Portal history | Portal Biographies | Current events | Annual calendar
19th century |
| 21st century
◄ | 1880s | 1890s | 1900s | 1910s | 1920s | 1930s | 1940s | ►
◄◄ | ◄ | 1914 | 1915 | 1916 | 1917 | 1918 | 1919 | 1920 | 1921 | 1922 | ► | ►►
Heads of State · Elections · necrology · Art Year · Literature Year · Music Year · Movie Year · sports year
|November Revolution overthrows the German Empire and leads into the First Republic . Kaiser Wilhelm II goes into exile .|
First World War ends with the Armistice of Compiègne .
Philipp Scheidemann proclaims the German republic .
Russian royal family is murdered in Yekaterinburg .
Czechoslovak independence was proclaimed, the kingdom of Bohemia officially dissolved.
|1918 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1366/67 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1910/11 (September 10/11)|
|Baha'i calendar||74/75 (March 20/21)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1323/24 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2461/62 (southern Buddhism); 2460/61 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||76th (77th) cycle
Year of the Earth-Horse戊午 ( until February 10th fire-snake 丁巳)
|Chuch'e ideology (North Korea)||Chuch'e 7|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1280/81 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4251/52 (October 2/3)|
|Iranian calendar||1296/97 (around March 21)|
|Islamic calendar||1336/37 (October 6-7)|
Taishō 7 (
大 正 元年 );
|Jewish calendar||5678/79 (September 6-7)|
|Coptic calendar||1634/35 (September 10-11)|
|Minguo calendar (China)||Year 7 of the republic|
|Rumi Calendar (Ottoman Empire)||1333/34 (March 1)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2228/29 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2229/30 (turn of the year October)
|Suriyakati Calendar (Thai Solar Calendar)||2460/61 (April 1)|
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1974/75 (April)|
The year 1918 marks the end of the First World War . As a result, many European monarchies also collapse.
Politics and world events
First World War and the resulting revolutions and civil wars
Political and diplomatic developments
- January 8 : The US President Wilson announces his 14-point program to end the First World War .
- November 11th : The First World War ends with the entry into force of the Compiègne Armistice Agreement between the German Reich and France . It claimed over nine million lives.
- December 14th : British General Election, 1918
- February 9 : The Central Powers and the Ukrainian People's Republic conclude the so-called " Bread Peace ", a separate peace that obliges the agricultural country to deliver grain to end the war in the East .
- February 18 : The German Operation Faustschlag begins as a result of the failed peace negotiations with Soviet Russia . After three days is Minsk conquered, on March 3 falls Kiev in the hands of the German army .
- March 3 : With the signing of the peace treaty of Brest-Litovsk with the German Reich , Soviet Russia leaves the war.
- March 5 : The troops of the Central Powers , commanded by August von Mackensen , enforce the preliminary peace of Buftea in Romania and thus end their fighting in the east. The German influence on the reign of Poland is growing.
- March 13 : The Austro-Hungarian army , which joined the offensive on February 28 after initial hesitation , captured Odessa .
- March 21 : Start of the first German spring offensive ( company Michael ) on the Western Front . After great initial success, it expires at the beginning of April. Further German breakthrough attempts by mid-July also remain unsuccessful.
- April 7 : The Fourth Battle of Flanders begins in the area around Armentières with artillery fire and a gas attack by the German army. On April 9, the German offensive begins under the name Operation Georgette .
- April 29 : The fourth battle of Flanders ends with a stalemate and the German offensive is broken off.
- May 27th to June 6th : In the Third Battle of the Aisne , another German offensive on the western front gets stuck.
- July 15 : The Second Battle of the Marne begins with a German offensive on both sides of Reims . The offensive is repulsed by the Allies with heavy losses. On July 18 , a counter-offensive by the German troops are thrown back on the line before the spring offensive begins.
- August 8 : On the first day of the Battle of Amiens , the Allies manage to break through the German front line. General Erich Ludendorff later referred to this day as the " Black Day of the German Army ". The battle continued for the following three days, but due to the lack of support from artillery and tanks, the successes were limited. However, it initiates the decisive Hundred Days Offensive .
- September 12 : The Germans cannot hold their positions at the Battle of Havrincourt , which encourages the Allies to take further offensives.
- September 18 : In the Battle of Épehy , the Australian troops mutiny, but the battle ends victorious for the Allies.
- September 26th : The Allied Meuse-Argonne offensive begins.
- September 29th : In the beginning battle of the Saint-Quentin Canal , British soldiers take the Riqueval Bridge in one stroke . This enables the Allied attack on the German Siegfried line with brought in heavy weapons.
- November 4 : With the Battle of the Sambre , the Allies were able to establish a bridgehead about 80 km long and 5 km deep on the other side of the Canal de la Sambre à l'Oise .
- November 11th : The Compiègne Armistice ends the Hundred Days Offensive.
Mountain war between Italy and Austria-Hungary
- 15. bis 22. June : Second Battle of Piave
- August 13th to September 3rd : Battle of San Matteo
- October 24 : Beginning of the Battle of Vittorio Veneto , the defeat of Austria-Hungary leads
- 3rd November : Signing of the armistice of Villa Giusti between Italy ( Pietro Badoglio ) and Austria-Hungary ( Viktor Weber Edler von Webenau )
The German protection force under Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck , which withdrew to the area of Portuguese East Africa last year , will return to the area of German East Africa via the Rovuma border river on September 28 and move north along Lake Nyassa about Songea and Mbozi . Lettow-Vorbeck decides to continue the march to Northern Rhodesia , which according to his information is largely free of British troops who suspect him to be in other parts of the colony. Here he received news of the armistice in Europe from British parliamentarians on November 13th . On November 25, the capitulation was signed in Abercorn south of Lake Tanganyika and the only 1,300-strong unit officially dissolved.
Sea and air war
- February 5 : The British troop transport Tuscania is sunk by the German submarine UB 77 off Northern Ireland . 166 people are killed.
- February 26th : The sinking of the British hospital ship HMHS Glenart Castle by the German submarine UC 56 kills 153 people in the Bristol Channel.
- April 1 : With the British Royal Air Force , a merger of the previous Army Aviation Associations with those of the Navy , the world's first air force to be organized as an independent armed force is created.
- April 15 : 55 of the 56 people on board died when the Canadian Pacific Line's Pomeranian passenger ship was sunk by the German submarine UC 77 .
- April 21 : Manfred von Richthofen ("The Red Baron") is shot down over the Somme in northern France, the air forces lose their hero. He dies after 80 confirmed kills.
- April 22 to May 10 : During the attack on Zeebrugge and Ostend , the Royal Navy tried unsuccessfully to block the submarine ports of Zeebrugge and Ostend in occupied Belgium in order to prevent the submarines from leaving.
- On April 23, the deep sea fleet made its last advance into the northern North Sea, where a British convoy is to be attacked. Since the fleet completely dispenses with the use of radio equipment, the deep sea fleet pushes up to the height of mountains without the British reacting. When the radio silence had to be broken on the following day due to a machine breakdown of the battle cruiser SMS Moltke , the Royal Navy ran out immediately with superior forces, but could not provide the deep sea fleet, although the SMS Moltke had to be towed.
- May 7th : The HMT Olympic sinks the submarine SM U 103 with its port propeller.
- June 9th : The second and final attempt by the Austrian Navy to break through the sea barrier on the Strait of Otranto starts from Pula . In the early morning of June 10, however, the Italian speedboat MAS 15 sank the battleship SMS Szent István , which was in force in the formation, off the island of Premuda by two torpedo hits, and the attack was then canceled.
- June 27th : The German submarine U 86 under the command of Oberleutnant zur See Helmut Brümmer-Patzig torpedoed the British ship HMHS Llandovery Castle, clearly labeled as a hospital ship, in the North Atlantic . Of the 258 people on board, only 24 survive as U 86 rams the lifeboats and shoots at the castaways.
- July 14 : The German submarine UB 105 sinks the French passenger steamer Djemnah in the eastern Mediterranean . 436 passengers and crew are killed.
- July 21 : The attack on Orleans by the sub-cruiser U 156 is the only attack by the Central Powers on the US mainland during World War I.
- August 3 : A German submarine sinks the Australian hospital ship Warilda in the English Channel , killing 123 people.
- August 27 : The French hospital ship Pampa is sunk 84 nautical miles east of Malta . 117 people are killed.
- September 12 : Southwest of Land's End, the German submarine U 82 torpedoed the British passenger ship Galway Castle . 143 of the 950 passengers and crew members die.
- October 10 : A German submarine sunk the Irish passenger steamer RMS Leinster in Dublin Bay . 501 people die, including more than 300 military personnel and 115 civilians. It is the worst shipwreck in the Irish Sea to date .
The disintegration of the Central Powers
Events by summer
- January 14th : The halving of the flour ration triggers a strike by workers at the Wiener Neustadt Daimler engine works , which boosts the general January strike . Within a few days, the government faces the largest work stoppage in Austria-Hungary .
- January 28 : The Spartakusbund around Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg calls for a Spartakus strike for better living and working conditions, the end of the First World War and democratization .
- February 1st to 3rd : On 40 ships of the Austro-Hungarian navy in the port of Cattaro (today: Kotor) a sailors' revolt begins with the raising of the red flags , which is soon put down. The officers are temporarily disarmed and sailors' councils are formed. The support sought in Vienna and Budapest does not take place.
- July 4th : In Constantinople, Mehmed V, who died the day before, is followed by his brother Mehmed VI. to the head of the Ottoman Empire . He will be its last sultan .
- September 15 : Breakthrough of the Entente on the Balkan Front (the resistance of the Bulgarian army collapses completely after the Allies break through in the Macedonian front ).
- September 19 : With the end of the Palestine battle near Megiddo , the entire front of the Ottoman Empire that runs there collapses . The British troops under Edmund Allenby, 1st Viscount Allenby defeat the Ottoman army commanded by Otto Liman von Sanders in the last great battle of the First World War in the Middle East .
- November 13 : Konstantin Opel is by French and British troops occupied .
- November 27th : The French military administration combines the subdistrict Alexandrette and the subdistrict Antioch of the Vilayet Aleppo in the conquered territories to form Sanjak Alexandrette .
- September 29th : Bulgaria , ally of the German Reich, concludes the armistice of Thessaloniki with the Allies .
- October 3rd : After the resignation of his father Ferdinand I. because of the defeat in the First World War , Boris III. new tsar in Bulgaria .
- October 30th : The Ottoman Empire and the Entente Powers sign the Mudros Armistice .
- September 29th : General Ludendorff ultimately demands that the Reich government submit an armistice petition to the Entente powers .
- October 3 : A German request for peace conditions is sent to the American President Wilson.
- October 3 : Prince Max von Baden becomes German Chancellor . Members of the majority parties in the Reichstag are represented in his government for the first time .
- The naval order of October 24, 1918 and the preparations for departure first triggered a mutiny among the affected sailors and then the November Revolution , which in a few days would eliminate the monarchy in the German Reich.
- October 26th : General Erich Ludendorff , active in the Supreme Army Command , is dismissed by the German Kaiser Wilhelm II at the insistence of Chancellor Max von Baden .
- October 29 : The decision of the German naval command to look for a decisive battle against the Royal Navy “at the last minute” triggers the Kiel sailors' uprising .
- November 2nd : Bavaria's state parliament and the state government agree, with the consent of King Ludwig III. binding the conversion of the Kingdom of Bavaria from a constitutional to a parliamentary monarchy . Among other things, the introduction of proportional representation and women's suffrage, the binding of the ministers and the Bavarian Federal Council ambassadors to the confidence of the Landtag and the restriction of the powers of the Chamber of Reichsrat were decided. 
