Calendar overview 1816
|Federal Assembly in Frankfurt am Main opens.|
|Mary Shelley writes the novel Frankenstein or The Modern Prometeus .||
Johann VI. becomes king
of Portugal and Brazil .
|1816 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1264/65 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1808/09 (September 10/11)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1221/22 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2359/60 (southern Buddhism); 2358/59 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||75th (76th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1178/79 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4149/50 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||1231/1232 (turn of the year 20/21 November)|
|Jewish calendar||5576/77 (September 22-23)|
|Coptic calendar||1532/33 (September 10-11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2126/27 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2127/28 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1872/73 (April)|
Politics and world events
- January 12th: A general amnesty is announced in France for those taking part in the French Revolution .
- April 14th: The Treaty of Munich resolves the tensions between the Kingdom of Bavaria and the Empire of Austria that have arisen as a result of the implementation of the regulations of the Congress of Vienna . Austria gets back the areas lost in the Peace of Schönbrunn in exchange for other compensation, Berchtesgaden remains Bavarian.
- May 5: The Grand Duchy of Saxony-Weimar-Eisenach receives a constitution .
- October 18: The constitutional amendment, the constitution of the Free City of Frankfurt for fifty years , is solemnly invoked in a citizens' meeting on Römerberg.
- November 6: Based on the during the Vienna Congress adopted the Federal Act occurs in the Palais Thurn und Taxis in Frankfurt for the first time the Bundestag as Sent Congress of the Member States of the German Confederation together.
Portugal / Brazil
- February 20: After the death of Maria I , her son Johann VI is born. , who already led the government as Prince Regent , the new King of Brazil and Portugal . He is crowned in Rio de Janeiro .
- March 24th: Representatives of all Argentine provinces meet for the Congress of Tucumán , which subsequently brings about the independence of Argentina .
- July 9: Argentina declares independence from the Spanish crown .
- September 13: Republican units in the Mexican War of Independence occupy the city of Galveston and install the French pirate Louis Michel Aury as governor.
United States of America
- December 11th: The Indiana Territory is incorporated into the United States as the 19th state under the name Indiana . The first governor of the new state will be Jonathan Jennings , who won the election against the previous territorial governor Thomas Posey .
- December 21: The American Colonization Society is founded.
- The Ottoman-Saudi war ends with the defeat of the first Saudi state.
- August 27: The city of Algiers is bombed from the sea ( Algiers bombing ). A British fleet of 19 warships under the command of Edward Pellew and 11 Dutch frigates under the command of Admiral Theodorus Frederik van Capellen destroy the city and its fortifications as well as the fleet of Deys Omar. The punitive action leads to the release of captured Christian slaves and the repayment of ransoms already paid for former slaves by the ruler of the corsairs of Algiers.
Austrian central bank
- June 1: The Oesterreichische Nationalbank is founded as a stock corporation. The National Bank now has a monopoly on issuing banknotes , which, after the national bankruptcy of 1811, led to a calming of the Austrian monetary system and an increase in the value of paper money. The economy now has a solid source of money again, which keeps the value of money constant regardless of the state's spending plans.
- March 17th: The first steamship crosses the English Channel . The Élise sails from Newhaven to Le Havre , where it will be used for passenger traffic in France.
- June 12th: In the German history of inland navigation , the first steamship travels on the Rhine . Coming from London, the British paddle steamer The Defiance chugs up the river to Cologne.
Other economic events
- January 3: The Prussian government forbids the further publication of the Rheinische Merkurs published in Koblenz by Joseph Görres .
science and technology
Teaching and Research
- September 23: Warsaw University of Natural Sciences is launched.
- November 19: The University of Warsaw is founded on the initiative of Stanisław Kostka Potocki and Stanisław Staszic .
- May 9: The Frenchman Joseph Nicéphore Nièpce uses a camera obscura to capture images on chlorine silver paper. However, he cannot fix the recordings yet.
- The new observatory in Göttingen , located outside the city, will be completed 13 years after the start of construction.
