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coat of arms flag
coat of arms flag1813-1897

flag 1897-1918

Situation in the German Reich
German Empire - Saxe Weimar Eisenach (1871) .svg
State capital Weimar
Form of government monarchy
Head of state Grand duke
dynasty Ernestiner
Consist 1741 - 1918
surface 3610 km²
Residents 417,149 (1910)
Population density 116 inhabitants / km²
Arose from Saxe-Weimar ; Saxony-Eisenach
Incorporated into Free State of Saxony-Weimar-Eisenach
Votes in the Federal Council 1 vote
License Plate S.
Grand Duchy of Saxony-Weimar-Eisenach

Saxony-Weimar-Eisenach was an Ernestine duchy in what is now Thuringia and a territory of the Holy Roman Empire . The capital was Weimar . It was created in 1741 when the Duchy of Saxony-Eisenach fell to the Duchy of Saxony-Weimar . In 1809, under Duke Carl August von Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach , Saxe-Eisenach and Saxe-Weimar were constitutionally united to form the Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach , ruled by the House of Saxe-Weimar .

At the Congress of Vienna in 1815 , the duchy was granted the status of a grand duchy . In 1867 it became a federal state of the North German Confederation and from 1871 of the German Empire ; from 1903 it called itself the Grand Duchy of Saxony .


The Grand Duchy of Saxony-Weimar-Eisenach was divided into three large areas, which formed the districts at that time, as well as some exclaves . The neighboring states were Prussia , Saxony , Bavaria , Hessen-Kassel (until 1866, then the Prussian province of Hessen-Nassau ) and all Thuringian states (three Saxon duchies as well as both Reuss and both Schwarzburg ).

The Weimar district was flat in the north and lay in the Thuringian Basin , the southern and eastern part of the district lay on the Ilm-Saale-Platte and in the Saale Valley . The Eisenach district was hilly in the north ( Hörselberge and Hainich ), followed by the Hörseltal with the city of Eisenach, then the Thuringian Forest to the south , behind it the Werra valley , the Kuppenrhön and finally the Rhön in the very south . The Neustädter Kreis lies in the hill country with heights between 200 and 400 meters.

The most important rivers in the national territory were the Saale through Jena in the east, the Werra through Vacha and past Eisenach with its tributaries Felda and Ulster in the west, the Unstrut in the enclaves Allstedt and Oldisleben in the north, the White Elster through Berga / Elster in the extreme East and finally the Ilm through Ilmenau and the capital Weimar and Apolda in the middle. After her, Goethe , who was a minister in Saxony-Weimar-Eisenach, also named Weimar the "Ilm-Athens". The highest elevations in the country were the Kickelhahn near Ilmenau (861 meters above sea level), the Elbow in the Rhön (814 meters above sea level), the Ettersberg near Weimar (477 meters above sea level).

The three main historical parts of the Grand Duchy were called the Weimar, Eisenacher and Neustädter districts. For the purposes of general administration, five administrative districts have been established:

circle Administrative
in km²
Cities Exclaves
Weimar Circle I. Weimar 971.6 111,694 Bad Berka , Blankenhain , Buttelstedt , Ilmenau , Kranichfeld , Magdala , Neumark , Remda , Tannroda and Weimar Bösleben and Ilmenau
II. Apolda 796.3 125,138 Allstedt , Apolda , Bad Sulza , Bürgel , Buttstädt , Dornburg , Jena , Lobeda and Rastenberg Allstedt , Klein Kröbitz and Oldisleben
Eisenach district III. Eisenach 570.9 77.112 Berka / Werra , Creuzburg , Eisenach and Ruhla Seebach
IV. Dermbach 642.5 42,459 Geisa , Kaltennordheim , Ostheim vor der Rhön , Stadtlengsfeld and Vacha Ostheim before the Rhön and Zillbach
Neustadt district V. Neustadt 628.7 60,746 Auma , Berga / Elster , Münchenbernsdorf , Neustadt an der Orla , Triptis and Weida Förthen , Rußdorf , Teichwolframsdorf and Thränitz

A total of 31 cities and 594 municipalities were in the Grand Duchy. The Grand Dukes of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach granted new city ​​rights to three places in the state , namely Berka / Werra (Eisenacher Kreis, 1847), Ruhla (Eisenacher Kreis, 1896, together with the Gotha Duke) and Münchenbernsdorf (Neustädter Kreis, 1904).