- November 4 : From the Kiel Mutiny, the developed November Revolution . Workers 'and soldiers' councils are set up throughout Germany .
- November 6th : A workers 'and soldiers' council takes power in Bremen , which two months later proclaims the Bremen council republic .
- November 7 : In Munich lead revolutionaries to Kurt Eisner , the end of the Bavarian monarchy brought. King Ludwig III. von Bayern flees the city.
- November 8 : Kurt Eisner proclaims the Republic of Bavaria as a free state in Munich during the November Revolution in the first meeting of the workers 'and soldiers' councils in Mathäser and declares the ruling royal house of the Wittelsbachers deposed. Eisner is elected the first Prime Minister by the Munich Workers 'and Soldiers' Council, which subsequently forms a government of the People's State of Bavaria .
- November 8th : Duke Ernst August abdicates due to the developments in Braunschweig .
- November 9th : Proclamation of the republic in Germany : The revolution reaches Berlin: The social democrat Philipp Scheidemann proclaims the republic , shortly afterwards Karl Liebknecht , the leader of the Spartakusbund , proclaims the Soviet republic . Kaiser Wilhelm II is deposed by Max von Baden on his own initiative and then transfers the business of the Reich Chancellor to Friedrich Ebert (SPD). The German Reich becomes a republic (" Weimar Republic ")
- November 10th : The Council of People's Representatives , chaired by Friedrich Ebert (SPD) and Hugo Haase (USPD), takes over government affairs in Germany.
- November 11th : The Oldenburg Grand Duke Friedrich August II resigns and renounces his throne and succession.
- November 11th : The Landtag of the Reichsland Alsace-Lorraine under Eugen Ricklin proclaims the independent Republic of Alsace-Lorraine , which will only last for a few days because of the invasion of French troops.
- November 12th : In the course of the November Revolution, the Council of People's Representatives announces, among other things, the future right to vote in Germany as a general election from the age of 20, also for women , according to the proportional electoral system .
- November 12 : Prince Leopold IV. Zur Lippe resigns from his office at pressure and renounces the throne and succession.
- November 12th : Foundation of the Bavarian People's Party
- November 12th : The last title of nobility in Germany is awarded to Kurt von Kleefeld .
- November 13th : Friedrich August III. von Sachsen renounces the throne and succession to the throne.
- November 13 : After the abdication of the regents . Ernst II occurring in the territory of the former Duchy of Saxony-Altenburg of Saxony-Altenburg . The short-lived structure becomes part of the state of Thuringia in 1920 .
- November 13th : After the fall of the Bavarian King Ludwig III. On November 7th, in the Anifer Declaration, he released his officials, officers and soldiers from their oath of allegiance, but refused a formal abdication for life.
- November 15 : Prince Adolf II of Schaumburg-Lippe abdicates as Prince of Schaumburg-Lippe and renounces his throne and succession.
- November 15th : Stinnes Legien Agreement between employers and trade unions in Germany.
- November 20th : Foundation of the German Democratic Party
- November 22nd : Grand Duke Friedrich II of Baden abdicates and renounces the throne and succession.
- November 22nd : Foundation of the German National People's Party .
- November 28 : Emperor Wilhelm II waives his rights as King of Prussia and Emperor of the German Empire in a declaration .
- November 29th : King Wilhelm II of Württemberg is the last German prince to renounce the crown. Because of the popularity of the "citizen king", however, a large part of the Württemberg population rejects the new republic.
- November 30th : Ordinance on the elections to the German constituent assembly (Reich election law ).
- December 15 : Foundation of the German People's Party .
- 16th bis 21st December : On the of workers and soldiers councils charged Councilors Congress , among others, the abolition of the existing military system and the introduction is a national army demanded with elected officers.
- December 24th : The Christmas battles reach their climax in Berlin . Units loyal to the government take action against the People's Navy Division , which has taken quarters in the Berlin City Palace .
- December 29 : The Spartakusbund decides to separate from the USPD and to found its own party in Berlin .
- December 30th : The founding congress of the Communist Party of Germany begins in the ballroom of the Prussian House of Representatives in Berlin .
- October 7th : In an appeal written by Zdzisław Lubomirski , the Regency Council of Poland , set up by the Central Powers, announced an independent Polish state based on Wilson's 14-point program .
- November 11th : Poland becomes independent . The Regency Council in Warsaw transfers the military and political leadership of the emerging Second Polish Republic to Józef Piłsudski .
- November 14th : Józef Piłsudski is appointed acting head of state of independent Poland.
- December 27th : The Poznan Uprising begins. The Poles in the Prussian province of Posen are fighting militarily for the integration of their region into the Second Polish Republic .
- October 16 : Emperor Karl I tries to save at least the Austrian half of the empire and to transform it into a federal state with extensive autonomy for the individual nations with a national manifesto, which was jointly responsible for the kk Prime Minister Max Hussarek von Heinlein .
- October 18 : The Czechoslovak Declaration of Independence , written by Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk , is presented to the Allies and accepted by them.
- October 21 : The German-speaking members of the House of Representatives meet for the first time as the Provisional National Assembly of German Austria in the Lower Austrian Landhaus in Herrengasse in Vienna .
- October 25 : The Hungarian Social Democrats around Zsigmond Kunfi form an alliance with the left-wing liberal 48 party around Mihály Károlyi and the bourgeois-radical rural party Oszkár Jászis and jointly found the Hungarian National Council .
- October 28 : The state of Czechoslovakia is founded in Prague and the First Czechoslovak Republic is proclaimed by Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk.
- October 28th to 31st : The Austro-Hungarian dual monarchy ends with the aster revolution in Hungary and the dissolution of the Real Union by the Hungarian government. Charles I appoints Mihály Károlyi as Hungarian Prime Minister.
- October 29th : One day after the proclamation of the Czechoslovak Republic, the founding of the German-Austrian provinces German Bohemia and Sudetenland as well as the exit of Croatia and Slovenia from the Austro-Hungarian monarchy are declared.
- October 29 : In Zagreb, the state of the Slovenes, Croats and Serbs (SHS state) is proclaimed by the “National Council of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs”. This state only existed until December 1st , when the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes was founded, and roughly includes the areas of present-day Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Vojvodina .
- October 30th : With Karl Renner as State Chancellor, the first republican government of Austria is formed , to which the last government of the monarchy also exists until the declaration of renunciation by Emperor Karl I.
- November 1 : In Lviv , under the influence of the Ukrainian Central Na Rada, the West Ukrainian People's Republic consisting of parts of the former crown lands Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria ( Galicia ), the Duchy of Bukovina ( Bukovina ) and northern Hungary is proclaimed.
- November 5th : Troops of the SHS state invade south-east Carinthia . The SHS police advance into the Rosen - and lower Gailtal . Ferlach and the north of the Drava located Völkermarkt and to the south of Lavamünd and Saint Paul in the Lavant Valley are busy. The Carinthian state government is relocating its seat to Spittal an der Drau in view of this threat .
- November 11th : In Vienna, Emperor Karl I declares that he will renounce “any share in state affairs” in the Austrian part of the Danube Monarchy . That night he went with his wife Zita and the closest family to Eckartsau Palace in Marchfeld, which, unlike Schönbrunn, was privately owned by the Habsburgs at that time. On the orders of the British King George V , he is protected there by Lieutenant Colonel Edward Strutt .
- November 12 : Following a resolution by the Provisional National Assembly , the Republic is proclaimed in Vienna and the right to vote for women is introduced for the Republic of German-Austria .
- November 13 : King Charles IV of Hungary also renounces state business in Hungary at Eckartsau Castle , after having made such a declaration for the Austrian half of the empire two days earlier as emperor.
- November 16 : In Hungary , the Károlyi government proclaims the Hungarian Democratic Republic .
- November 22nd : In the course of the Polish-Ukrainian war, troops of the Polish liquidation commission gain the upper hand in Lemberg , whereupon the government of the West Ukrainian People's Republic moves to Stanislau .
- December 1st : The Serbian Prince Regent Alexander proclaims the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes .
- December 1 : The National Assembly of Alba Iulia , which has been in session since November 18, decides to join the areas of Transylvania , Banat , Kreischgebiet , Sathmar and Maramures , which previously belonged to Hungary , to the Kingdom of Romania .
- December 5 : The provisional Carinthian provincial government under the provincial administrator Arthur Lemisch resolves armed resistance against further advance of the SHS troops. The German-Austrian government officially rejects the defensive struggle - the starving country is dependent on food deliveries from the SHS state - but supports Carinthia with material and troop shipments , among other things .
- December 6th : The short-lived Republic of Heinzenland is proclaimed in Ödenburg by the social democrat Hans Suchard . Just one day later, the Hungarian military and the Ödenburg vigilante group put an end to this republic. Suchard is arrested and sentenced to death. However, the sentence is never carried out.
The disintegration of Russia
- January 5th jul. / January 18, Greg. : The constituent assembly of Soviet Russia elected last year meets for the first time in the Tauride Palace in Saint Petersburg. Viktor Chernov , leader of the Social Revolutionaries , is elected chairman. In a speech prepared by Lenin , the prominent Bolshevik Ivan Skworzow-Stepanov explains why his party will not submit to the elected constituent assembly, after which the Bolshevik faction leaves the hall closed. On the very next day, the meeting was locked out by the Bolshevik government on the basis of a decree by the All-Russian Central Executive Committee and thus de facto dissolved.
- January 15th jul. / 28 January greg. : In Soviet Russia the Council of People's Commissars decides to found the Red Army on the basis of the Red Guard . When it was founded, the Red Army was a volunteer army with no ranks, no badges or special emphasis on individual functionaries. This is to emphasize the ideal of equality for all people. Commanders are democratically elected, and the officers' orders can be discussed and rejected by the subordinates. In order to increase military efficiency, however, this system was abolished shortly after the establishment of War Commissioner Leon Trotsky with the support of the Politburo .
- January 23rd jul. / 5th February greg. : The Council of People's Commissars , headed by Lenin, issues a decree in Soviet Russia on the separation of the church from the state and the school from the church . This separation is a one-sided separation of the church from its influence on the state and did not go hand in hand with a separation of the state from its influence on religions, i.e. the free practice of religion. The Russian-Orthodox state religion is replaced by the state worldview of Marxism-Leninism .
- January 29th jul. / February 11th greg. : Ataman Alexei Kaledin , leader of the volunteer army of the Don Cossacks , commits whether the desperate situation of his movement in the fight against the Red Army suicide . Lavr Kornilov assumes command of the volunteer army.
- February 1st jul. / February 14th greg. The calendar reform to change from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar is in Soviet Russia carried out.
- February 23 : The Red Army recruits in Petrograd and Moscow for the first time on a larger scale soldiers. On the same day, they recaptured Rostov-on-Don from the Don Cossack volunteer army, who returned to the Kuban area , where 3,000 Cossacks joined the movement. On the march, the volunteers spread terror among the hostile rural population.
- March 12 : The Soviet government pulling in the Moscow Kremlin , which Saint Petersburg two hundred years after around the capital of Russia again from Moscow will be replaced.
- March 31 : The Cossack volunteer army conquers the city of Ekaterinodar , but General Kornilov is killed by a shell impact. Anton Denikin becomes the new commander .
- June 13th : After an unauthorized decision by local Bolsheviks , Grand Duke Mikhail , brother of the former Tsar Nicholas II , and his secretary Nicholas Johnson are murdered in a forest in Perm .
- July 6th : Non-communist activists murder the German ambassador in Moscow, Wilhelm von Mirbach-Harff , thereby triggering the uprising of the Left Social Revolutionaries there.
- July 17 : In Yekaterinburg is royal family shot .