- The Scottish clergyman Robert Stirling developed the Stirling engine, the second oldest heat engine after the steam engine .
- The stethoscope is invented by René Laënnec in France.
- August 1st: The first volume of the encyclopedic journal Isis appears. Isis , edited by Lorenz Oken and published by Friedrich Arnold Brockhaus , is the first interdisciplinary magazine in German-speaking countries.
- The art museum Städelsches Kunstinstitut and Städtische Galerie in Frankfurt am Main is founded.
- April 25th: British poet Lord Byron leaves England with the intention of never coming back. Public outrage over the divorce from his wife is one reason. He spends the summer with Mary Shelley , Percy Bysshe Shelley and John Polidori in the Villa Diodati on Lake Geneva . Under the influence of the gloomy mood of the year without summer , several horror stories are created here, including Mary Shelley's Frankenstein or The Modern Prometheus and Polidoris The Vampire . The contributions by Percy Shelley and Lord Byron remain fragmentary.
Music and theater
- February 20: The opera The Barber of Seville by Gioachino Rossini , conducted by the composer, premieres at the Teatro Argentina in Rome under the name Almaviva o sia L'inutile precauzione . The opera with the libretto by Cesare Sterbini based on the play Le Barbier de Seville by Pierre Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais fails the audience. Only the second performance is a great success.
- June 16: The world premiere of the operetta Hans Max Giesbrecht von der Humpenburg or The New Age of Knights by Peter Joseph von Lindpaintner takes place in Munich.
- August 3: The premiere of the opera Undine by ETA Hoffmann takes place at the State Theater on Gendarmenmarkt in Berlin . Friedrich de la Motte Fouqué wrote the libretto based on his own story of the same name . The stage design comes from Karl Friedrich Schinkel .
- September 1st: Louis Spohr's romantic opera Faust is premiered in Prague . The libretto by Joseph Carl Bernard takes up the legend of Faust . It is not influenced by Goethe's Faust , the first part of which was published in 1808. Instead, it essentially refers to a play and poem by Friedrich Maximilian Klinger and Heinrich von Kleist .
- February 21: The Dutch Crown Prince Wilhelm marries the Grand Duchess Anna Pawlowna , a daughter of the late Czar Paul I and his wife Sophie Dorothee von Württemberg in Saint Petersburg .
- May 2nd: Leopold von Sachsen-Coburg marries Charlotte Augusta von Wales .
- January 25th: Eugene von Mazenod founds the Missionaries of Provence , the later Oblate Missionaries .
- May 11: In New York City, representatives of various Bible societies found the American Bible Society to distribute the Holy Scriptures .
- July 2: The French frigate Méduse runs aground on the Arguin Bank off West Africa, due to the incompetence of the commanders . Of the around 400 people on board, more than half will be killed in the next few weeks, most of them on a makeshift raft because there is not enough space in the dinghies.
- From April to September, frost, snow and ice storms destroy crops in North America and in Western and Central Europe . There is famine. The year without a summer was caused by the eruption of the Indonesian Tambora volcano in 1815, which caused a volcanic winter in parts of the northern hemisphere .