In 1840 13 places (all with city rights) had over 2,000 inhabitants. In the 1870s of industrialization to 1910, the population development of the largest towns in Saxony-Weimar-Eisenach varied. The seven largest cities grew into industrial cities, while some of the medium-sized rural cities even lost population due to emigration. The population of Stadtlengsfeld fell particularly drastically, since after the Jewish emancipation the large Jewish community of Stadtlengsfeld migrated to larger cities.

city Resident
Dec. 1, 1840
Weimar 11 444
Eisenach 9 377
Jena 5,949
Neustadt an der Orla 4 154
Apolda 4 128
Weida 3 756
Ilmenau 2 721
Allstedt 2,507
Ostheim in front of the Rhön 2,497
Stadtlengsfeld 2 239
Vacha 2 239
Buttstädt 2 164
Creuzburg 2 103
city Residents
Dec. 1, 1910
since 1840
Jena 38 487 + 547%
Eisenach 38 362 + 309%
Weimar 34 582 + 202%
Apolda 22 610 + 448%
Ilmenau 12 202 + 348%
Weida 9 036 + 141%
Neustadt an der Orla 7 095 + 71%
Allstedt 3 353 + 34%
Buttstädt 2,843 + 32%
Ostheim in front of the Rhön 2 277 - 9%
Vacha 2 240 0%
Creuzburg 2 062 - 2%
Stadtlengsfeld 1 593 - 29%

In addition, in 1910, compared to 1840, the following places were above the 2,000 mark: City of Ruhla (only Weimar share: 3,917-1,533; +156%), city of Blankenhain (3,405-1,689; +102%), city Bad Sulza (3 052 - 1 422; + 115%), city of Auma (2 978 - 1 701; + 75%), city of Triptis (2 948 - 1 480; +99%), municipality of Tiefenort (2 539 - 1 237 ; + 105%), city of Bad Berka ( 2,379 - 1,228; + 94%), city ​​of Münchenbernsdorf (2,264 - 1,383; + 64%), municipality of Oberweimar (2 095 - 621; + 237%), municipality of Oldisleben (2,064 - 1,332; +55%) and Mihla municipality (2,008 - 1,294; +55%).


The Duchy of Saxony-Weimar , which had existed since 1572, became the Duchy of Saxony-Eisenach in 1741 , as the line expired with the death of Duke Wilhelm Heinrich . The first Duke of the united state of Saxony-Weimar-Eisenach was Ernst August I , the builder of the Belvedere Palace near Weimar . His son Ernst August Konstantin ruled for only three years and died in 1758 at the age of 20. On March 16, 1756 he married the two years younger Brunswick Princess Anna Amalia , a niece of the Prussian King Friedrich II . One year later she gave birth to her son Carl August and after another year, already as a widow, her son Konstantin .

As the mother of the duchess, Anna Amalia took over the reign of Saxony-Weimar and Eisenach with the consent of Empress Maria Theresia and the support of her minister of integrity, Baron von Fritsch. She won over the poet Christoph Martin Wieland , then a professor at the University of Erfurt, as a prince educator .

At the age of 18, Carl August married the Hessian Princess Luise and called the poet Johann Wolfgang Goethe , with whom he soon developed a deep friendship, to his court. Goethe took care of the appointment of Johann Gottfried Herder and Friedrich Schiller . So, supported in the background by Anna Amalia, the Weimar Classicism group grew, whose legacy the following regents made it their task to guard.

The wedding of the Hereditary Prince Carl Friedrich with the Russian Grand Duchess Maria Pawlowna in 1804 brought the country the protection of the Russian Tsar Alexander I , which it needed in the turmoil of the Napoleonic Wars. At the Congress of Vienna in 1815 , Carl August owed Alexander's influence to become Grand Duke and, at 1,700 km², an extensive expansion and rounding of his country. The duchy received parts of the Neustadt a. d. Orla (629 km² area), large parts of the Kurmainzer exclave Erfurt and other small domains such as Blankenhain and Kranichfeld . The Eisenacher Oberland was created in the Rhön ; this consisted of adjoining former areas of Hessen-Kassel and the previously secularized Hochstift Fulda . Nationally minded and cosmopolitan at the same time, the prince was the first in Germany to give his country a liberal, so-called country-class constitution on May 5, 1816 . The students of the University of Jena , organized in the original fraternity , celebrated the Wartburg Festival in October 1817 at the Wartburg .