- July 27 : The Iranian government declares all contracts, agreements and concessions with Russia , by threats or bribes were closed for ineffective . This is a consequence of the previous annulment of the Petersburg Treaty of 1907 by the Bolshevik regime in Russia.
- July 28 : The Cheka executes 428 Bolshevik opponents after an uprising in Yaroslavl .
- August 2 : British troops arrive in Arkhangelsk as part of an Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War . The American Polar Bear Expedition follows in September .
- August 27 : In a supplementary agreement to the Brest-Litovsk peace treaty , Soviet Russia renounces sovereignty over Estonia , Georgia , Livonia and Courland .
- August 30 : Vladimir Lenin , chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the RSFSR , is seriously injured in an attack ; Fanny Kaplan is arrested as a suspect . The attack triggers the phase of the so-called red terror .
- September 5 : The Council of People's Commissars in Russia issues the Decree On Red Terror , which provides, among other things, for a strengthening of the Cheka , concentration camps for class enemies and the immediate shooting of anyone who belongs to White Guard organizations or is involved in conspiracies, uprisings or uprisings.
- October 19 : The Volga Germans' labor commune is established in Soviet Russia .
Ukraine and Bessarabia
- January 5th jul. / January 18, Greg. : From parts of the provinces of Kherson and the provinces of Bessarabia is Odessa Soviet Republic with the center in Odessa was founded. It ends on March 13 when it is occupied by Central Powers .
- January 12th jul. / January 25th greg. : Mychajlo Hruschewskyj , historian and politician in Ukraine , backdated to January 22nd proclaims the first autonomous republic. On January 30, Vsevolod Holubovych becomes Prime Minister of the Ukrainian People's Republic (UNR).
- January 16 jul. / January 29th greg. : While a small contingent of the Ukrainian People's Army tries to stop the Soviet advance on Kiev at Kruty , a revolt of armed workers begins in the Kiev arsenal plant .
- January 18th jul. / January 31st greg. : The short-lived Soviet Republic of Odessa with its center in Odessa is founded from Bessarabia and parts of the Cherson Governorate . The National Council (Sfatul Țării) calls on January 24th jul. / February 6th greg. complete independence of the country and ask Romania for military assistance. Romanian troops then march into the whole of Bessarabia and, after brief, intense fighting, bring it under their control.
- February 12 : The Soviet Republic of Donets-Krivoy Rog with the capital Kharkiv is founded. At the urging of Mykola Skrypnyk , head of the Soviet government of the Ukraine, tells Vladimir Ilyich Lenin representatives of the Republic to participate in the second All-Ukrainian Congress of Soviets, which from 17 to 19 March in Yekaterinoslav takes place. This decides to dissolve the Republic of Donets-Krivoy Rog and join it with Ukraine. This has a lasting impact on the territorial demarcation of Ukraine, as Moscow recognizes that most of the Donbass, including the Russian-speaking areas, belong to Ukraine.
- April 9th : On the basis of a vote on March 27th, with the approval of large parts of the population, Bessarabia declares its annexation to Romania for eternity . Eleven conditions are formulated.
- April 29 : the landlords and General By a supported by the German occupying forces coup Pavlo Skoropadskyi head of a Hetmanat called Ukrainian state .
- November 16 : An open popular uprising against the Skoropadskyj government breaks out in the city of Bila Tserkva near Kiev. The insurgents are quickly gaining ground and are able to force Skoropadskyj to resign on December 14th . The Ukrainian state is thus dissolved. The Directory of the Ukrainian People's Republic , founded on November 14th, takes control.
- January 28th jul. / February 10th greg. : In Transcaucasia , the parliament founded on January 23rd, chaired by the Georgian Menshevik Nikolos Cheidze, meets for the first time.
- March 18 : The Georgian-South Ossetian conflict , which lasted about two years, begins.
- March 30 to April 3 : The “ March 1918 events in Azerbaijan ” denote an ethnic conflict and mass murders of the Azerbaijani population by Armenian units allied with the Bolsheviks. During these three days around 12,000 people were killed because of their religion and ethnicity.
- April 13 : Baku Commune is established.
- April 22nd : Nikolos Cheidze declares the independence of Transcaucasia and proclaims the Transcaucasian Democratic-Federal Republic , consisting of Georgia , Azerbaijan and Armenia . The capital becomes Tbilisi .
- 24. bis 26. May : At the Caucasus Front of the First World War it comes to the battle of Sardarapat , which ends with a comprehensive victory for the Armenians. The battle not only stops the advance of the Ottomans into Armenia, but also - three years after the beginning of the genocide of the Armenians - prevents a possible complete destruction of the Armenian nation.
- May 26 : Georgia withdraws from the Transcaucasian Federation and proclaims the Democratic Republic of Georgia .
- May 28 : The Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan and the Democratic Republic of Armenia are founded, the Transcaucasian Democratic-Federal Republic is dissolved.
- May 30 : Howhannes Kachasnuni of the Armenian Revolutionary Federation becomes Prime Minister of Armenia.
- June 4th : In the Treaty of Batumi , the three Transcaucasian states have to cede extensive areas to the Ottoman Empire, which almost reaches the pre-war borders in this area again.
- June 8th : The German Caucasus expedition begins.
- August 1 : On the peninsula Absheron in today's Azerbaijan is the Centrocaspian Dictatorship established.
- August 26 : The battle for Baku begins.
- September 15 : After the conquest of Baku by the Ottoman army, a pogrom breaks out against the Armenian population .
- February 16 : Act of Lithuania's declaration of independence : The Lithuanian State Council , chaired by Antanas Smetona, declares Lithuania's independence without any ties to other states.
- February 19 : The Estonian Parliament decides to found an Estonian Rescue Committee ( Eestimaa Pästekomitee ) "until normal conditions are established". It includes the three politicians Konstantin Päts , Jüri Vilms and Konstantin Konik , who represent the spectrum of democratic parties. The council of elders entrusts the committee with “all state authority” in the country, which it cannot exercise de facto due to the German occupation of the country.
- February 23 / February 24 : In Pärnu and Tallinn the manifesto is proclaimed to all the peoples of Estonia . Estonia thus declares its independence .
- April 12th : The Baltic Germans proclaim the Duchy of the Baltic States and ask the German Kaiser to place it under the protection of the German Empire.
- November 5 : German Balts under Adolf Friedrich of Mecklenburg call in Riga that from the previous German Ostseegouvernements Estonia , Livonia and Courland existing United Baltic Duchy of which is condemned Germany's defeat to failure.
- November 11 : The Baltic State Armed Forces , made up of Baltic German volunteers, are founded.
- November 13th : After the peace of Brest-Litovsk is repealed , Russia starts a military campaign to retake the Baltic States .
- November 18 : The Latvian People's Council proclaims Latvia's independence . This is the beginning of the Latvian War of Independence . Kārlis Ulmanis is elected Prime Minister.
- November 19 : The German General Plenipotentiary for the occupied Baltic States, August Winnig , transfers government power in Estonia to the Provisional Government of Päts II .
- November 27 : Konstantin Päts reshuffles his government after only 16 days due to the threatened war against Soviet Russia and establishes the Provisional Government of Päts III .
- November 28 : The Estonian War of Independence begins with the great attack by Russian troops on the East Estonian city of Narva . The next day, Narva and Narva-Jõesuu fall into the hands of the Red Army , which is advancing further west. The Bolsheviks proclaim Soviet power in the areas recaptured by the Red Army . The Estonian communist Jaan Anvelt forms the government of the Estonian workers' commune ( Eesti Töörahva Kommuun ) in Narva . With forced collectivizations , Soviet Russian acts of violence and the rejection of the idea of Estonia's national independence, resistance against the Bolsheviks is growing in the Estonian population.
- December 17 : The Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic is founded by Pēteris Stučka on Lenin's instructions .
- January 12th : The Finnish parliament decides against the bitter resistance of the socialists to authorize the government to take all measures "which it considers necessary to establish a strict public order."
- January 16 : Senate Chairman Pehr Evind Svinhufvud instructs Lieutenant General of the Russian Army Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim , who has returned to Finland, as commander with the formation of armed forces. On January 25, the previously private “ white ” protective corps are declared the government's regular army. The socialists interpret this as the creation of a class war army against the working class.
- January 27 : Almost two months after the declaration of independence , the Finnish civil war breaks out in Helsinki with the occupation of the most important buildings by the Red Guards . The following day, a people's commissariat is installed as government. This immediately faces a general strike by the public administration and the banks.
- On the night of January 28, the white protective corps began disarming the Russian garrisons in southern Ostrobothnia . The garrisons in Laihia , Lapua , Seinäjoki , Ylistaro , Ilmajoki , Kaskinen , Nykarleby and Jakobstad offer little resistance, and Vaasa can also be taken on the same day. In Kristinestad and Kokkola , on the other hand, the protective corps had to break the resistance of the soldiers supported by the Red Guards. Until January 31st, however, all of southern Ostrobothnia is under white control. 8,000 rifles and heavy weapons are captured
- February 20 : The red government adopts a constitution drafted by Otto Ville Kuusinen based on the model of Switzerland, which is to be submitted to a referendum after the war.
- March 7th : The White Finnish government in Vaasa and the German Empire conclude a separate peace , a trade and shipping agreement and a secret agreement in Berlin , which obliges Finland to use almost all of the current war-economically relevant production and other available materials until a general peace agreement "as Payment for the delivered war materials “to leave Germany. The revolutionary government in Helsinki immediately declares the Berlin agreements null and void.
- March 15 : The white army begins a large-scale attack on Tampere , the country's largest industrial center and stronghold of the Red Guards.
- March 26th : The Lempäälä train station south of Tampere is taken and the siege ring around the city is closed. After days of fierce fighting, the last defenders of the city surrender on April 6th .
- April 3 : German troops of the Baltic Sea Division land in Hanko as part of the Finland intervention . You will advance into Helsinki by April 10 without any significant resistance . On April 11th they reach the outskirts of Helsinki in Leppävaara .
- Colonel von Brandenstein's troops, who landed at Loviisa on April 7, captured Loviisa quickly and without resistance and advanced to Orimattila by April 11 .
- April 13th : The Battle of Helsinki ends after only one day with the capture of the city by the German intervention troops.
- April 19 : The Brandenstein Detachment captures the city of Lahti .
- May 5th : The Finnish Civil War ends.
- May 29 : Finland receives its national flag , which is supposed to symbolize lakes and snow.
- June: Thousands of people die of hunger and disease in prison camps.
- August: The Communist Party of Finland is founded in Russia .
- October 9th : The German Friedrich Karl von Hessen is elected King of Finland , which becomes obsolete after Germany's defeat in the World War. On December 14th, he renounced the crown.
- December 1 : Iceland signs the Union Treaty, which heralds the independence of the country from Denmark with the establishment of the Kingdom of Iceland . The two countries are only loosely connected by real union under the common king Christian X. Iceland gets its own flag and coat of arms , and Denmark only takes on the island's external relations and defense. The contract is set to run for 25 years, after which a referendum is to be held on complete independence.
- January 1st : Felix Calonder becomes Federal President of Switzerland .
- October 13 : In Switzerland , a popular initiative for proportional representation of the National Council is adopted. They demanded a change in the National Council's electoral system from majority voting (Majorz) to proportional representation (Proporz).
- November 12th : A nationwide general strike begins in Switzerland , which the Olten Action Committee has called for to enforce its catalog of demands. The strike was called off on November 14th under pressure from the government and the army .
- April 28 : Sidónio Pais , who came to power in a coup last year, can be elected as President of Portugal directly by the people in a referendum . The Partido Nacional Republicano , which he founded in the spring, emerged victorious in the parliamentary elections that took place at the same time and were boycotted by the major republican parties .