- Benjamin Eggleston , American politician († 1888) January 3:
- Thilo Irmisch , German botanist († 1879) January 4:
- Hermann Roemer , German politician († 1894) January 4:
- January 14: Francis Kernan , American politician († 1892)
- January 14: Gustav Meyer , German landscape designer and gardening director in Berlin († 1877)
- January 16: John Palmer Usher , American politician († 1889)
- January 24th: Wilhelm Henzen , epigraphist († 1887)
- January 24th: Friedrich Wilhelm Kritzinger , German theologian, educator and author († 1890)
- January 26: Benjamin Flanders , American politician († 1896)
- January 29: John Lawrence Manning , American politician († 1889)
- January 30: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks , American politician and general († 1894)
- Michael Öchsner , Bavarian teacher, publicist and writer († 1893) February 2:
- Carl Olof Rosenius , Swedish lay preacher († 1868) February 3:
- Józef Bohdan Dziekoński , Polish writer († 1855) February 7:
- Jean Frédéric Frenet , French mathematician, astronomer and meteorologist († 1900) February 7th:
- February 10: Albert Ellmenreich , German actor and writer († 1905)
- February 11: Ernst Litfaß , German printer and inventor (advertising column) († 1874)
- February 12: Alexander G. Cattell , American politician († 1894)
- February 13: August Rauschenbusch , Baptist theologian († 1899)
- February 14: Georg Beer , German organ builder († 1876)
- February 14: Edward McCabe , Irish Cardinal and Archbishop of Dublin († 1885)
- February 16: Gustav von Bonstetten , Swiss archaeologist († 1892)
- February 16: Hermann Goedsche , German writer († 1878)
- February 16: John Retcliffe , German writer († 1878)
- February 21: Ebenezer R. Hoar , American politician († 1895)
- February 21: Józef Michał Poniatowski , Polish composer, singer and diplomat († 1873)
- February 24: Timothy Otis Howe , American politician († 1883)
- February 25: Giovanni Morelli , Italian MP, senator, doctor and art historian († 1891)
- February 26: Franz Krenn , Austrian composer († 1897)
- Kawatake Mokuami , Japanese Kabuki author († 1893) March 1:
- Alexander H. Bullock , American politician († 1882) March 2:
- Jan Arnošt Smoler , Sorbian philologist, writer and publisher († 1884) March 3:
- March 14: Montgomery Dent Corse , Confederate General († 1895)
- March 15: Wolfgang Müller von Königswinter , German poet and doctor († 1873)
- March 18: Carl Graeb , German painter and etcher († 1884)
- March 19: Joseph Amberger , German theologian and clergyman († 1889)
- March 19: Eduard Bürklein , German architect († 1871)
- March 21: Julius Arnoldt , German philologist († 1892)
- March 26: Alexander Sussmann Adler , German theologian and politician († 1869)
- March 29: Georg Sibbern , Norwegian politician and diplomat († 1901)
- Johan de Wal , Dutch legal scholar († 1892) April 3:
- Charles Eugène Delaunay , French mathematician and astronomer († 1872) April 9:
- April 10: Marija Rozalija Auersperg Attems , Austrian flower painter († 1880)
- April 18: Heinrich Alwin Aschenborn , German lawyer and district administrator († 1865)
- April 19: Joseph-Maurice Exelmans , French admiral († 1875)
- April 21: Charlotte Brontë , British writer († 1855)
- April 22: Charles Denis Bourbaki , French general († 1897)
- April 24th: Adolph Zsigmondy , Austrian dentist († 1880)
- Jean Joseph Farre , French general († 1887) May 5:
- Rodman M. Price , American politician († 1894) May 5:
- Edwin Jesse De Haven , American polar explorer and navigator († 1865) May 7:
- May 10: Friedrich Gerstäcker , German adventurer and writer († 1872)
- May 15: Alfred Rethel , German history painter († 1859)
- May 21: Stephen Allen Benson , Liberian President († 1865)
- May 24: Emanuel Leutze , American painter († 1868)
- May 24th: Theodor Struve , German philologist and educator in Russian service († 1886)
- May 27: Hugo Herzog von Ujest , German general and politician († 1897)
- May 29: Robert Oswald von Ulrici , German forester and civil servant († 1886)
- May 30: Robert Prutz , German writer († 1872)
- Grace Aguilar , English writer († 1847) June 2:
- Adele Muzzarelli , Italian soubrette, singer and dancer († 1885) June 4:
- June 21: Anders Sandøe Ørsted , Danish botanist and zoologist († 1872)
- June 21: Moriz Heider , Austrian dentist († 1866)
- June 24: Évariste de Valernes , French painter († 1896)
- June 26: George Whiting Flagg , American painter († 1897)
- June 27: Friedrich Gottlob Keller , German inventor († 1895)
- James B. Howell , American politician († 1880) July 4:
- Rudolf Wolf , Swiss astronomer and mathematician († 1893) July 7:
- July 10: Alexander Ecker , German anatomist and anthropologist († 1887)
- July 10: Dmitri Milyutin , Russian war minister and military writer († 1912)
- July 12: Giovanni Simeoni , Roman Catholic Cardinal († 1892)
- July 13: Gustav Freytag , German writer († 1895)
- July 14: Arthur de Gobineau , French writer and diplomat († 1882)
- July 16: Juana Manuela Gorriti , Argentine writer and journalist († 1892)
- July 16: Antoine François Marmontel , French composer († 1898)
- July 20: William Bowman , British ophthalmologist and anatomist († 1892)
- July 21: Paul Julius Reuter , founder of the news agency Reuters Telegraphic Comp. Incorporated († 1899)
- July 30: Johan Sverdrup , Norwegian politician († 1892)
- July 31: George Henry Thomas , American general († 1870)
- Wilhelm Büchner , pharmacist, chemist, manufacturer and politician († 1892) August 2:
- Thomas Russell Crampton , British mechanical engineer and engineer († 1888) August 6:
- Karl Oppel , German writer († 1903) August 9:
- August 11: Albert Cambriels , French general († 1891)
- August 13: Giuseppe Bernardazzi , Swiss architect and painter († 1891)
- August 13: Rudolf von Gneist , Prussian lawyer and politician († 1895)
- August 14: Félix-Charles Douay , French general († 1879)
- August 17: Benjamin Bilse , German conductor and composer († 1902)
- August 22nd: Arnold Otto Aepli , Swiss politician and lawyer († 1897)
- August 25: Christian Bernhard Tauchnitz , German publisher and pioneer of paperbacks († 1895)
- Peter Karlowitsch von Uslar , Russian engineer, linguist and officer († 1875) September 1:
- Julius Anton von Poseck , Protestant theologian († 1896) September 2:
- François Bazin , French composer († 1878) September 4:
- Ferdinand von Hebra , dermatologist († 1880) September 7:
- September 11th: Carl Zeiss , German mechanic and entrepreneur († 1888)
- September 13: Heinrich Eduard von Pape , German lawyer († 1888)
- September 15: Edouard Wolff , Polish pianist and composer († 1880)
- September 22: Philetus Sawyer , American politician († 1900)
- September 23: Elihu Benjamin Washburne , American politician († 1887)
- September 25: Georg August Rudolph , German administrative lawyer and Lord Mayor of Marburg († 1893)
- September 26: Paul Gervais , French zoologist and paleontologist († 1879)
- September 27: Heinrich Bittcher , German teacher, historian and Protestant theologian († 1844)
- September 30: Paul Féval , French writer († 1887)
- Siegfried Saloman , Danish composer († 1899) October 2:
- Ferdinand Schmidt , German writer and public educator († 1890) October 2:
- Eugène Pottier , French communist, transport worker and communist, lyricist of Die Internationale († 1887) October 4:
- Delazon Smith , American politician († 1860) October 5:
- William Batchelder Bradbury , American composer († 1868) October 6:
- George Henry Martin Johnson , chief of the Mohawk († 1884) October 7:
- October 10: Johann Zeh , Austrian engineer († 1882)
- October 11: Carl Borromäus Cünzer , German writer († 1872)
- October 11: William Wallace Eaton , American politician († 1898)
- October 13: Benjamin H. Brewster , American politician († 1888)
- October 14: Auguste Placet , French violinist and conductor († 1888)
- October 16: Friedrich Ludwig Arnsburg , German actor († 1891)
- October 18: Friedrich Wilhelm Adami , German writer († 1893)
- October 19: Simon Aichner , Prince-Bishop of Brixen († 1910)
- October 20: James W. Grimes , American politician († 1872)
- October 25: Johann Georg Fischer , German poet and playwright († 1897)
- October 28: Malwida von Meysenbug , German writer († 1903)
- October 29: Ferdinand II , King of Portugal († 1885)
- October 30: Henry L. Dawes , American politician († 1903)
- October: Antoine Béchamp , French physician, biologist and pharmacologist († 1908)
- Friedrich Wilhelm Hackländer , German writer († 1877) November 1:
- Jubal Anderson Early , American general († 1894) November 3:
- Moritz von Todesco , Austrian banker, entrepreneur and patron of the arts († 1873) November 5:
- November 11th: August Wilhelm Ambros , Austrian music critic and composer († 1876)
- November 16: Christian August Selmer , Norwegian lawyer and politician († 1889)
- November 17: Franz Julius Anders , German stenographer († 1869)
- November 19: Marsh Giddings , American politician († 1875)
- November 19: Conrad Hoff , German painter († 1883)
- November 19: Clemens Perger , German Roman Catholic theologian, teacher and politician († 1910)
- November 21: Friedrich Stoltze , German poet and journalist († 1891)
- November 24: Joel Parker , American politician († 1888)
- November 29: Henry Mower Rice , American politician († 1894)
- November 29: Morrison R. Waite , American lawyer, chief federal judge († 1888)
- November 30th: Leopold Alberti , German editor, writer and preacher († 1892)
- December 10: August Karl von Goeben , Prussian general († 1880)
- December 11th: Anton Sommer , Thuringian dialect poet († 1888)
- December 12: Thomas Clay McCreery , American politician († 1890)
- December 12: Barthold Jacob Lintelo de Geer van Jutphaas , Dutch legal scholar, historian, politician and orientalist († 1903)
- December 13: Clement Claiborne Clay , American politician († 1882)
- December 13: Werner von Siemens , German inventor, entrepreneur and founder of electrical engineering († 1892)
- December 16: José María Cabral , Dominican politician and President of the Dominican Republic († 1899)
- December 17: Ferdinand Gleich , writer and composer († 1898)
- December 19: Franz Sacher , Austrian confectioner († 1907)
- December 29: Carl Ludwig , German physiologist († 1895)
- December 31: William Gull , English physician and natural philosopher († 1890)
Exact date of birth unknown
- Augustine Aglio , British sculptor, book illustrator and watercolor painter († 1885)
- Joseph Alexander Ames , American portrait painter († 1872)
- Mirza Sa'id Khan Ansari , Persian Foreign Minister († 1884)
- Anthim I , Bulgarian prelate, politician, exarch and head of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church († 1888)
- Vicenç Cuyàs , Catalan composer († 1839)
First half of the year
- Louis Bernard Guyton de Morveau , French chemist and politician (* 1737) January 2:
- George Prevost , British general and Governor of Canada (* 1767) January 5:
- January 27: Samuel Hood, 1st Viscount Hood , British Admiral (* 1724)
- John Armstrong , American officer, lawyer and politician (* 1755) February 4:
- Joachim Perinet , Austrian actor and writer (* 1763) February 4:
- February 14: Jean-Paul-Égide Martini , Franco-German composer (* 1741)
- February 19: Friedrich Wilhelm von Hertling , German lawyer and diplomat (* 1758)
- February 20: Johann Erich Biester , German philosopher (* 1749)
- February 22nd: Adam Ferguson , Scottish historian and social ethicist of the Enlightenment (* 1723)
- February 25: Francesco Apostoli , Italian writer (* 1755)
- February 25: Friedrich Wilhelm Bülow von Dennewitz , Prussian general (* 1755)
- March 14: Josef Wagner , German Roman Catholic clergyman (* 1764)
- March 14: Ernst Karl Friedrich Wunderlich , German classical philologist (* 1783)
- March 20: Maria I , Queen of Portugal and Brazil (* 1734)
- March 20: Eberhard von der Reck , Prussian politician and general (* 1744)
- March 24th: Carlo Amoretti , Italian scholar (* 1741)
- March 25: Johann Jakob Atzel , German architect (* 1754)
- March 31: Giuseppe Angeluni , Greek Catholic Archbishop (* 1738)
- March 31: Francis Asbury , American bishop (* 1745)
- Christian Konrad Sprengel , German theologian and naturalist (* 1750) April 7th:
- April 21: Joseph Martin Kleber , German lawyer (* 1753)
- April 28: Johann Heinrich Abicht , German philosopher (* 1762)
- Justus Perthes , founder of a geographic-cartographic publishing house (* 1749) May 1:
- James McHenry , American politician (* 1753) May 3:
- May 16: Nikolai Ivanovich Saltykov , Russian statesman and field marshal (* 1736)
- Giovanni Paisiello , Italian composer (* 1740) June 5:
- Christiane von Goethe , Goethe's wife (* 1765) June 6:
- June 12: Charles Pierre François Augereau , French general, Marshal of France (* 1757)
- June 21: Theodor Gottfried Nicolai Angelo , Danish engraver and teacher (* 1767)
- June 23: Ludwig Friedrich Heindorf , German classical philologist (* 1774)
- June 30th: Paul Hamilton , American politician (* 1762)
Second half of the year
- Christina von Brühl , German landscape architect (* 1756) July 3:
- Dorothea Jordan , Irish actress and long-time mistress of the British King William IV (* 1761) July 5:
- Richard Brinsley Sheridan , Irish playwright and politician (* 1751) July 7:
- July 13: Johann Carl Friedrich Dauthe , German architect and engraver (* 1746)
- July 14th: Francisco de Miranda , Venezuelan freedom fighter against the Spaniards (* 1750)
- July 17: Jacob Read , American politician (* 1752)
- July 20: Gawriil Derschawin , Russian poet (* 1743)
- July 26: Johan Nordahl Brun , Norwegian bishop and poet (* 1745)
- François-André Vincent , French painter and draftsman (* 1746) August 4th:
- Antonio Cagnoli , Italian astronomer (* 1743) August 6th:
- August Apel , German lawyer and writer (* 1771) August 9:
- August 12: John Smith , American politician (* 1752)
- August 18: Hartwig Johann Christoph von Hedemann , German major general (* 1756)
- August 29: Johann Hieronymus Schroeter , lawyer and high official in Lilienthal near Bremen (* 1745)
- Thomas Arnold , British psychiatrist (* 1742) September 2:
- Friedrich Ludwig Schröder , German actor, theater director and Freemason (* 1744) September 3:
- September 26: František Martin Pecháček , Czech composer (* 1763)
- October 30: Friedrich I , King of Württemberg (* 1754)
- Charles II , Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (* 1741) November 6:
- November 14th: Thaddäus Haenke , Austrian geographer and explorer (* 1761)
- November 24th: Nikolaus Schuble , German organ builder (* 1770)
- November 25: Izabela Lubomirska , Polish princess, patron, book and art collector (* 1736)
- November 26th: Dmitri Dochturow , Russian general of the Napoleonic Wars (* 1756)
- November 27: Johann Georg Fellinger , Austrian officer and writer (* 1781)
- Johann Friedrich Städel , German banker and patron (* 1728) December 2:
- Urs Glutz von Blotzheim , Swiss officer and politician (* 1751) December 8:
- December 14: Johann Ferdinand Hetzendorf von Hohenberg , early classicist architect (* 1732)
- December 21: Jean-Baptiste André Amar , French revolutionary (* 1755)
- December 31: Joseph Franz Xaver Stark , German Catholic theologian (* 1750)
Exact date of death unknown
- Carl Nicolaus Adler , German lawyer and mayor (* 1737)
- Jean Dagobert d'Aigrefeuille , French lawyer, theologian and civil servant (* 1753)
- Anna Lucia De Amicis , Italian soprano (* 1733)
- Ignác Held , Bohemian composer (* 1764)
- Augustin Zippe , Rector and Dean of the General Seminar in Prague (* 1747)