Maria Pavlovna , Grand Duchess since 1828, ushered in the silver age of Weimar, which, with names like Franz Liszt and Peter Cornelius , was primarily aimed at music. Her art-loving son Carl Alexander worked in the same way. Married to the Orange woman Sophie, who supported his plans, he had the decaying Wartburg rebuilt in the then usual style of romantic historicism and painted by Moritz von Schwind . The founding of the Weimar School of Applied Arts, which became part of the Bauhaus in 1919 , was supported by him, albeit half-heartedly.

Carl Alexander was followed in 1901 by his grandson Wilhelm Ernst , married first to Karoline von Reuss Older Line and second to Feodora von Sachsen-Meiningen . On November 9, 1918, he renounced the throne. This ended the monarchy in the Grand Duchy of Saxony. It became the Free State of Saxony-Weimar-Eisenach and was opened in 1920 in the newly founded state of Thuringia with Weimar as the state capital.


In the Grand Duchy of Saxony-Weimar-Eisenach, as in all Thuringian states, the Evangelical Lutheran creed was predominant. In detail, out of 339 217 inhabitants (1895) were:

  • Evangelical: 325 315 (95.9%)
  • Catholic: 12 112 (3.6%)
  • Jewish: 1,290 (0.4%)
  • Other / non-denominational: 500 (0.1%)

In the Eisenach district the religions were weighted slightly differently, there were 95 226 inhabitants there (1895):

  • Evangelical: 85,319 (89.6%)
  • Catholic: 8,809 (9.3%)
  • Jewish: 979 (1.0%)
  • Other / non-denominational: 119 (0.1%)

The Catholic and Jewish minorities in the Eisenach district lived mainly in the Rhön, the area around the small town of Geisa was predominantly Catholic and belonged to the diocese of Fulda .



According to Karl Heinrich Pölitz , the Duchy of Saxony-Weimar had an estate constitution that originated from the end of the Middle Ages until the dissolution of the Old Empire (1806). From 1809 the following constitutions were successively given to the country:

  • Constitution of the combined landscape of the ducal Weimar and Eisenachian lands, including the Jena regional portion, but excluding the Ilmenau office. 20 September 1809
  • Basic law on the state constitution of the Grand Duchy of Saxony-Weimar-Eisenach. 5 May 1816
  • Revised Basic Law on the Constitution of the Grand Duchy of Saxony-Weimar-Eisenach of May 5, 1816. From October 15, 1850

The country was divided into the five administrative districts Weimar , Apolda , Eisenach , Dermbach and Neustadt a. d. Orla .


According to the state election law of 1852, the state parliament consisted of 31 members, of which only 21 came from general elections. One deputy was elected by the wealthy former imperial knighthood, four deputies from the large landowners and five deputies from those “state entities who receive an annual income of at least one thousand thaler from sources other than property”. Their electors were popularly known as "Thousand Talers". According to the electoral law of April 17, 1896, the state parliament consisted of 33 members. The country had one vote in the Federal Council and three members in the Reichstag.

In 1909, under the leadership of Alfred Appelius , who would later be President of the State Parliament, direct suffrage was introduced based on the principle of universal suffrage. Thereafter, 23 MPs were directly elected. Furthermore, the previous special option remained for the large landowners on the one hand and for the so-called thousand-dollar men who had to pay tax on an annual income of at least 3,000 marks from domestic property or other sources on the other. These two groups each had to send five members to the state parliament. Another five members consisted of one representative each from the University of Jena, the Chamber of Commerce, the Chamber of Crafts, the Chamber of Agriculture and the Chamber of Labor, so that the state parliament consisted of a total of 38 members.

coat of arms

Coat of arms of the Grand Duchy of Saxony-Weimar-Eisenach

Blazon : The coat of arms consisted of a squared main shield, with the lower fields each split once, with a central shield at the intersection of the first, second, fourth and fifth fields. In the fields:

The state colors were black-green-gold until 1897 and then black-gold-green.

Currency and mail shelf

The Grand Duchy joined the Dresden Mint Treaty in 1838 . Two dollars in the Prussian 14-taler monetary standard now corresponded to 3 1 / 2  South German Gulden in 24 1 / 2 -Gulden-feet, which should be considered as common club coin of the "contra end here states". This club coin of "2 Taler = 3 12  Gulden" was legally valid in every Zollverein country - regardless of who the respective issuer of the club coin was. Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach minted its own coins in the 19th and early 20th centuries:

  • initially 1 Reichstaler at 24 groschen at 288 pfennigs,
  • from 1838 1 thaler at 30 silver groschen at 360 pfennigs,
  • 1892–1915 in Reich currency (Mark).