- General strikes and both republican and monarchist unrest broke out in several cities in October. In Porto , a monarchist junta under Henrique Mitchell de Paiva Couceiro takes power.
- December 14 : The Portuguese military dictator Sidónio Pais is in Lisbon on the Rossio train station in a bombing killed. Pai's "New Republic" ( República Nova ) then collapses. João do Canto e Castro will be his successor, initially temporarily. The old constitution, which was suspended by Pais, is being reinstated, and with it the separation of the offices of president and head of government, which Pais abolished.
- December 23 : João Tamagnini de Sousa Barbosa is elected new Prime Minister of Portugal , João do Canto e Castro as President.
- August 2-4: In Toronto there are anti-Greek riots .
- January 1 : All banks in Moscow and Petrograd , Russia (now Saint Petersburg ) are closed.
- January 9 : The Solothurn-Niederbipp-Bahn , also known as "Bipperlisi", opens its first railway line between Niederbipp in the canton of Bern and the Baseltor station in Solothurn . In Niederbipp there is a track connection to the meter-gauge Langenthal-Jura-Bahn (LJB), which started operating on the Langenthal –Niederbipp– Oensingen Schulhaus route as early as 1907 . The cooperation with the LJB and the Langenthal-Melchnau-Bahn (LMB), which opened last year, is sought accordingly early on . In the case of power system, the choice falls on the 1200 volts direct current already used by the LJB .
- March: The Matsushita company is founded by Konosuke Matsushita (Panasonic).
- April 1 : In the late phase of the First World War, the construction of the (never completed) Reschenscheideckbahn begins in Tyrol
- May 2 : Chevrolet Motor Company is bought by General Motors .
- November 11 : Founding of the watch factory Mido G. Schaeren & Co. AG in Solothurn (Switzerland) by Georges Schaeren (on the day of the armistice of the First World War)
- In the Soviet Union , large-scale industry and railways are nationalized.
science and technology
- January 2nd : Reinhard Maack as a researcher climbs the Königstein in the Brandberg massif , the highest mountain in today's Namibia .
- January 4th : The explorer Reinhard Maack discovers the at least 2000 year old rock carving White Lady in the Brandberg massif .
- January 9 : The Solothurn-Niederbipp-Bahn , based in Solothurn, opens its meter-gauge railway line from Niederbipp in the canton of Bern to the Baseltor station in Solothurn .
- February 3 : With the opening of the Twin Peaks Tunnel , one of the longest tram tunnels in the world is put into operation in San Francisco , now part of the Muni Metro .
- August 2 : The Vernadskyi National Library of Ukraine opens in Kiev .
- Campbell Thompson discovers the remains of buildings built by the kings of the 3rd Dynasty of Ur in Eridu . (see 1854 and 1948 )
- Walter Schottky describes electronic noise for the first time , in particular thermal noise (also Johnson noise ) and the shot effect , which he mainly analyzes for the current through vacuum tubes . (in: Annalen der Physik 57 (1918), 541; 68 (1922), 157)
- Founding of the Merz Academy
- January 16 : The Dresden artists' association Die Zunft dissolves.
- December 3 : The painters Max Pechstein and César Klein and twelve other artists found the revolutionary November group in Berlin .
- The art work council is founded.
- The Great Berlin Art Exhibition is moving to Düsseldorf for the second time in a row because of the war .
- January 1st : Victor Sjöström's silent film Berg-Ejvind och hans hustru ( Berg-Eyvind and his wife ) is premiered.
- January 27th : The first Tarzan film is released in cinemas with Tarzan and the Apes , directed by Scott Sidney . Elmo Lincoln plays the leading role . The basis for the script was the novel of the same name by Edgar Rice Burroughs .
- August 11 : The silent film Mickey by F. Richard Jones and James Young with Mabel Normand in the title role becomes the most successful feature film of the year.
- October 1st : Ernst Lubitsch's silent film I don't want to be a man with Ossi Oswalda in the leading role has its premiere.
- December 20 : Ernst Lubitsch's feature film Carmen premieres with Pola Negri in the title role at the Union Theater Kurfürstendamm in Berlin .
- December 13 : Karl Kraus publishes the epilogue of his tragedy The Last Days of Mankind in a special issue of his magazine Die Fackel .
- The novel The Subject by Heinrich Mann , completed in 1914, is published for the first time in book form.
- Leo Perutz publishes the fantastic novel Between nine and nine .
- British journalist Rebecca West published her debut novel The Return of the Soldier ( The Return ) in two parts in the US.
Music and theater
- February 1st : The operetta A Pacsirta by Franz Lehár has its world premiere at the Royal Opera in Budapest. The libretto is by Alfred Maria Willner and Heinz Reichert and is based on the play Dorf und Stadt by Charlotte Birch-Pfeiffer . The first performance in German takes place on March 27th under the name Wo die Lerche singt at the Theater an der Wien in Vienna.
- March 23 : The opera Shanewis or The Robin Woman by Charles Wakefield Cadman premieres at the Metropolitan Opera in New York.
- April 25 : The opera Die Gezeichen by Franz Schreker based on the play Hidalla or Being and Having by Frank Wedekind has its world premiere at the Frankfurt Opera .
- June 5th : The opera Theophano by Paul Graener is premiered at the Hoftheater in Munich.
- November 24th : World premiere of the opera Frutta di mare by Hans Huber in Basel
- December 9th : Night lighting and two other comedic one-act plays by Curt Goetz are successfully premiered in Berlin.
- December 14th : Iltrittico ( The Triptych ), an opera cycle by Giacomo Puccini , consisting of the three strongly contrasting, one-hour one-act plays Il tabarro (The Mantle), Suor Angelica (Sister Angelica) and Gianni Schicchi by Giacomo Puccini, will take part in the Metropolitan Opera premiered in New York and was well received by the audience. The libretto for Il tabarro is by Giuseppe Adami , the librettist for the other two pieces is Giovacchino Forzano . Iltrittico is the result of Puccini's efforts to perform a tragic (Il tabarro) , a lyrical (Suor Angelica) and a cheerful piece (Gianni Schicchi) in one evening. The best known aria from the last piece is O mio babbino caro .
- December 19 : The opera Nepřemožení ( The Unconquered ) by Josef Bohuslav Foerster has its world premiere at the National Theater in Prague .
- May 21 : The founding meeting of the German Philosophical Society takes place in Weimar . An important initiator of the Association of Conservative Philosophers is Bruno Bauch , who, as a representative of the Southwest German School of Neo-Kantianism, represents an independent philosophy of values that places a special focus on the connection between value and life . In the report on the founding meeting, the aim is to “maintain, deepen and preserve the German character”. The opposition to the Kant Society , founded in 1904 , is expressed in the emphasis that one does not have the "philosophy of all civilized peoples" as their topic, but rather see oneself as a "national complement".
- December 8th : Freemasons found the Grand Lodge of Vienna . They were banned in the monarchy in Austria since 1795.
- September 20 : Padre Pio has visible wounds on his chest, hands and feet, alleged wounds of Christ .
- January 14th : 16 people die in the Trzciana railway accident in Galicia .
- January 16 : In two railway accidents near Kirn in the Rhine province and between Bohmte and Osnabrück in the Hanover province , 69 people die.
- February 13 : A 7.3 magnitude earthquake struck Guangdong province , China , killing approximately 10,000
- February 24 : In heavy seas off Broad Cove on the Newfoundland coast, the Canadian liner Florizel crashes into a reef and sinks. 80 passengers and crew drown.
- July 9 : The Nashville railway accident is the worst accident in the history of the US railroad. 101 people are killed and 171 injured in a head-on collision between two trains near Nashville , Tennessee .
- July 12 : The Japanese liner Kawachi sinks in Tokuyama Bay after an internal explosion. Over 500 people are killed.
- October 1 : A landslide in Getå near Norrköping causes the worst railway accident in Sweden's history with at least 42 deaths .
- October 3 : The British passenger liner Burutu sinks in the Irish Sea after colliding with the cargo liner City of Calcutta . 148 passengers and crew members are killed
- October 25 : The Canadian passenger ship Princess Sophia of the Canadian Pacific Railway stranded on a reef on the coast of Alaska and capsized. All 356 passengers and crew are killed.
- Beginning of influenza - pandemic ( " Spanish flu "). Approx. 500 million sick people and over 20 million dead. Late 1919
Minor accidents are listed in the sub-articles of Catastrophe .
nature and environment
- February 21 : Incas , the last Caroline Parakeet , dies at the Cincinnati Zoo . Since then, the only parrot species in North America has been considered extinct.
Nobel Prizes in Physiology or Medicine, Literature or Peace were not awarded.
- January 2 : Willi Graf , member of the White Rose resistance group († 1943 )
- January 2 : Gudrun Zapf-von Hesse , German typographer and bookbinder († 2019 )
- January 3 : Lucie Schachne , German-British journalist and author of Jewish origin
- January 4th : Georg Kahn-Ackermann , German journalist and politician († 2008 )
- January 4th : Naim Krieziu , Albanian football player († 2010 )
- January 5 : Heinz Abosch , German writer († 1997 )
- January 6th : Eugen Biser , Catholic theologian and religious philosopher († 2014 )
- January 6th : Donald A. Prater , English writer, Germanist and diplomat († 2001 )
- January 7th : Constance Cummings-John , Sierra Leonean suffragette, politician and teacher († 2000 )
- January 8th : Sepp Bradl , Austrian ski jumper († 1982 )
- January 8 : Helmut Schmidt-Vogt , German forest scientist († 2008 )
- January 9 : Ruthilde Boesch , Austrian opera, operetta, lied and concert singer (soprano) († 2012 )
- January 10 : Georges Riquier , French actor († 1998 )
- January 11 : Kitaoka Fumio , Japanese woodcut artist († 2007 )
- January 11 : John Mackey , Bishop of Auckland († 2014 )
- January 11 : Gunnar Sønsteby , Norwegian resistance fighter († 2012 )
- January 12 : Julio Gutiérrez , Cuban composer, conductor and pianist († 1990 )
- January 12th : Maharishi Mahesh Yogi , Indian teacher, founder of Transcendental Meditation, author († 2008 )
- January 13 : Cissy Kraner , Austrian actress, singer and cabaret artist († 2012 )
- January 13 : Winand Victor , German painter († 2014 )
- January 15 : Edouard Gagnon , Canadian Curia Cardinal († 2007 )
- January 15 : David George Kendall , British mathematician and statistician († 2007 )
- January 15 : Vicente de la Mata , Argentinian football player († 1980 )
- January 15 : Gamal Abdel Nasser , Egyptian politician († 1970 )
- January 15 : Diana Barnato Walker , British pilot († 2008 )
- January 16 : Josip Barković , Croatian writer, screenwriter and film director († 2011 )
- January 16 : Nel Benschop , Dutch poet († 2005 )
- January 16 : Cardinal Marcelo González Martín , Archbishop of Toledo († 2004 )
- January 16 : Hermann-Josef Weidinger , Austrian Premonstratensian canon and missionary († 2004 )
- January 17 : George Michael Leader , American politician († 2013 )
- January 17 : George Wilson , American boxer († 1956 )
- January 18 : Howie Richmond , American music publisher († 2012 )
- January 19 : Joseph Marie Anthony Cordeiro , Archbishop of Karachi and Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church († 1994 )
- January 19 : Luciano Emmer , Italian film director († 2009 )
- January 19 : John H. Johnson , American media entrepreneur († 2005 )
- January 21 : Antonio Janigro , Italian cellist, conductor and university professor († 1989 )
- January 21 : Richard Winters , Major in the US Army († 2011 )
- January 22 : Friedrich Auffarth , judge at the Federal Labor Court († 2004 )
- January 22 : Elmer Lach , Canadian ice hockey player († 2015 )
- January 22nd : Bruno Zevi , Italian architect, architectural historian, author and university professor († 2000 )
- January 23 : Gertrude Belle Elion , American scientist and Nobel Prize winner for medicine († 1999 )
- January 24 : Gottfried von Eine , Austrian composer († 1996 )
- January 24 : Oral Roberts , American healing minister, television evangelist, and entrepreneur († 2009 )
- January 25 : Tranquilo Cappozzo , Argentine rower († 2003 )
- January 25 : Hans Jucker , Swiss classical archaeologist († 1984 )
- January 26 : Ingrid von Bothmer , German theater and television actress († 2003 )
- January 26 : Nicolae Ceaușescu , communist politician and President of Romania († 1989 )
- January 26 : Philip José Farmer , American SF and fantasy writer († 2009 )
- January 26 : Tibor Szele , Hungarian mathematician and university lecturer († 1955 )
- January 26 : Mala Zimetbaum , Jewish resistance fighter in Auschwitz († 1944 )
- January 27th : Thies Christophersen , belonged to the group of revisionists who stubbornly deny the Holocaust († 1997 )
- January 27 : Skitch Henderson , British-American pianist and conductor († 2005 )
- January 27 : Elmore James , American blues musician († 1963 )
- January 27 : Antonín Mrkos , Czech astronomer († 1996 )
- January 28 : Suzanne Flon , French theater and film actress († 2005 )
- January 28 : Sandro Puppo , Italian football player and coach († 1986 )
- January 29 : Luis Aguilar , Mexican actor and singer († 1997 )
- January 29 : Everhardus Jacobus Ariëns , Dutch pharmacologist († 2002 )
- January 29 : John Forsythe , American film and television actor († 2010 )
- January 30 : Heinz Rutishauser , Swiss mathematician († 1970 )
- January 31 : Karl Emerich Krämer , German writer († 1987 )
- February 1 : Ray Merrick , British racing car driver († 2003 )
- February 1 : Ynso Scholten , Dutch lawyer and politician († 1984 )
- February 2 : Margit Åsberg-Albrechtsson , Swedish cross-country skier († 1994 )
- February 2 : Hella Haasse , Dutch writer († 2011 )
- February 3 : Gerhard Bassarak , German Protestant theologian († 2008 )
- February 3 : Helen Stephens , American athlete († 1994 )
- February 4th : Rhené Jaque , Canadian composer († 2006 )
- February 5 : Vincenzo Fagiolo , Archbishop of Chieti and Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church († 2000 )
- February 5 : Kara Karajew , Azerbaijani composer († 1982 )
- February 5 : Otto Scrinzi , Austrian doctor, publicist and politician († 2012 )
- February 6 : Lothar-Günther Buchheim , German writer, painter, art collector and publisher († 2007 )
- February 6 : Johnny Tyler , American country musician († 1961 )
- February 7 : Peter Ruta , American painter († 2016 )
- February 8 : Fred Blassie , American wrestler and wrestling manager († 2003 )
- February 8 : Hans Lutwitzi , German politician (CDU) († 1999 )
- February 9 : Adolf Adam , Austrian computer scientist, statistician and professor († 2004 )
- February 9 : Fritz Bringmann , German resistance fighter († 2011 )
- February 10 : James Carson , American country and old-time musician († 2007 )
- February 11 : Anne-Stine Ingstad , Norwegian archaeologist († 1997 )
- February 12 : Julian Seymour Schwinger , American physicist († 1994 )
- February 12 : Udo Giulini , German lawyer, entrepreneur and politician (CDU), Member of the Bundestag († 1995 )
- February 13 : Harold J. Berman , American legal historian and legal philosopher († 2007 )
- February 13 : Mabuni Ken'ei , Japanese karate master (Shitō ryū), 10th Dan († 2015 )
- February 14 : Jacob do Bandolim , Brazilian mandolinist and composer († 1969 )
- February 15 : Allan Arbus , American actor († 2013 )
- February 15 : Smilja Avramov , Yugoslav law scholar († 2018 )
- February 15 : Maria Bergmann , German pianist († 2002 )
- February 16 : Karl Hauptmannl , German teacher († 1993 )
- February 16 : Patricia Marie Andrews , American singer († 2013 )
- February 17th : Paul Huber , Swiss composer († 2001 )
- February 17th : Leila Mourad , Egyptian film actress and singer († 1995 )
- February 19 : Walter Biemel , Romanian-German philosopher († 2015 )
- February 19 : Viktoria Lindpaintner , German figure skater († 1965 )
- February 19 : Fay McKenzie , American actress († 2019 )
- February 19 : Edzo Toxopeus , Dutch lawyer and politician († 2009 )
- February 20 : Lukas Aurednik , Austrian football player († 1997 )
- February 20 : Lorand Fenyves , American violinist and music teacher of Hungarian-Jewish origin († 2004 )
- February 22 : Sid Abel , Canadian ice hockey player and coach († 2000 )
- February 22nd : George Constantine , American racing driver († 1968 )
- February 22nd : Robert Wadlow , greatest person in medical history († 1940 )
- February 23 : Ernst Hildebrand , German composer and musician († 1986 )
- February 25 : Barney Ewell , American athlete and Olympic champion († 1996 )
- February 25 : Bobby Riggs , American tennis player († 1995 )
- February 26 : Otis R. Bowen , American politician († 2013 )
- February 26 : Theodore Sturgeon , American science fiction writer († 1985 )
- February 27 : Harold Brownlow Martin , British Air Force officer in the Royal Air Force († 1988 )
- February 27 : Werner Richter , German cyclist († 2004 )
- February 28 : Pepita Embil , Spanish zarzuela singer, mother of Plácido Domingo († 1994 )
- March 1 : Franz Becker , German football player († 1965 )
- March 1 : Hermann Biechele , German politician and Member of the Bundestag († 1999 )
- March 1 : João Goulart , President of Brazil 1961 to 1964 († 1976 )
- March 1 : Marie-Louise Berneri , Italian author and anarchist († 1949 )
- March 3 : Arthur Kornberg , American biochemist († 2007 )
- March 3 : Fritz Thiedemann , German show jumper († 2000 )
- March 4 : Kurt Dahlmann , German journalist († 2017 )
- March 4 : Margaret Osborne duPont , American tennis player († 2012 )
- March 5 : Nakamura Shin'ichirō , Japanese writer († 1997 )
- March 5 : Milt Schmidt , Canadian ice hockey player († 2017 )
- March 5 : James Tobin , American economist († 2002 )
- March 6 : Howard McGhee , American jazz trumpeter († 1987 )
- March 6 : Robert Stewart , American composer († 1995 )
- March 7th : Dario Ambrosini , Italian motorcycle racer († 1951 )
- March 7th : Rolf Thiele , Austrian director († 1994 )
- March 9 : George Lincoln Rockwell , American officer and founder of the American Nazi Party († 1967 )
- March 10 : Günther Rall , German lieutenant general and fighter pilot († 2009 )
- March 10 : Adrian Warburton , British pilot in World War II († 1944 )
- March 12 : Martino Aichner , Italian pilot and lawyer († 1994 )
- March 12th : Helmut Brennicke , German actor, director, radio play speaker, drama teacher and author († 2005 )
- March 12 : Willy Fitz , German soccer player († 1993 )
- March 12 : Elaine de Kooning , American painter († 1989 )
- March 13 : George McAfee , American football player († 2009 )
- March 14 : Vic Sears , American football player († 2006 )
- March 15 : Carol Adams , American dancer and actress († 2012 )
- March 16 : Frederick Reines , American physicist († 1998 )
- March 17 : Herb Lubalin , American typographer and graphic artist († 1981 )
- March 18 : Heinz Felfe , SS-Obersturmführer and Soviet spy († 2008 )
- March 19 : Fukunaga Takehiko , Japanese writer and translator († 1979 )
- March 20 : Marian McPartland , American jazz musician of British origin († 2013 )
- March 20 : Ilse Petri , German actress († 2018 )
- March 20 : Bernd Alois Zimmermann , German composer († 1970 )
- March 21 : Patrick J. Lucey , American politician († 2014 )
- March 22nd : Cheddi Jagan , politician from Guyana († 1997 )
- March 22nd : Gotfrid Köchert , Austrian racing car driver († 1986 )
- March 22nd : Tauno Pylkkänen , Finnish composer († 1980 )
- March 23 : Émile Derlin Henri Zinsou , President of Benin (1968/69) († 2016 )
- March 24th : Gerd Martienzen , German actor and voice actor († 1988 )
- March 25 : Horst Sannemüller , German violinist and concert master († 2001 )
- March 26 : William C. Marland , American politician († 1965 )
- March 28 : José Faraoni , Argentine racing car driver († 1994 )
- March 28 : Maurice Edmond Müller , Swiss surgeon († 2009 )
- March 31 : Ted Post , American director († 2013 )
- March 31 : Jean-Jacques Siegrist , Swiss historian († 1992 )
- April 3 : Mary Anderson , American actress († 2014 )
- April 3 : Louis Applebaum , Canadian composer († 2000 )
- April 3 : Sixten Ehrling , Swedish conductor († 2005 )
- April 4 : Joseph Ashbrook , American astronomer († 1980 )
- April 4 : Abbie Neal , American country musician († 2004 )
- April 4 : Walter Rüegg , Swiss sociologist († 2015 )
- April 6 : Big Walter Horton , American blues musician († 1981 )
- April 6 : Hans Hürlimann , Swiss politician († 1994 )
- April 6 : Oskar Kusch , German submarine commander in World War II († 1944 )
- April 7 : Bobby Doerr , American baseball player († 2017 )
- April 7th : Elila Mena , Dominican pianist and music teacher († 1970 )
- April 8 : Betty Ford , former First Lady of the United States of America († 2011 )
- April 8 : Heidemarie Hatheyer , Austrian actress, singer and cabaret artist († 1990 )
- April 8 : Arrigo Wittler , German painter († 2004 )
- April 9 : Jørn Utzon , Danish architect († 2008 )
- April 11 : Guy Gale , British racing car driver († 1992 )
- April 12 : Gustav Lübbe , German publisher († 1995 )
- April 16 : Juozas Kazickas , Lithuanian entrepreneur, business consultant, billionaire, philanthropist and patron († 2014 )
- April 16 : Vladimír Pachman , Czech grandmaster for chess composition († 1984 )
- April 17 : William Holden , American film actor († 1981 )
- April 17th : Carol Rama , Italian painter († 2015 )
- April 18 : Morris Engel , American photographer, cameraman, screenwriter and director († 2005 )
- April 20 : Lucian Pulvermacher , antipope and head of the True Catholic Church († 2009 )
- April 20 : Kai Manne Siegbahn , Swedish physicist († 2007 )
- April 21 : Jack Brewer , American baseball player († 2003 )
- April 22nd : Solomon Aaron Berson , American medic († 1972 )
- April 23 : Margaret Avison , Canadian poet, librarian and social worker († 2007 )
- April 23 : Maurice Druon , French writer and politician († 2009 )
- April 23 : Otto Schubert , German officer and tribologist († 1978 )
- April 24 : Elisabeth Mann Borgese , German-Canadian marine lawyer and ecologist († 2002 )
- April 25 : Muhammed Said Abdulla , Tanzanian writer († 1991 )
- April 25 : Alain Savary , French education politician and resistant († 1988 )
- April 25 : Gerard Henri de Vaucouleurs , French-American astronomer († 1995 )
- April 26 : Fanny Blankers-Koen , Dutch athlete and Olympic champion († 2004 )
- April 27 : Francisco María Aguilera González , Mexican theologian and auxiliary bishop († 2010 )
- April 28 : Anja Lundholm , German writer († 2007 )
- April 28 : Karl-Eduard von Schnitzler , German journalist and television presenter († 2001 )
- April 30th : Donald McNeill , American tennis player († 1996 )
- May 1 : Jack Paar , American presenter († 2004 )
- May 4 : Tanaka Kakuei , 64th and 65th Prime Minister of Japan († 1993 )
- May 5th : Dino 7 Cordas , Brazilian guitarist († 2006 )
- May 5 : Marie Smith Jones , last speaker of the Eyak language († 2008 )
- May 6 : Godfrey Ridout , Canadian composer and music teacher († 1984 )
- May 7th : Kurt Anclam , German politician
- May 7 : Argeliers León , Cuban musicologist and pedagogue, folklorist and composer († 1991 )
- May 9 : Günter Ammon , German psychoanalyst († 1995 )
- May 9 : Orville Freeman , American politician († 2003 )
- May 9 : Mike Wallace , American journalist († 2012 )
- May 10 : T. Berry Brazelton , American pediatrician († 2018 )
- May 10 : Peter Poreku Cardinal Dery , Ghanaian Archbishop († 2008 )
- May 11 : Richard Feynman , American physicist and Nobel Prize winner 1965 († 1988 )
- May 11 : Eugen Seibold , German marine geologist († 2013 )
- May 12 : Alfred Bickel , Swiss football player and coach († 1999 )
- May 15 : Richard Edward Arnold , American country and pop singer († 2008 )
- May 15 : John Siegal , American football player († 2015 )
- May 15 : Joseph Wiseman , Canadian actor († 2009 )
- May 16 : George Leonard Wallace , Australian actor and comedian († 1968 )
- May 17th : Birgit Nilsson , Swedish opera singer († 2005 )
- May 18 : Juanito Arteta , Venezuelan trumpeter and arranger († 2008 )
- May 18 : Rafael Colón , Dominican singer and composer († 1991 )
- May 18 : Tom Bolack , American politician († 1998 )
- May 19 : Clara Auteri Pepe , Italian actress († 2018 )
- May 19 : Johnny Hicks , American country musician and presenter († 1997 )
- May 19 : Abraham Pais , Dutch physicist († 2000 )
- May 20 : Edward B. Lewis , American researcher († 2004 )
- May 23 : Boogaloo Ames , American jazz, blues and boogie woogie pianist († 2002 )
- May 24 : Peter J. Brennan , American trade union official and politician († 1996 )
- May 24th : Katharina Szelinski-Singer , German sculptor († 2010 )
- May 25 : Claude Marion Akins , American actor († 1994 )
- May 26 : John Dall , American actor († 1971 )
- May 27 : Nakasone Yasuhiro , Japanese politician († 2019 )
- May 28 : Marie-Luise Jahn , member of the White Rose († 2010 )
- May 28 : John McKeithen , American politician († 1999 )
- May 30th : Károly Doncsecz , Hungarian-Slovenian potter († 2002 )
- May 31 : Alf Marholm , German actor and speaker († 2006 )
- June 1 : Juan Alfredo Arzube Jaramillo , Auxiliary Bishop in Los Angeles († 2007 )
- June 1 : Gavin Astor , British nobleman and publisher († 1984 )
- June 1 : Hans Merkle , German soccer coach († 1993 )
- June 1 : Herbert A. Strauss , German-American historian († 2005 )
- June 2 : Ruth Atkinson , Canadian comic author and cartoonist († 1997 )
- June 3 : Robert Swink , American film editor († 2000 )
- June 4th : Marcelo Koc , Argentine composer († 2006 )
- June 4th : Jan van Dijk , Dutch composer and pianist († 2016 )
- June 5 : Theodore Wilbur Anderson , American mathematician († 2016 )
- June 5 : Branimir Sakač , Croatian composer († 1979 )
- June 6 : Martin Esslin , British theater scholar († 2002 )
- June 6th : Mariana Sansón Argüello , Nicaraguan poet and painter († 2002 )
- June 8 : Åke Gustav Andersson , Swedish ice hockey player († 1982 )
- June 8 : Gunther Philipp , Austrian actor († 2003 )
- June 8 : Robert Preston , American actor († 1987 )
- June 9 : John Hospers , emeritus American professor of philosophy († 2011 )
- June 10 : Barry Morse , British actor († 2008 )
- June 10 : Patachou , French singer and actress († 2015 )
- June 11th : Ruth Hughes Aarons , American table tennis player († 1980 )
- June 11 : Marianne Laqueur , German computer scientist († 2006 )
- June 12 : Samuel Z. Arkoff , American film producer and director († 2001 )
- June 13 : Helmut Lent , aviator in the German Air Force in World War II († 1944 )
- June 15 : François Tombalbaye , President of Chadian († 1975 )
- June 16 : Fred Ihrt , German press photographer († 2005 )
- June 17th : Ajahn Chah , Buddhist monk († 1992 )
- June 17 : Harry F. Bisel , American oncologist († 1994 )
- June 18 : Pearl Chertok , American harpist, music teacher and composer († 1981 )
- June 18 : Jerome Karle , American physical chemist († 2013 )
- June 18 : Franco Modigliani , Italian economist and Nobel Prize winner († 2003 )
- June 19 : Morris B. Abram , American lawyer († 2000 )
- June 22nd : Cicely Saunders , English doctor († 2005 )
- June 22nd : Hans Schaffert , Swiss Protestant clergyman († 2003 )
- June 24th : Hans-Günther Assel , German political scientist († 2002 )
- June 26 : Ingeborg Weber-Kellermann , German folklorist († 1993 )
- June 28 : Friedrich Falch , Austrian politician († 2002 )
- June 29 : Christof Frommelt , Liechtenstein cross-country skier († 1987 )
- June 29 : Ernst Leisi , Swiss professor of English and author († 2001 )
- June 29 : Richard Edmund Lyng , American politician († 2003 )
- July 3 : Ernest Vandiver , American politician († 2005 )
- July 4th : Alec Bedser , English cricketer († 2010 )
- July 4th : Paul Frank , German diplomat († 2011 )
- July 4th : Charlotte Fritz , Austrian "Righteous Among the Nations" († 2003 )
- July 4th : Taufa'ahau Tupou IV. , King of Tonga († 2006 )
- July 5 : George Rochberg , American composer († 2005 )
- July 7th : Werner Peters , German theater, film and television actor († 1971 )
- July 8 : Irwin Hasen , American comic artist († 2015 )
- July 9 : John Heath-Stubbs , British poet and translator († 2006 )
- July 9 : Nile Kinnick , American football player († 1943 )
- July 9 : Hiroshi Ohguri , Japanese composer and horn player († 1982 )
- July 10 : James Aldridge , Australian writer († 2015 )
- July 10 : Johannes Oppenheimer , Vice President of the Federal Administrative Court († 2007 )
- July 10 : Fred Wacker , American racing car driver († 1998 )
- July 11th : Chucho Rodríguez , Mexican composer, arranger, pianist and orchestra conductor († 1991 )
- July 13 : Alberto Ascari , Italian racing driver († 1955 )
- July 13 : Marcia Brown , American children's author and illustrator († 2015 )
- July 14 : Ingmar Bergman , Swedish director († 2007 )
- July 14 : Jay W. Forrester , American computer scientist († 2016 )
- July 15 : Bertram Brockhouse , Canadian physicist († 2003 )
- July 17 : Hotta Yoshie , Japanese writer († 1998 )
- July 17th : Carlos Arana Osorio , Guatemalan politician († 2003 )
- July 17 : Gerhard Reischl , German politician († 1998 )
- July 18 : Oscar Paulino Arredondo de la Mata , Cuban paleontologist († 2001 )
- July 18 : James Duesenberry , American economist († 2009 )
- July 18 : Nelson Mandela , South African anti-apartheid fighter, politician and President (1994–1999) († 2013 )
- July 20 : Liselotte Funcke , German politician († 2012 )
- July 20 : Olga Ramos , Spanish chanson singer († 2005 )
- July 23 : Ann Ayars , American actress and opera singer (soprano) († 1995 )
- July 24 : Ruggiero Ricci , American violinist († 2012 )
- July 25 : Annemarie Cordes , German actress († 1998 )
- July 25 : Joseph Rovan , French historian of German origin († 2004 )
- July 26th : Marjorie Lord , American actress († 2015 )
- July 27 : Leonard Rose , American cellist († 1984 )
- July 28 : Albert George Wilson , American astronomer († 2012 )
- July 31 : Paul Delos Boyer , American biochemist († 2018 )
- July 31 : Nils Nobach , German pop composer and producer († 1985 )
- July 31 : Hank Jones , American jazz pianist († 2010 )
- August 1st : Artur Brauner , Polish-born film producer († 2019 )
- August 4th : Hans Abich , German film producer and radio journalist († 2003 )
- August 4 : Claus Holm , German actor († 1996 )
- August 5 : Tom Drake , American actor († 1982 )
- August 6 : Jacqueline Laurent , French actress († 2009 )
- August 8 : Ruth Glowa-Burkhardt , German soprano († 1971 )
- August 9 : Robert Aldrich , American director († 1983 )
- August 10 : Arnett Cobb , American jazz saxophonist († 1989 )
- August 10 : Philipp Rohr , German soccer player and coach († 2007 )
- August 11 : Karl Heinz Jacoby , Auxiliary Bishop of Trier († 2005 )
- August 13 : Frederick Sanger , British biochemist († 2013 )
- August 15 : Anton Freiherr von Aretin , German politician († 1981 )
- August 15 : Raymond Gallois-Montbrun , French violinist and composer († 1994 )
- August 15 : Ernst Rudolph , German carom player († 1986 )
- August 16 : Jan van Beekum , Dutch composer and conductor († 2001 )
- August 16 : Richard Eberle , German visual artist and art educator († 2001 )
- August 17 : Evelyn Ankers , British actress († 1985 )
- August 18 : Antoine Joubeir , Lebanese Archbishop († 1994 )
- August 19 : Hans Pfohe , founder of the Lucia knitwear factory († 2004 )
- August 19 : Jimmy Rowles , American jazz pianist († 1996 )
- August 19 : Shankar Dayal Sharma , Indian politician and President († 1999 )
- August 20 : Luise Herklotz , German politician († 2009 )
- August 21 : Jacques Monod , French actor († 1985 )
- August 22 : Martin Pope , American chemist
- August 23 : Gustav Kaufmann , Liechtenstein sports shooter († 2015 )
- August 24 : Avery Cardinal Dulles , American theologian († 2008 )
- August 25 : Leonard Bernstein , American composer and conductor († 1990 )
- August 26 : Ulrich Beiger , German actor and director († 1996 )
- August 26 : Paul Bouman , American church musician and composer († 2019 )
- August 26 : Katherine Johnson , American mathematician († 2020 )
- August 27 : Anneliese Uhlig , German-American actress († 2017 )
- August 28 : Alejandro Agustín Lanusse Gelly , Argentine military and politician († 1996 )
- August 31 : Bill Homeier , American racing driver († 2001 )
- August 31 : Alan Jay Lerner , American author and songwriter († 1986 )
- September 1 : James D. Martin , American politician († 2017 )
- September 2 : Georg Braun , German motorcycle racer († 1995 )
- September 2 : Allen Drury , American journalist and writer († 1998 )
- September 3 : Susi Nicoletti , German-Austrian chamber actress († 2005 )
- September 4 : James Butler Hare , American politician († 1966 )
- September 4 : Gerald Wilson , American jazz musician († 2014 )
- September 7th : Jorge E. Illueca Sibauste , politician, diplomat, 38th President of Panama († 2012 )
- September 8 : Josef Scheungraber , German officer in the Wehrmacht († 2015 )
- September 8 : Manuel Valerio , Dominican poet († 1978 )
- September 9 : Oscar Luigi Scalfaro , Italian politician († 2012 )
- September 11th : Peter Palitzsch , German theater director († 2004 )
- September 13 : Dick Haymes , singer of Argentine origin († 1980 )
- September 13 : Rosemary Kennedy , member of the Kennedy clan († 2005 )
- September 14 : Georges Berger , Belgian racing driver († 1967 )
- September 14 : Malcolm Yelvington , American country and rockabilly musician († 2001 )
- September 16 : Władysław Kędra , Polish pianist and music teacher († 1968 )
- September 17 : Chaim Herzog , President of Israel († 1997 )
- September 18 : Carl-Gustav Esseen , Swedish mathematician († 2001 )
- September 18 : Johnny Mantz , American racing driver († 1972 )
- September 18 : Viktor Wassiljewitsch Talalichin , Soviet pilot († 1941 )
- September 21 : Juan José Arreola , Mexican writer († 2001 )
- September 22nd : Hans Scholl , German resistance fighter in the Third Reich († 1943 )
- September 23 : Karl Fischer , Austrian Trotskyist politician and resistance fighter († 1963 )
- September 23 : Salvatore Cardinal Pappalardo , Archbishop of Palermo († 2006 )
- September 24 : Emilio Q. Daddario , American politician († 2010 )
- September 26 : Ilse Maria Aschner , Austrian journalist († 2012 )
- September 26 : Harold Gramatges , Cuban composer († 2008 )
- September 27 : Martin Ryle , British radio astronomer († 1984 )
- September 28 : Willy Ritschard , Swiss politician († 1983 )
- September 29 : Harold L. Walters , American composer († 1984 )
- September 30 : Giovanni Cardinal Canestri , Archbishop of Genoa († 2015 )
- September 30 : Aldo Parisot , American cellist and music teacher († 2018 )
- October 4th : Berti Capellmann , German table tennis player († 2012 )
- October 4 : Giovanni Cardinal Cheli , Italian Cardinal Curia († 2013 )
- October 4 : Kenichi Fukui , Japanese chemist († 1998 )
- October 6 : Max de Terra , Swiss racing driver († 1982 )
- October 7th : Mimmo Rotella , Italian artist († 2006 )
- October 8 : Karin Andersson , Swedish politician († 2012 )
- October 8 : Kurt Redel , German conductor († 2013 )
- October 8 : Jens Christian Skou , Danish biophysicist and medical doctor († 2018 )
- October 9 : E. Howard Hunt , American secret service agent (CIA) († 2007 )
- October 9 : Bebo Valdés , Cuban jazz musician († 2013 )
- October 10 : Jigal Allon , Israeli Labor Party politician († 1980 )
- October 10 : Werner Dollinger , German politician († 2008 )
- October 10 : John W. King , American politician († 1996 )
- October 10 : Erich Schwertner , German politician († 1965 )
- October 12 : Frank Armi , American racing driver († 1992 )
- October 12 : Sid Avery , American photographer († 2002 )
- October 13 : Colin Pittendrigh , American biologist and co-founder of chronobiology († 1996 )
- October 13 : Robert Walker , American actor († 1951 )
- October 14th : Thelma Coyne Long , Australian tennis player († 2015 )
- October 15 : Joe Vetrano , American football player († 1995 )
- October 16 : Tony Rolt , British racing car driver († 2008 )
- October 16 : Louis Althusser , French philosopher († 1990 )
- October 16 : Henri Vernes , Belgian novelist and comic book writer
- October 17 : Rita Hayworth , American actress († 1987 )
- October 20 : Roy Ash , American business manager, entrepreneur and government official, († 2011 )
- October 20 : Robert H. Lochner , American journalist and translator († 2003 )
- October 20 : Werner Maihofer , German lawyer and politician († 2009 )
- October 21 : Hulett C. Smith , American politician († 2012 )
- October 22 : LG McKinley , American blues guitarist († 1970 )
- October 22 : René de Obaldia , French author and playwright
- October 22 : Paul Edwin Roth , German actor († 1985 )
- October 24 : Bobby Gimby , Canadian band leader, trumpeter and songwriter († 1998 )
- October 25 : David Paul Ausubel , American educator, learning theorist and university lecturer († 2008 )
- October 25 : Chubby Jackson , American jazz bassist († 2003 )
- October 26 : Eric Ericson , Swedish choir director and conductor († 2013 )
- October 27 : Gordon Delamont , Canadian composer, trumpeter and music teacher († 1981 )
- October 27 : Edgar Herschler , American politician († 1990 )
- October 27 : Teresa Wright , American actress († 2005 )
- October 29 : Baby Peggy , American film actress († 2020 )
- October 31 : Albert Hetterle , German actor, director and theater manager († 2006 )
- November 1 : Barry S. Brook , American musicologist and university professor († 1997 )
- November 1 : Ken Miles , British racing driver († 1966 )
- November 2 : Werner Behrend , German politician (GDR) († 1987 )
- November 3 : Raimon Panikkar , Spanish philosopher and theologian († 2010 )
- November 4 : Art Carney , American comedian and actor († 2003 )
- November 5 : Gisela Arendt , German swimmer († 1969 )
- November 7th : Paul Aussaresses , French general († 2013 )
- November 7 : Billy Graham , American Baptist pastor and evangelist († 2018 )
- November 8 : Hermann Zapf , German typographer, calligrapher, author and teacher († 2015 )
- November 9 : Spiro Agnew , American politician, Vice President under Richard Nixon († 1996 )
- November 9th : Choi Hong Hi , South Korean general and developer of the martial art Taekwondo († 2002 )
- November 10 : Ernst Otto Fischer , German chemist († 2007 )
- November 11 : Jürg Baur , German composer († 2010 )
- November 13 : Janine Andrade , French violinist († 1997 )
- November 13 : Karl Werner Aspenström , Swedish poet and essayist († 1997 )
- November 14 : John Bromwich , Australian tennis player († 1999 )
- November 15 : Kurt Kohl , psychologist († 2002 )
- November 15 : Adolfo Pedernera , Argentinian football player and coach († 1995 )
- November 16 : Joe Appiah , Ghanaian lawyer, diplomat and politician († 1990 )
- November 18 : Rudolph Schulze , Minister for Post and Telecommunications in the GDR († 1996 )
- November 19 : Dutch Elston , American football player († 1989 )
- November 19 : Hendrik Christoffel van de Hulst , Dutch astrophysicist († 2000 )
- November 20 : Dora Ratjen , German athlete († 2008 )
- November 21 : Claire Austin , American blues and jazz singer († 1994 )
- November 21 : Dieter Mauritz , German table tennis player († 1988 )
- November 25 : Giuseppe Grezar , Italian football player († 1949 )
- November 25 : Kurt Wafner , German lecturer, author, anti-militarist († 2007 )
- November 26 : Patricio Aylwin , Chilean politician († 2016 )
- November 26 : Huber Matos , Cuban guerrilla leader († 2014 )
- November 27 : Gerhard Ribbeheger , German politician († 2007 )
- November 28 : Doris Shadbolt , Canadian art historian († 2003 )
- November 29 : Friedrich Adrario , Austrian officer in the Wehrmacht and the Austrian Armed Forces († 2011 )
- November 29th : Otto Glück , Austrian physician and politician († 2003 )
- November 29 : Madeleine L'Engle , American writer († 2007 )
- November 30th : Efrem Zimbalist, Jr. , American actor († 2014 )
- December 3 : Hans Paul Bahrdt , German sociologist († 1994 )
- December 3 : Lester Koenig , American music producer († 1977 )
- December 5 : Waldemar Grzimek , German sculptor († 1984 )
- December 7th : Randy Atcher , American country singer and musician († 2002 )
- December 7th : Max Merkel , Austrian soccer player and coach († 2006 )
- December 9 : Hanns-Heinz Bielefeld , German politician († 2018 )
- December 9 : Joyce Redman , Irish actress († 2012 )
- December 9 : Max H. Rehbein , German documentary filmmaker and television journalist († 2015 )
- December 10 : Anatoly Vladimirovich Tarasov , Soviet ice hockey player and coach († 1995 )
- December 11 : Alexander Solzhenitsyn , Russian writer, Nobel Prize winner († 2008 )
- December 12 : Harry Igor Ansoff , American mathematician and economist († 2002 )
- December 13 : Liviu Comes , Romanian composer († 2004 )
- December 13 : Inge Donnepp , German politician († 2002 )
- December 13 : Bill Vukovich , American racing driver († 1955 )
- December 14 : BKS Iyengar , Indian yoga teacher († 2014 )
- December 15 : Jeff Chandler , American film actor († 1961 )
- December 16 : Pierre Delanoë , French chanson writer († 2006 )
- December 16 : George Doughty , British composer
- December 19 : Professor Longhair , American singer and pianist († 1980 )
- December 20 : Achiel Buysse , Belgian cyclist († 1984 )
- December 20 : Rudolf Ducke , German entrepreneur († 2012 )
- December 21 : Kurt Waldheim , Austrian politician, Federal President of Austria (1986–1992) († 2007 )
- December 23 : Iván Mándy , Hungarian writer († 1995 )
- December 23 : Helmut Schmidt , German politician, Federal Chancellor of the FRG 1974 to 1982 († 2015 )
- December 24th : Dave Bartholomew , American musician († 2019 )
- December 25 : Anwar as-Sadat , Egyptian statesman († 1981 )
- December 25 : Ahmed Ben Bella , Algerian politician and head of state († 2012 )
- December 26 : Ntsu Mokhehle , Lesothic politician († 1999 )
- December 28 : Hans Schaufuss , German actor († 1941 )
- December 30th : W. Eugene Smith , American photographer († 1978 )
- December 31 : Gunder Hägg , Swedish athlete († 2004 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Bob Acri , American jazz pianist († 2013 )
- Amir-Chosrou Afshar-Ghasemlu , Persian Foreign Minister and Ambassador († 1999 )
- Haşmet Akal , Turkish painter († 1960 )
- Manuel Anglada i Ferran , Andorran writer and author († 1998 )
- Abelardo Arias , Argentine writer († 1991 )
- Orhon Murat Arıburnu , Turkish author († 1989 )
- Celal Atik , Turkish wrestler († 1979 )
- Omar del Carlo , Argentine playwright († 1975 )
- Andrés Holguín , Colombian poet, translator and literary critic († 1989 )
- Mamduh Muhammad Salim , Egyptian politician, general and prime minister († 1988 )
- Ursula Vogel , German actress and voice actress († 2006 )
- January 1 : William Wilfred Campbell , Canadian writer (* 1858 or 1860 )
- January 3 : Friedrich Wilhelm von Auer , Prussian major general (* 1864 )
- January 6th : Georg Cantor , German mathematician (* 1845 )
- January 8 : Heinrich von Buz , German technician and industrialist (* 1833 )
- January 10 : Konstantin Jireček , Czech politician, diplomat, historian and Slavist (* 1854 )
- January 10 : August Oetker , inventor of usable baking powder (* 1862 )
- January 12th : Ottmar Ritter von Angerer , German surgeon (* 1850 )
- January 15 : Georg Bötticher , German graphic artist and writer (* 1849 )
- January 15 : Wojciech Kętrzyński , Polish historian (* 1838 )
- January 16 : Hyacinth Holland , German art and literary historian (* 1827 )
- January 16 : Ethel Sargant , British botanist (* 1863 )
- January 16 : Luis Weiler , German railway civil engineer (* 1863 )
- January 17th : Louise Héritte-Viardot , French composer, pianist and singer (* 1841 )
- January 18 : Alfred Altherr , Swiss Protestant Reformation clergyman and writer (* 1843 )
- January 18 : Bohuslav Jeremiáš , Czech composer, organist, conductor and music teacher (* 1859 )
- January 18 : Amalie Materna , Austrian opera singer (* 1844 )
- January 21 : Jan Drozdowski , Polish pianist and music teacher (* 1857 )
- January 23 : Johannes Justus Rein , German geographer (* 1835 )
- January 26 : Ludwig Edinger , German neurologist (* 1855 )
- January 27 : Charles William Fulton , American politician (* 1853 )
- January 28 : John McCrae , Canadian poet, writer and medic (* 1872 )
- January 30th : William Hughes , American politician (* 1872 )
- January 30th : Franz Löhr , German sculptor (* 1874 )
- January 31 : Johann Puluj , Ukrainian physicist (* 1845 )
- February 6 : Gustav Klimt , Austrian painter (* 1862 )
- February 10 : Abdülhamid II , Sultan of the Ottoman Empire (* 1842 )
- February 11 : Taytu Betul , Empress of Ethiopia (* around 1851 )
- February 19 : Jakob Koch , world champion wrestler from Neuss (* 1870 )
- February 21 : Heinrich Leonhard Adolphi , German-Baltic clergyman, chess player, Protestant martyr (* 1852 )
- February 21 : Ludwig Johannes Tschischko , Latvian clergyman and evangelical martyr (* 1858 )
- February 23 : Leopold von Auersperg , Austrian politician (* 1855 )
- February 24 : Adam Jende , Latvian clergyman and evangelical martyr (* 1861 )
- February 24th : Adolf Friedrich VI. , Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (* 1882 )
- February: Enrique Lobos , Chilean painter (* 1887 )
- March 1 : Harlan Carey Brewster , Canadian politician (* 1870 )
- March 8 : Charles Follen Adams , American poet (* 1842 )
- March 8 : Georg Langerhans , German Mayor (* 1870 )
- March 9 : George von Lengerke Meyer , American politician (* 1858 )
- March 9 : Frank Wedekind , German writer and actor (* 1864 )
- March 10 : Leonhard Atzberger , German clergyman and dogmatist (* 1854 )
- March 10th : Ernst Friedel , German local politician and historian and local researcher (* 1837 )
- March 10 : Eugen von Zimmerer , German governor of Cameroon (* 1843 )
- March 11 : Reinhold Steig , German literary historian (* 1857 )
- March 15 : José White Lafitte , Cuban violinist and composer (* 1836 )
- March 18 : Joseph Deniker , French anthropologist (* 1852 )
- March 21 : Warner Miller , American politician (* 1838 )
- March 23 : Paul Laband , German constitutional law teacher (* 1838 )
- March 25 : Claude Debussy , French composer (* 1862 )
- March 27 : Martin Sheridan , American athlete (* 1881 )
- March 29 : Timm Kröger , German writer (* 1844 )
- March 31 : Richard Mandl , Austrian composer (* 1859 )
- April 2 : Carl Grunert , German writer (* 1865 )
- April 3 : André Laporte , French composer (* around 1886)
- April 4 : Hanns von Zobeltitz , German journalist and writer (* 1853 )
- April 6 : Sawwa Mamontow , Russian industrialist and patron (* 1841 )
- April 9 : Niko Pirosmani , Georgian painter (* 1862 )
- April 11 : Otto Wagner , Austrian architect (* 1841 )
- April 11 : William C. McDonald , American politician (* 1858 )
- April 12 : Robert F. Broussard , American politician (* 1864 )
- April 14 : William J. Stone , American politician (* 1848 )
- April 16 : Jules Fournier , Canadian journalist, newspaper publisher, translator and essayist (* 1884 )
- April 17 : Friedrich Karl Johannes Thiele , German chemist (* 1865 )
- April 20 : Ferdinand Braun , German physicist (* 1850 )
- April 20 : Alexander Girardi , Austrian actor (* 1850 )
- April 20 : Hans Breuer , representative of the Wandervogel movement (* 1883 )
- April 21 : Adolfo Baci , Italian composer (* 1834 )
- April 21 : Manfred von Richthofen , German fighter pilot (* 1892 )
- April 22nd : Carl Reuss , German forester (* 1844 )
- April 23 : William E. Fuller , American politician (* 1846 )
- April 24 : Yevno Fischelewitsch Asef , Russian terrorist and police spy (* 1869 )
- April 27 : Oscar Troplowitz , German pharmacist and entrepreneur (* 1863 )
- April 28 : Gavrilo Princip , Bosnian Serb nationalist (* 1894 )
- April 29 : Richard Kandt , German doctor and Africa explorer (* 1867 )
- April 30th : Hermann Winnefeld , German archaeologist (* 1862 )
- May 2 : Guido von Gillhaußen , German officer and war poet (* 1870 )
- May 5 : Adolf Philippi , German classical philologist and art historian (* 1843 )
- May 14 : Joaquim Pimenta de Castro , Portuguese general, putschist and head of government (* 1846 )
- May 17 : Ernst von Hesse-Wartegg , Austrian diplomat and travel writer (* 1851 )
- May 19 : Ferdinand Hodler , Swiss painter (* 1853 )
- May 20 : Richard Andersson , Swedish composer, pianist and music teacher (* 1851 )
- May 23 : Max Bösenberg , German architect (* 1847 )
- May 25 : Carl Berner , Norwegian politician (* 1841 )
- May 25 : Henry Schradieck , German composer, violinist and music teacher (* 1846 )
- May 28 : Richard Assmann , German meteorologist (* 1845 )
- May 29 : René Vierne , French organist and composer (* 1878 )
- May 30 : Bertram Tracy Clayton , American officer and politician (* 1862 )
- May 30th : Georgi Plekhanov , Russian, Menshevik politician (* 1856 )
- May 31 : Alexander Mitscherlich , German chemist (* 1836 )
- May: Ali Aaltonen , Finnish lieutenant in the army of the Russian Empire, journalist and communist leader (* 1884)
- June 1 : Richard Faltin , Finnish composer, music professor (* 1835 )
- June 3 : Bruno Adam , German architect and builder (* 1846)
- June 3 : Ramón Maximiliano Valdés , Panamanian President (* 1867 )
- June 8 : Franz Fischer , German conductor and cellist (* 1849 )
- June 9 : Xaver Henselmann , German architect (* 1881 )
- June 10 : Arrigo Boito , Italian writer and composer (* 1842 )
- June 10 : Richard Voss , German writer (* 1851 )
- June 13 : Mikhail Alexandrowitsch Romanow , Russian Grand Duke (* 1878 )
- June 14 : John Harper Long , American chemist (* 1856 )
- June 19 : Francesco Baracca , Italian fighter pilot (* 1888 )
- June 19 : William Kennedy , American politician (* 1854 )
- June 20 : Sape Talma , Dutch medic (* 1847 )
- June 21 : Edward Józef Abramowski , Polish philosopher, psychologist, sociologist and anarchist (* 1868 )
- June 21 : Hermann Essig , German playwright, storyteller and poet (* 1878 )
- June 23 : Mohammad Ali Khan Ala al-Saltaneh , Iranian Prime Minister (* 1829 )
- June 26 : Peter Rosegger , Austrian writer (* 1843 )
- June 29 : Adrien Lachenal , Swiss politician (* 1849 )
- June: Knud Christian Andersen , Danish zoologist (* 1867 )
- July 2 : Georg von Schuh , German lawyer and politician (* 1846 )
- July 3 : Mehmed V , Sultan of the Ottoman Empire (* 1844 )
- July 7th : Nikolai Samuilowitsch Abelman , Russian revolutionary and participant in the October Revolution (* 1887 )
- July 9 : Hans am Ende , German painter (* 1864 )
- July 12 : Thorleif Auerdahl , Norwegian poet (* 1895 )
- July 13 : Gilles van Overbeek de Meijer , Dutch doctor (* 1831 )
- July 14th : Paul Cinquevalli , German juggler (* 1859 )
- July 17 : Nicholas II of Russia , Tsar of Russia (1894–1917) (* 1868 )
- July 17 : Alexandra Feodorovna , wife of Tsar Nicholas II (* 1872 )
- July 17 : Olga Nikolajewna Romanowa , daughter of Tsar Nicholas II (* 1895 )
- July 17 : Tatiana Nikolajewna Romanowa , daughter of Tsar Nicholas II (* 1897 )
- July 17th : Maria Nikolajewna Romanowa , daughter of Tsar Nicholas II (* 1899 )
- July 17 : Anastasia Nikolajewna Romanowa , daughter of Tsar Nicholas II (* 1901 )
- July 17 : Alexei Nikolajewitsch Romanow , son of Tsar Nicholas II, Tsarevich of Russia (* 1904 )
- July 20 : Hermann Mutschmann , German classical philologist (* 1882 )
- July 26th : Fanny zu Reventlow , German writer (* 1871 )
- July 29 : İbrahim Hakkı Pascha , Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire (* 1863 )
- August 9 : František Plesnivý , Bohemian architect (* 1845 )
- August 10 : William P. Kellogg , American politician (* 1830 )
- August 14 : Edward H. Gillette , American politician (* 1840 )
- August 15 : Heinrich Köselitz , German writer and composer (* 1854 )
- August 17 : Hugo Andresen , German Romanist and Medievalist (* 1844 )
- August 18 : George H. Prouty , American politician (* 1862 )
- August 22nd : Korbinian Brodmann , German medic (* 1868 )
- August 27 : Hermann Hitzig , Swiss classical philologist (* 1843 )
- August 28 : Ollie M. James , American politician (* 1871 )
- August 29 : Max Dauthendey , German painter and poet (* 1867 )
- September 4 : Hans Droysen , German classical philologist and historian (* 1851 )
- September 10 : Carl Peters , German colonial politician (* 1856 )
- September 12 : Joseph Clay Stiles Blackburn , American politician (* 1838 )
- September 12 : Sir George Houstoun Reid , Australian politician (* 1845 )
- September 18 : Ernest Bristow Farrar , English composer and organist (* 1885 )
- September 18 : Wladimir Alexejewitsch Senilow , Russian composer (* 1875 )
- September 19 : Liza Lehmann , English composer, singer and pianist (* 1862 )
- September 20 : Meschadi Azizbekow , Azerbaijani politician (* 1876 )
- September 20 : Stepan Shahumyan , Soviet-Armenian politician (* 1878 )
- September 22nd : Wilhelm Viëtor , German linguist and neophilologist (* 1850 )
- September 26 : Georg Simmel , German sociologist and cultural philosopher (* 1858 )
- September 28 : Eduard von Keyserling , German writer and playwright (* 1855 )
- Louis Abel-Truchet , French painter (* 1857 ) September:
- Kurt Beitzen , German naval officer (* 1885 ) September:
- October 1 : Gaston Milhaud , French science theorist and science historian (* 1858 )
- October 2 : Christian Otto Mohr , German engineer and building officer (* 1835 )
- October 8 : Károly Aggházy , Hungarian piano virtuoso and composer (* 1855)
- October 9 : Hanns Braun , German athlete (* 1886 )
- October 10 : Elisabeth Bürstenbinder , German writer (* 1838 )
- October 12 : Pierre Gailhard , French opera bassist (* 1848 )
- October 12 : William F. Hooley , American singer (* 1861 )
- October 13 : Adam Abt , German classical philologist (* 1885 )
- October 13 : Gerrit Engelke , German worker poet (* 1890 )
- October 15 : Johnny Aitken , American racing car driver (* 1885 )
- October 15 : Antonio Cotogni , Italian opera singer (* 1831 )
- October 17 : