the Muses for 1842 . Contains poems by students in Breslau in 1841. Leopold Freund, Breslau 1842
  • "Breslau 1843"
Muses Almanac from the University of Wroclaw . Edited by Dr. Friday . Leopold Freund, Breslau 1843
  • "Göttingen 1896"
Göttingen Muses Almanac for 1896 . Published by Göttingen students. Editing by Carl von Arnswaldt . Dieterich'sche Verlagbuchhandlung , Göttingen 1896
  • "Berlin 1896"
Muses-Almanac Berlin students . Edited by Gottlieb Fritz , Rudolf Kassner , Emil Schering . Schuster & Löffler, Berlin 1896
  • "Leipzig 1897"
Muses-Almanach Leipziger Studenten 1897 Editing Carl Credner, Druck u. Verlag August Hoffmann, Leipzig-Reudnitz 1897
  • "Göttingen 1898"
Göttingen Muses Almanac for 1898 . Published by Göttingen students. Editor B. Frh. V. Munchausen . Lüder Horstmann Publishing House, Göttingen 1898
  • "Göttingen 1899"
Göttingen Muses Almanac for 1900 . Published by Göttingen students. Editing by Levin Ludwig Schücking . Lüder Horstmann publishing house, Göttingen 1899
  • "Vienna 1900"
Museum almanac of the university students of Vienna . Editor Erich v. Hornbostel . Publishing house Georg Heinr. Mayer, Berlin and Leipzig 1900
  • "Göttingen 1901"
Göttingen muse almanac for 1901 . Edited by B. Frh. V. Munchausen . Lüder Horstmann Publishing House, Göttingen 1901
  • "Marburg 1901"
Museum Almanac Marburg Students . Edited by Ernst Thesing and Wolfgang Lehmus. NG Elwert'sche Verlagbuchhandlung, Marburg 1901
  • "Munich 1901"
Museum almanac of Munich's university students, 1901 . Publisher Hanns Holzschuher. Published by Herrmann Seemann Nachsteiger, Leipzig (above year: 1902)
  • "Munich 1902"
Muses almanac of the Catholic student body in Germany 1902 . Editor Lorenz Krapp. Verlag Rudolf Abt, Munich (no year: 1902)
  • "Munich 1903"
Muses Almanac Munich University Students 1903 (Second Museum Almanac Munich University Students 1902–1903) . Title page by Willy Geiger . Publisher Hanns Holzschuher. Eduard Koch publishing house, Munich 1903
  • "Munich 1904"
Muses Almanac German University Students 1904 . Editor of stud.arch. FX Schrönghamer , Allgemeine Verlags-Gesellschaft mbH, Munich 1904
  • »Hall 1903«
Hallescher Muses-Almanac . Edited by Hugo Ernest Luedecke . Printing and publishing by Kreibohm & Co., GmbH, Halle, Saale (above year: 1903)
  • "Munster 1904"
Münster Muses Almanac 1904 . Edited by B. Schmitz. Verlag Alphonsus Buchhandlung (Albert Ostendorff), Münster (no year: 1904)
  • "Münster 1905"
Munster Muses Almanac 1905 . Edited by B. Schmitz. Verlag Alphonsus Buchhandlung (Albert Ostendorff), Münster (no year: 1905)
  • "Göttingen 1905"
Göttingen Muses Almanac from 1905 . Edited by B. Frh. V. Münchhausen , Verlag von Lüder Horstmann, Göttingen (above year: 1905)
  • "Hanover 1905"
Hanover Muses Almanac for the year 1905 . Edited by Karl Oppermann and Carlos Gerdes. Verlag Otto Tobies, Hanover (no year: 1905)
  • "Stuttgart 1905"
Poetry book by German students. In the Schiller year 1905 . Published by the Academic Free Literary Association in Göttingen. With an afterword by Dr. phil. W. Guertler . Second unchanged edition. Strecker & Schröder, Stuttgart (no year: 1905)
  • "Leipzig 1909"
Leipzig anthology . Poems by former Leipzig students since 1870. Commemoration for the 500th anniversary of the University of Leipzig. Published by Gustav Werner Peters. Georg Merseburger Publishing House, Leipzig 1909
  • "Leipzig 1921"
Seals of Leipzig students . Verlag Wilhelm Schunke, Roßberg'sche Buchhandlung, Leipzig 1921
  • "Breslau 1927"
Musenalmanach Wroclaw Students edited by Ludwig Böer. Verlag Hampel, Weißwasser 1927
  • "Göttingen 1947"
Göttingen Muses Almanac 1947 . Edited by Göttingen students (with a foreword by Dr. Horst Ziegler). Verlag Göttinger Universitäts-Zeitung GmbH, Göttingen (above year: 1947)


  • Hans Köhring: Bibliography of the almanacs, calendars and paperbacks for the period from approx. 1750 to 1860 . Verlag Schäfer, Bad Karlshafen 1987, ISBN 3-9801072-1-3 (unchanged reprint of the Hamburg edition 1929).
  • Maria Countess Lanckorónska, Arthur Rümann: History of the German paperbacks and almanacs from the classical-romantic period . H. Th. Wenner, Osnabrück 1985. ISBN 3-87898-301-8
  • York-Gothart Mix : Calendar? Ey how many calendars !. Literary almanacs between Rococo and Classicism . HAB, Wolfenbüttel 1986, ISBN 3-88373-049-1 (also catalog of the exhibition of the same name in the armory of the Herzog-August-Bibliothek Wolfenbüttel, June 15 to November 5, 1986)
  • York-Gothart Mix: The German Muses Almanacs of the 18th Century . Beck, Munich 1987. ISBN 3-406-32332-4
  • York-Gothart Mix: The sows in the flowerbed and the contributors to the Hamburg 'Muses-Almanac'. Media historical research on the poetry market of the Late Enlightenment and the social profile of its supporting class. In: Frank Baudach, Günter Häntzschel (Ed.): Johann Heinrich Voß (1751-1826). Contributions to the Eutin Symposium in October 1984 (Eutin Research; Vol. 5). Struve, Eutin 1997, ISBN 3-923457-40-5 , pp. 231-249.
  • York-Gothart Mix: Popular almanacs in early modern Europe . De Gruyter, Berlin 2002. ISBN 3-11-018632-2 .
  • Carl Christian Redlich: Attempt of a cipher lexicon on the Göttingen, Vossian, Schiller and Schlegel-Tieck musenalmanacs . Meißner, Hamburg 1875 (special print from the Easter program of the Higher Citizens' School in Hamburg).
  • Burghard Rieger: Poetae Studiosi. Analysis of student poetry from the 19th and 20th centuries . Thesen Verlag Vowinckel, Frankfurt / M. 1970, ISBN 3-7677-0003-4 (also dissertation, University of TH Aachen 1970).

Individual evidence

  1. ^ German Musenalmanach 1840
  2. ^ Karl Otto Conrady : Foreword to mackerel for Kalliope. Kiel student poetry . Collected and published by the student newspaper sketch . Walter G. Mühlau Verlag, Kiel 1966, p. 6
  3. ^ W. Guertler : Epilogue to the book of poets of German students. In the Schiller year 1905 . Strecker & Schröder, Stuttgart (no year: 1905), p. 178
  4. R. Rosenbaum: About the muse almanac Berliner Studenten in: Deutsche Literaturzeitung 7 (1897), p. 230
  5. Manfred Bierwisch : Poetics and Linguistics in: Helmut Kreuzer / Rul Gunzenhäuser (eds.): Mathematics and poetry. Attempts on the question of an exact literary study . Nymphenburger, Munich (1965), 4th revised edition 1971, p. 59 ISBN 3-485-03303-0
  6. ^ Burghard Rieger : Poetae Studiosi. Analysis of student poetry from the 19th and 20th centuries . Frankfurt 1970, p. 113f.

Web links

Wikisource: Musenalmanacs  - Sources and full texts