Mints existed in Eisenach until 1830, then in Berlin.

The Thurn-und-Taxis-Post secured the post office shelf for the Grand Duchy of Saxony-Weimar-Eisenach through a contract signed with Grand Duke Carl August on December 8, 1816 . The common administration could already be recognized from the outside by the name, the postal coat of arms and the uniforms, which differed by different collar colors. The name of the post office was: "Grand Ducal Saxony-Weimar-Eisenach'sche, Fürstlich Thurn und Taxis'sche Fief Post Expedition". The postal coat of arms therefore combined both coats of arms, the grand ducal below and the princely Thurn and Taxissche above. From 1852 to 1866, the Thurn-und-Taxis-Post issued its own postage stamps in two different currencies. Saxony-Weimar-Eisenach belonged to the Northern District with Groschen currency. Royal Prussian post offices existed in the Weimar exclaves Allstedt and Oldisleben. From 1867 the mail shelf was transferred to Prussia.


The higher regional court in Jena, which is common to all Thuringian states, had jurisdiction . It comprised the four Saxon-Ernestine states, the Principality of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt and the two Russian principalities as well as the Prussian districts of Schmalkalden, Schleusingen and Ziegenrück. Regional courts existed in Weimar, Eisenach and Gera, the latter jointly with Reuss younger line.


Corporal of the orderly hussars of the Grand Duchy of Saxony-Weimar-Eisenach around 1840. They were also used as gendarmerie. The uniforms were modeled on that of the Prussian Ziethen hussars

In 1847 the Grand Ducal Gendarmerie was set up. Until then, 24 orderly hussars had supported the lower police authorities if necessary . Presumably because of the military convention with Prussia (see below), the gendarmerie corps was demilitarized and was exclusively subordinate to the civil authorities. Presumably the gendarmerie was disbanded in 1918 during the November Revolution.


As a member of the German Confederation , the Grand Duchy provided a contingent of 2010 infantry and formed the 4th and 5th battalions of the Armed Forces Reserve Division . There were two battalions of infantry, and between 1822 and 1829 two squadrons of dragoons and half a battery of artillery. In 1831 a rifle company was added to each battalion, so that each battalion had five companies. It was not until 1849 that the third battalion was established, for which each existing one gave up a company. This resulted in a regiment based on the Prussian model with three battalions of four companies.

After the military convention concluded with Prussia on February 4, 1867, the Grand Duchy in the German Empire provided the 5th Thuringian Infantry Regiment (Grand Duke of Saxony) No. 94, which belonged to the 11th Prussian Army Corps in Kassel, with a battalion each in Weimar, Eisenach and Jena.

Official papers

The following official papers have appeared in the country:

  • According to the ducal circular decree of December 17, 1810
    • Weimarisches Wochenblatt (digitized here )
  • According to grand ducal patent dated March 18, 1818
    • Official weekly papers
      • Weimarisches Wochenblatt (official journal for the Weimar, Jena and Neustädter districts) (digitized here )
      • Eisenachisches Wochenblatt (official paper for the Eisenacher Oberland and Unterland)
    • Grand Duke. S. Weimar-Eisenachisches Government Gazette (digitized here )


Dukes and grand dukes

Other personalities



In 1895 37.9% of the workforce were employed in agriculture and forestry , 38.9% worked in industry and 16.4% were service providers .

Agriculture was the main industry in the Grand Duchy until around 1900. A total of 56% of the state's area was used for agriculture, including above all the Weimar and Neustadt districts and the Allstedt and Oldisleben enclaves in the Goldenen Aue .

In 1895 the following were harvested:

variety Acreage (km²) He wears)
Fodder beet 92 152 400
barley 276 41 900
oats 334 39 600
hay 574 192 717
Potatoes 225 232 200
rye 295 33 300
wheat 216 27 100

Fruit was mainly grown in the Saale valley in the area around Jena and Bürgel . Viticulture was also practiced north of Jena, between Dornburg and Camburg .

The livestock was also highly developed. In 1892 there were: 19 121 horses, 119 720 cattle, 113 208 sheep, 122 974 pigs, 46 405 goats and 16 999 beehives. Game was only found near Eisenach, near Zillbach (Rhön) and in the Ilmenau enclave, where the largest ducal hunting ground was located on the Gabelbach . The forests in the Grand Duchy were about 50% in state ownership (450 km²). The predominant tree species were beech (in the Weimar district), pine (especially in the Neustädter district) and spruce (in the Eisenacher district and around Ilmenau). The state forest office had its seat in Eisenach.


The industries in the Grand Duchy were quite diverse. There was an important porcelain industry in Bürgel and Ilmenau (there were a total of 39 factories nationwide). There was a glass industry in Ilmenau and Jena (Schott). Glass production was particularly specialized in technical glass (measuring devices such as thermometers from Ilmenau) and optical products from Jena. In 1846 Carl Zeiss founded a precision mechanical and optical company in Jena, which quickly developed into the market leader in Germany and around the world. In 1917 the company already had 10,000 employees. In 1889 Ernst Abbe founded the Carl Zeiss Foundation , into which the Carl Zeiss Jena and Schott Glaswerke companies were later transferred. The textile industry was also of great importance, particularly in Apolda (stocking knitting factories) and Neustadt an der Orla . There were other large textile companies in Wenigenjena , Eisenach , Weida , Remda and Blankenhain . In 1895 a total of around 7,000 people worked in the textile industry. The center of metal processing was initially Ruhla , and the first automobile factory was built in Eisenach in 1898 . Chemical products (paints) were also produced in Eisenach. There was a large cardboard mill in Oberweimar , toy manufacturing in Ilmenau, basket weaving in the Kuppenrhön and pipe carving in Geisa (Rhön). In 1895 there were a total of 257 breweries in the Grand Duchy, the largest in Apolda and Ilmenau.


The mining centers in the Thuringian Forest include Ilmenau and Ruhla. The establishment of the potash industry in the Werra Valley around Vacha and Berka / Werra began around 1900 . Salt pans already existed in Creuzburg and Bad Sulza before .


The most important trading centers were Weimar and Eisenach. Many banks had opened their branches here. With the exception of the enclaves Ostheim, Oldisleben and Allstedt, the entire territory belonged to the Thuringian Customs and Tax Association . In 1895 there were 23 Sparkasse branches in the country, managing total deposits of around 40 million Reichsmarks.


The construction of numerous roads and stone bridges began after 1820, thus promoting overland traffic. The railroad reached the country in 1846 when the railway line from Weißenfels via Apolda to Weimar was opened. Important railway lines were also the Thuringian trunk line from Weimar via Erfurt and Gotha to Eisenach, which went into operation in 1847. The south of the Eisenacher Kreis was opened up by the Werra Railway in 1858 . The Leipzig – Probstzella railway followed in 1871, opening up the Neustädter Kreis with the towns of Weida and Neustadt. The Saalbahn , which connected Jena with Leipzig in the north and Saalfeld in the south, followed in 1874, and in 1876 the Holzlandbahn Weimar – Jena – Gera was also opened. When the Erfurt – Ilmenau railway line was completed in 1879 , all of the country's important cities were connected to the railway network. By 1920, numerous ancillary and small railway lines (also followed secondary line ) which then joined most places of over 2,000 inhabitants to the railway network. Initially, all railway lines were privately owned or owned by companies until the Prussian State Railway began to buy up the other railway companies. However, some private railways, such as the Weimar-Rastenberger Eisenbahn , remained in private ownership. The state of Saxony-Weimar-Eisenach owned the Ilmbahn (Weimar – Kranichfeld) and the Feldabahn in the Rhön until 1920 . In 1886 the length of the Staatschausseen was 1913 kilometers.


In the national territory there was a university in Jena , which Saxony-Weimar-Eisenach financed together with the other Thuringian states . In Weimar there were various art and music schools and in Ilmenau the Thuringian Technical Center , a privately owned technical and scientific university. The master school for foresters, which was initially founded in Ruhla in 1805, was relocated to Eisenach in 1830 and developed there into the forest academy, which existed until 1915. There were grammar schools in Weimar, Eisenach and Jena, secondary schools in Weimar, Apolda, Jena, Eisenach, Neustadt and Ilmenau. In 1895 there were also 462 elementary schools, which gave every citizen at least four years of basic education. Large libraries of 200,000 volumes each were maintained in Weimar and Jena. The State Museum of the State had been housed in Weimar since 1869.


