Gustav Freytag

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Gustav Freytag, portrayed by Karl Stauffer-Bern , 1886–1887
Signature Gustav Freytag.PNG
Freytag's country house in Siebleben , "the good smithy", which he bought on July 2, 1851
Well in Coburg
Gustav and Anne Freytag's grave in Siebleben

Gustav Freytag (born July 13, 1816 in Kreuzburg , Upper Silesia , † April 30, 1895 in Wiesbaden ) was a German writer .


Freytag's parents were Gottlob Ferdinand Freytag, doctor and later mayor of Kreuzburg in Silesia, and his wife Henriette, née. Zebe. He attended high school in Oels and, after graduating from high school , studied philology , cultural history and ancient art at the Silesian Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität in Breslau until 1835 . In 1835 he became active in the Corps Borussia Breslau . As an inactive he moved to the Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität zu Berlin .

During his studies in Breslau, he met August Heinrich Hoffmann von Fallersleben and established his friendship with the "thirteen linden poet" Friedrich Wilhelm Weber (1813-1894). The subject of his dissertation from 1838 was "On the beginnings of dramatic poetry among the Teutons". From 1839 to 1847 he was a private lecturer at the University of Breslau. During this time he wrote his first plays. He then moved to Leipzig and a year later to Dresden, where he interacted with writers. In 1848 he published the magazine Die Grenzbote in Leipzig together with Julian Schmidt , which he made into the most influential organ of the liberal German bourgeoisie. His career as a journalist began when he took over the border messengers . Freytag also wrote politically critical articles in the weekly magazine, including about the suppression of the Silesian weavers' uprising , which resulted in a wanted-for-life search by Prussia. He therefore asked his friend Duke Ernst of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha for political asylum and in 1851 moved to Siebleben bei Gotha . Duke Ernst awarded him the title of Hofrat in 1854 .

From February to August 1867 Freytag was a member of the National Liberal Party in the constituent Reichstag of the North German Confederation. In the election for the first legislative period of the Reichstag , he no longer ran. As a reason he wrote to Duke Ernst in June 1867 :

“[M] a next duty [is] to see that the real life of my people does not lose the nobility of poetry. First of all, what I have of strength belongs to art and its teaching. [...] In politics it is doubtful what I achieve and what I use, in my field I know it. "

Freytag turned against small states and advocated the small German solution . Freytag became the epitome of the German liberal. He later resigned out of disappointment with Otto von Bismarck's policy. In 1870/71 he took part in the Franco-German War as a reporter at the headquarters of the Prussian Crown Prince Friedrich . From 1871 to 1873 he represented his national liberal views in the magazine Im neue Reich . In 1886 he was appointed secret councilor and was given the title of " Excellency ". In the same year he received the order Pour le Mérite for sciences and arts .

Artistic creation

In 1844 Freytag's first play " Die Brautfahrt oder Kunz von der Rosen " appeared, a comedy about Emperor Maximilian, for which he won the Berlin Court Stage Prize. In 1847 the plays " Die Valentine " and " Graf Waldemar " appeared; In contrast to them, Freytag's comedy " Die Journalisten " , published in 1854, was extremely successful and was one of the most frequently performed pieces and canonical works in German literature until well into the first half of the 20th century.

Between 1859 and 1867 his main cultural-historical work " Pictures from the German Past " was written in four volumes. In it, Freytag describes German history using selected source texts as an example. The work, which was published by Salomon Hirzel Verlag in Leipzig, had between 27 and 32 editions, depending on the volume, by 1909, making it one of the most popular German historical works of the 19th century.

The Ancestors , Volume 3, 1874

Because of his novel “ Soll und haben ”, which appeared in 1855, Freytag was heavily criticized after the Second World War because of his allegedly anti-Semitic tendencies. This became clear in the debate about the filming of “ Debit and Credit ” in 1977 by Rainer Werner Fassbinder , which ultimately led to the WDR abandoning the project . The main reason for this is the depiction of the unscrupulous, amoral and greedy Jewish merchant Veitel Itzig, whom Freytag contrasts with the figure of the honest protagonist Anton Wohlfart, who is characterized by a high work ethic. On the other hand, Freytag has expressly spoken out against anti-Semitism in several essays ( The dispute over Judaism in music , against Richard Wagner , as well as On anti-Semitism. A Pentecost contemplation ). Furthermore, Freytag also provides relatives in debit and credit , e.g. B. of the German nobility as morally rejected, while other figures of Jewish descent (including the parents of Veitel Itzig) are portrayed positively.

The " Technique of Drama " (1863) became one of the most important dramaturgical textbooks of its time. Freytag summarizes here the drama theory of the closed drama according to Aristotle and above all Friedrich Schiller on the "pyramidal structure" ( exposition and exciting moment , climax with peripetia , retarding moment and solution or catastrophe) of the classical drama. Freytag's "Technique of Drama" was among other things formative for the dramatic work of the Latvian national writer Rūdolfs Blaumanis (1863–1908), which is still extremely successful in his home country .

The complete work was published in 22 volumes from 1886 to 1888.

In 1869 Freytag wrote the text “ Karl Mathy . History of his life ”, which describes the life of a former friend of Freytag's. Another cycle of novels appeared from 1872 to 1880 under the name “ Die Ahnen ” and describes the fictional fate of a German family from the Germanic times to the present, which he spanned from the Germans to the Germans of his time. Almost ten years before his death, in 1886, he created a diary-like text called “ Memories ” in which he described the most important periods in his life.


From 1817 to 1828 Freytag lived with his parents in Pitschen in Silesia. At Easter 1829 he moved to his uncle in Oels to attend high school, where he passed his Abitur exam on May 30, 1835. He then studied philology in Breslau until October 1836 , then in Berlin . On June 30, 1838 the doctorate took place , on May 1, 1839 the habilitation in Breslau. From 1839 to 1844 Freytag was a lecturer in Breslau.

After a short change of residence to Leipzig in 1846 he moved to Dresden in 1847 and back to Leipzig in 1848. In autumn 1847 he married Emilie Scholz, divorced Countess Dyhrn , whom he had met in 1842 during a vacation in Heligoland when she was still married. In 1851 he moved to Siebleben in the “good smithy”.

Freytag's closer circle of friends included his compatriot, the writer Karl von Holtei .

Gustav Freytag (1816–1895) writer and Anna Strakosch, b.  Götzel in Küsnacht, Switzerland
Gustav Freytag and Anna Strakosch, b. Gotzel.

Gustav Freytag's father died in 1848, his mother in 1855, and his brother Reinhold in 1858. His wife Emilie died on October 13, 1875. His second wife Marie Kunigunde Dietrich (* November 2, 1846, † March 4, 1896), whom he married on August 16, gave birth to their son Gustav Willibald in Heddernheim in 1876 and their son Waldemar in 1877 († January 19, 1884). From December 1876 to 1881 he lived in the noble Hotel zur Rose in Wiesbaden . With Julian Schmidt, the co-editor of the “Grenzbote” and later literary critic and historian, Gustav Freytag had an intensive friendship for decades. The death of "Herzensschmidt" in 1886 was a severe blow to Freytag, who was in poor health.

In 1884 Freytag met Anna Strakosch, a Viennese Jew (born April 9, 1852, † November 1, 1911). On September 29, 1890, the marriage with Marie Kunigunde Dietrich was divorced. In March 1891, at the age of 75, Freytag married Anna Strakosch, b. Götzel, divorced from Alexander Strakosch since November 26, 1890. Anna brought her daughter Mika-Maria (* April 22, 1875, † July 23, 1959) with her into the new marriage. The honeymoon went to Nice (Hotel des Anglais) and the Northern Italian lakes.

Freytag died at the age of 78 in Wiesbaden and found his final resting place in Siebleben , today a district of Gotha. There was a lawsuit for his inheritance between his son Gustav, whom he had made sole heir by will of November 3, 1891, and his widow Anna, née. Götzel, who last lived in a household with Freytag. The heir and executor of the will questioned the list of estates created by Anna and successfully sued the Frankfurt Higher Regional Court for the list to be completed and sworn.

Freytag's stepdaughter Mika-Maria was deported to Theresienstadt in 1943 and liberated there two years later by the Americans. Then she came back and lived at Weimarer Str. 145 in Gotha-Siebleben. There a stumbling stone was set in for them by the sculptor Gunter Demnig .


Birthplace with memorial plaque in Kreuzburg / Silesia (around 1910)
Gustav Freytag monument in the Wiesbaden spa gardens
Freytaggasse in Vienna- Floridsdorf

In Thuringia, was named in honor of the poet of the trail , the Wachsenburggemeinde and Mühlburg in Castle Ensemble Drei Gleichen , joins Gustav Freytag-Weg named.

Siebleben is home to a Gustav-Freytag-Park , in Gotha-Ost there is Gustav-Freytag-Straße , and in the cemetery next to the Siebleben church is Freytag's tomb.

In numerous German cities streets are named after Gustav Freytag (e.g. in Weimar and Munich). Furthermore, a secondary school in Berlin-Reinickendorf - the Gustav-Freytag-Oberschule - and the grammar school in Siebleben - the Gustav-Freytag-Gymnasium - were named after him.

In Kreuzburg OS. (since 1945: Kluczbork) , where Freytag had spent his youth, a fountain with his relief picture was built in front of the town hall on the Ring; In the early 1940s a school and museum were named after him. At that time a memorial plaque was attached to the house at Am Ring No. 31. Already after his death, the decision was made in Kreuzburg to have an oak planted in his honor by the Silesian Forest Association in the local forest there on June 26, 1903. Two more trees were owned by the landowner Eduard Georg v. Bethusy-Huc and the Royal Chancellery Franz Welczek .

Gustav Freytag Memorial

In the Siebleben district of Gotha there has been a Gustav Freytag memorial since May 2009, which is set up in the garden pavilion next to the poet's former home. The memorial includes a recreated living room and study by Gustav Freytag, as well as an exhibition on the life and work of the poet with original objects and documents from his estate. Only about 70 items from Freytag's Siebleben era are on display. All 700 corresponding items were brought from Siebleben to Weimar during the GDR era, in the 1970s. Most of them are still there.

The residential building (Freytag House) itself was renovated in 2016, and the roof, windows and heating were replaced in the early 1990s. It houses the local association of the DRK and the local mayor's office. The house, steeped in history, was built in a small park in 1780 by the Duke of State Minister Sylvius von Frankenberg . Napoleon and Goethe, and later Thomas Mann, came to the house. Gustav Freytag wrote many of his works there.


Works by Gustav Freytag (a selection)

Works collections

  • Collected works , 22 volumes, Leipzig 1886–1888. Microfiche edition: Munich [u. a.]: Saur, 1990-1994, ISBN 3-598-50797-6
  • Dramatic works . 3 volumes. Leipzig 1848-1850.
    • Dramatic works . Volume 1. Ruge, Leipzig 1848.
    • Dramatic works . Volume 2. Verlagbureau, Leipzig 1849.
    • Dramatic works . Volume 3. Leipzig 1850
  • Dramatic works . 2 volumes. S. Hirzel, Leipzig 1874. 380, 327 pp.
  • Collected essays . Volume 1: Political Essays. Volume 2: Essays on History, Literature and Art. 1888
  • Ernst Elster (Ed.): Mixed essays from the years 1848 to 1894. 2 volumes. Hirzel, Leipzig 1901–1903.


The ancestors , Volume 3
(first edition 1874)
  • Debit and credit . Novel in six books. 3 volumes, Hirzel, Leipzig 1855
  • The lost handwriting . Novel in 5 books. Hirzel, Leipzig 1864 (25th edition 1895)
  • The Ancestors , Division 1-6 (Volumes 1-6), 1872-1880
    • 1st division (volume 1): Ingo and Ingraban . Verlag S. Hirzel, Leipzig 1872. 514 pp.
    • 2nd Division (Volume 2): The Wrens' Nest . S. Hirzel, Leipzig 1873. 416 pp.
    • 3rd Division (Volume 3): The Brothers of the German House . S. Hirzel, Leipzig 1874. 428 pp.
    • 4th division (volume 4): Marcus König . S. Hirzel, Leipzig 1876. 442 pp. (2nd edition 1876)
    • 5th Division (Volume 5): The siblings . S. Hirzel, Leipzig 1878. 436 pp.
    • 6th Division (Volume 6): From a small town . S. Hirzel, Leipzig 1880. 400 pp. (3rd edition 1880)


  • The bridal trip or Kunz von der Rosen . Comedy in 5 acts. Bloch, Berlin 1840. XII, 166 pp. (Freytag, dramat. Works; 2)
  • The scholar . Tragedy in one act. Bloch, Berlin 1844. pp. 115–158.
  • German ghosts . Festival. Breslau 1845. 20 pp.
  • The Valentine . Play in 5 acts. Bloch, Berlin (1846). 112 pp.
  • Count Waldemar . Drama in 5 acts. Herbig, Leipzig 1850. 153 pp.
  • The journalists . Comedy in 4 acts. Elbert, Leipzig 1852. 73 pp.
  • The Fabier . Tragedy in 5 acts. S. Hirzel, Leipzig 1859. 221 pp.

Historical and biographical works

  • Pictures from the German past. Edited by Gustav Freytag. Four volumes, 1859–1867
    • Volume 1: From the Middle Ages. Volume 1. S. Hirzel, Leipzig 1859. XVI, 351 pp.
    • Volume 2, Dept. 1: From the Middle Ages to the Modern Age (1200–1500). Volume 2. S. Hirzel, Leipzig 1859. 406 pp.
    • Volume 2, Section 2: From the century of the Reformation (1500–1600).
    • Volume 3: From the century of the great war (1600–1700).
    • Volume 4: From Modern Times (1700–1848).
  • New pictures from the life of the German people. S. Hirzel, Leipzig 1862. XVI, 588 pp.
  • Karl Mathy . Story of his life. S. Hirzel, Leipzig 1870. IV, 420 pp. (2nd edition 1872)
  • Wolf Graf von Baudissin . Leipzig 1880
  • Doctor Luther . A description. 1st edition. S. Hirzel, Leipzig 1883. 159 pp. (2nd edition 1883)


  • Hermance Strakosch-Freytag, Kurt Heinrich Bruno Leo and Walter van der Bleek (eds.): Gustav Freytag - letters to his wife . 3rd to 4th Edition. Borngräber, Berlin 1912. 6, IX, 604 pp.
  • Gustav Freytag and Heinrich von Treitschke in correspondence, Verlag von S. Hirzel, Leipzig 1900
  • Gustav Freytag and Duke Ernst von Coburg in correspondence from 1853 to 1893 , from Eduard Tempeltey . S. Hirzel Verlag, pp. 212-217, Leipzig, 1904
  • “My dear Theodor” Gustav Freytag's letters to Theodor Molinari 1847–1867. Edited from the manuscripts and commented on by Izabela Surynt and Marek Zybura. Neisse Verlag, Dresden 2006, ISBN 3-934038-63-8 .


  • De initiis scenicae poesis apud Germanos . Auctor Gustavus Friday (Gustav Freytag). Berolini 1838 (Berlin 1838)
  • De Hrosvitha poetria . Adjecta est comedia Abraham inscripta. Auctor Gustavus Friday. Phil. Diss., Breslau 1839. Friedlaenderi, Vratislavae 1839. 42 pp.
  • In Wroclaw . Poems. Kern, Breslau 1845.
  • The technique of drama . S. Hirzel, Leipzig 1863. 310 p. ( Digitized version )
    • The technique of drama , edited new edition, authors house publishing house, Berlin 2003
  • German settlers in the Silesian border forest . Leipzig 1871
  • Memories from my life . S. Hirzel, Leipzig 1887. VIII, 377 pp.
  • The Crown Prince and the German Imperial Crown . Reminder sheets. 1st edition. S. Hirzel, Leipzig 1889. 126 p. (2nd & 3rd edition 1889)
  • Gustav Wilibald Freytag (ed.): At the height of the Vosges . War reports from 1870/71 by Gustav Freytag. S. Hirzel, Leipzig 1914. IV, 114 pp.

As editor

  • The border messengers , 1848–1870
  • Otto Ludwig : Collected Works. Four volumes, 1870.

Works based on texts by Gustav Freytag

  • Debit and credit . Play in 5 acts. Based on Gustav Freytag's novel of the same name, edited for the stage by Karl Wexel. 1859. 89 pp.
  • The Fabier . Dramatic opera in 5 acts after Gustave Freytag. Text book Gustav von Meyern - Hohenberg. Music by August Langert. Printed as Ms. opposite the stages. Bote & Bock, Berlin 1868. 48 pp. (The first performance was in Berlin in 1868)
    • The Fabier . Dramatic opera in 5 acts after Gustave Freytag. Text by Gustav von Meyern. Music by August Langert. Bloch, Berlin 1868. 48 pp.
  • Ingo . Great opera in 4 acts. Text based on the novel of the same name by Gustav Freytag. Music by Philipp Bartholomé Rüfer (op. 35). Piano reduction with text by Max Reger . Music printing. Thelen, Berlin 1895. 208 pp.
  • Ingo . Opera in two parts (4 acts) based on Gustav Freytag's novel. Edited and set to music by Bernhard Scholz . Complete text of the opera. Self-published. German Cooperative of Dramatic Authors and Composers, Leipzig (approx. 1898). 47 pp.
  • Max Ringer: Ingo . Dramatic moral image from the German past. Adapted from Gustav Freitag's novel of the same name. (Printed as Ms.). Publishing house for new literature and art. Vienna - Leipzig 1904. 96 pp.

Film adaptations

radio play

  • 1970: The journalists. From the series Seinerzeit sold out (Producer: BR ) - Director: Heinz-Günter Stamm ; Running time: 78'20 minutes

Audio book

Secondary literature

  • Constantin Rössler: Gustav Freytag and the German poetry of the present. Springer, Berlin 1860, 99 pp.
  • Adalbert Heinrich Horawitz : Gustav Freytag as a poet and historian. A. Hölder, Vienna 1871, 43 pp.
  • Conrad Alberti : Gustav Freitag, his life and work. With a picture of the poet. Schloemp, Leipzig 1885, IV, 236 pp.
  • Friedrich Seiler: Gustav Freytag . Voigtländer, Leipzig 1898. VIII, 224 p. (Biographical Folk Books: Life Pictures from the 19th Century, No. 48/55).
  • Alfred DoveFreytag, Gustav . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 48, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1904, pp. 749-767.
  • Richard Nordmann: Gustav Freytag . Engelmann, Leipzig 1906. 23 pp.
  • Otto Mayrhofer: Gustav Freytag and Young Germany. Elwert, Marburg 1907. (Reprint: Johnson, New York, NY et al. 1968) (= Contributions to German Literature, Volume 1).
  • Roland Freymond: The Influence of Charles Dickens on Gustav Freytag. With special consideration of the novels "David Copperfield" and "Debit and Credit". 1912. (Reprint: Gerstenberg, Hildesheim 1973.) (= Prager Deutsche Studien. Volume 19.)
  • Paul Ulrich: Studies on the novel Gustav Freytag . Weidmann, Berlin 1913. 24 pp.
  • Kurt Classe: Gustav Freytag as a political poet . (Phil. Diss., Münster). Lax, Hildesheim 1914. 107 pp.
  • Oswald Dammann: Gustav Freytag and constitutionalism . (Phil. Diss., Fr. i. B.). Freiburg workshops for posters and calendars, Freiburg i. B. 1916. 82 pp.
  • Georg Droescher : Gustav Freytag in his comedies . (Phil. Diss., Berlin). Thomas & Hubert, Weida i.Th. 1919. 118 pp.
  • Fritz MartiniFreytag, Gustav. In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 5, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1961, ISBN 3-428-00186-9 , pp. 425-427 ( digitized version ).
  • Renate Herrmann: Gustav Freytag. Bourgeois self-image and Prussian-German national consciousness . On the history of the national-liberal bourgeoisie during the time of the establishment of the Empire. Würzburg 1974 (dissertation at the University of Würzburg , Philosophy Department II - New Philologies, History, Art History 1975, without ISBN ).
  • Michael Kienzle : The successful novel. On the criticism of poetic economy in Gustav Freytag and Eugenie Marlitt. Metzler, Stuttgart 1975, ISBN 3-476-00311-6 .
  • Claus Holz: Escape from Reality. "The Ancestors" by Gustav Freytag. Investigations into the realistic historical novel d. Founding period 1872–1880. Lang, Frankfurt am Main a. a. 1983. (= European university publications; series 1, German language and literature, volume 624) ISBN 3-8204-7530-3 .
  • Gabriele Büchler-Hauschild: Narrated work. Gustav Freytag and the social prose of the pre-march and post-march. Schöningh, Paderborn u. a. 1987, ISBN 3-506-78111-1 .
  • Jürgen Matoni, Margarete Galler: Gustav Freytag Bibliography . Laumann, Dülmen 1990, ISBN 3-87466-141-5 .
  • Jürgen Matoni: The Jews in Gustav Freytag's works . In: Oberschlesisches Jahrbuch Volume 8 . Gebrüder Mann, Berlin 1992, ISBN 3-7861-1683-0 , p. 107–116 ( online at ( memento from January 29, 2012 in the Internet Archive )).
  • Martin Gubser: literary anti-Semitism. Investigations on Gustav Freytag and other bourgeois writers of the 19th century. Wallstein-Verlag, Göttingen 1998, ISBN 3-89244-259-2 .
  • Norbert Otto: Julian Schmidt. A search for clues. Hildesheim 2018, 252 pp., ISBN 978-3-487-08617-0 (on the Schmidt / Freytag friendship, see especially p. 56ff. And p. 176ff.)
  • Hannah Burdekin: The ambivalent author. Five German writers and their Jewish characters, 1848–1914. Lang, Oxford et al. a. 2002. (= British and Irish Studies on German Language and Literature, Volume 29) ISBN 3-906767-05-1 .
  • Izabela Surynt: The "distant", "eerie" land. Gustav Freytags Poland. Thelem bei web, Dresden 2004. (= work on modern German literature, volume 21) ISBN 3-937672-33-8 .
  • Larry L Ping: Gustav Freytag and the Prussian Gospel. Novels, Liberalism, and History. Peter Lang, Oxford a. a. 2006 (= North American Studies in 19th-Century German Literature, Volume 37) ISBN 3-03910-545-0 .
  • Jürgen W. Schmidt: "My fatherland, to which I cling with great piety ..." - From the political life of Gustav Freytag (1816–1895). In: Jahrbuch für Erfurter Geschichte Vol. 1 (2006) pp. 51–76.
  • Bernt Ture von zur Mühlen : Gustav Freytag. Biography, Wallstein-Verlag, Göttingen 2016, 272 pages, ISBN 978-3-8353-1890-8 .
  • Philipp Böttcher: Gustav Freytag - Constellations of Realism. Berlin / New York 2018. ISBN 978-3-11-053930-1 .

Web links

Commons : Gustav Freytag  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files
Wikisource: Gustav Freytag  - Sources and full texts

Individual evidence

  1. a b c Harald Bachmann: Gustav Freytag (1816–1895) . Coburg history sheets 3/1995, Historical Society Coburg e. V., pp. 121-122
  2. Kösener Corpslisten 1930, 18 , 216
  3. biorabkr. Retrieved May 7, 2020 .
  4. ^ Negotiations of the German Reichstag. Retrieved May 7, 2020 .
  5. ^ Gustav Freytag: Letter to Duke Ernst from June 1867 . In: Eduard Tempeltey (ed.): Gustav Freytag and Duke Ernst in correspondence . Leipzig 1904, p. 225 .
  6. See Philipp Böttcher: Gustav Freytag - Constellations of Realism , Berlin / New York 2018.
  7. Michael Sachs: 'Prince Bishop and Vagabond'. The story of a friendship between the Prince-Bishop of Breslau Heinrich Förster (1799–1881) and the writer and actor Karl von Holtei (1798–1880). Edited textually based on the original Holteis manuscript. In: Medical historical messages. Journal for the history of science and specialist prose research. Volume 35, 2016 (2018), pp. 223–291, here: p. 233 f.
  8. Freytag's short biography ( ( Memento from November 10, 2013 in the Internet Archive )
  9. Erhard Zimmer: The history of the higher regional court in Frankfurt am Main (= studies on Frankfurt history, issue 12). Frankfurt am Main 1976, p. 61f.
  10. Gotha parish
  11. ^ Photo of the Nazi ceremony for the inauguration of the table with Governor Kate. In: Kreuzburger Heimatnachrichten. Field post newspaper of the NSDAP district leadership Kreuzburg OS. , Episode 6, Sept./Oct. 1944, title page. The other facilities are mentioned in 1944 of the paper
  12. ^ H. Menz: Kreuzburg's honorary citizen. Ed .: Working group for home care. Volume 1. Kreuzburger Nachrichten G. mb H., Kreuzburg 1925
  13. Press release of the City of Gotha from May 15, 2009