  • Detlef Ignasiak (ed.): Regenten tables of Thuringian royal houses. With an introduction to the history of the dynasties in Thuringia. Quartus, Jena 1996, ISBN 3-931505-20-0 .
  • Sven M. Klein: The House of Saxony-Weimar-Eisenach. Börde-Verlag, Werl 2008, ISBN 978-3-9811993-3-8 .
  • Harald Mitteldorf : Constitutional parliamentarism in Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach (1st half of the 19th century). Writings on parliamentarism in Thuringia, issue 2, Thuringian Landtag, Wartburg Verlag GmbH, Weimar 1992, ISBN 978-3-86160-502-7
  • Marcus Ventzke: The Duchy of Saxony-Weimar-Eisenach 1775–1783. A model case of enlightened rule? Böhlau, Cologne / Vienna 2004, ISBN 3-412-08603-7 .
  • Wilhelm Ernst Rothe: Statutes of the Grand Duke of Saxony-Weimar, renewed order of knights 'The Vigilance' or the 'White Falcon'. Hof Buchdruckerei, eighth addendum, Weimar 1902. Statutes and amendments / additions by Carl August Grand Duke of Saxony-Weimar-Eisenach from October 18, 1815; Carl Friedrich Ghz. z. Sachs.-Weim.-Eis. February 16, 1840; Carl Alexander Ghz. z. Sachs.-Weim.-Eis. December 24, 1868, September 22, 1870, January 15, 1873, July 8, 1878, September 10, 1889, and October 8, 1892; Wilhelm Ernst Ghz. z. Sachs.-Weim.-Eis. April 15, 1902.

Web links

Commons : Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Ulrich Hess: History of Thuringia 1866 to 1914. Verlag Hermann Böhlaus Successor, Weimar 1991, ISBN 3-7400-0077-5 , p. 454
  2. Reinhard Jonscher, Willy Schilling: Small Thuringian History, Jenzig-Verlag Köhler, Jena 1995, ISBN 3-910141-17-X , page 196
  3. Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach
  4. ^ The European constitutions from 1789 up to the most recent times. With historical explanations and introductions by Karl Heinrich Ludwig Pölitz […]. Second, rearranged, corrected and supplemented edition. First volume, containing the entire constitutions of the German confederation. Second department , Leipzig: Brockhaus, 1832, p. 732 (digitized from Google Books .)
  5. A copy of the text can be found in the following volume: The European constitutions from 1789 to the most recent. With historical explanations and introductions by Karl Heinrich Ludwig Pölitz […]. Second, rearranged, corrected and supplemented edition. First volume, containing the entire constitutions of the German confederation. Second department , Leipzig: Brockhaus, 1832, p. 732 (digitized from Google Books .)
  6. ^ Compare also the following article: Estates in the Grand Duchy of Weimar-Eisenach , in: General State Constitutional Archive. Journal for Theory and Practice of Moderate Forms of Government , Volume 1, 1816, pp. 235–359, here pp. 244–251 ( digitized version )
  7. Weimarisches Wochenblatt , number 42 of May 24, 1816, pp. 189 ff. (Digitized here and here ).
  8. ^ The text of the constitution is also printed in this volume: The European constitutions since 1789 up to the most recent times. With historical explanations and introductions by Karl Heinrich Ludwig Pölitz […]. Second, rearranged, corrected and supplemented edition. First volume, containing the entire constitutions of the German confederation. Second Department , Leipzig: Brockhaus, 1832, pp. 751 ff. (Digitized at Google Books ; transcript of this edition in this Wikisource article.)
  9. ^ Government sheet for the Grand Duchy of Saxony-Weimar-Eisenach , No. 27 of October 19, 1850, pp. 615–634 (digitized here ).
  10. ^ "The new Weimar election law", in: Berliner Tageblatt (morning edition) of March 5, 1909, p. 2.
  11. ^ State handbook for the Grand Duchy of Saxony 1823-1913. Böhlau, Weimar 1913.
  12. ^ Heinrich Ambros Eckert and Dietrich Monten: Das deutsche Bundesheer. Volume II., Dortmund 1981, p. 13.
  13. ^ Weimarisches Wochenblatt No. 1 of January 2, 1811 ( digitized version )
  14. Grand Duke. S. Weimar-Eisenachisches Government Gazette , No. 1 of April 8, 1817 ( digitized version )
  15. Goethe as a politician Planet Wissen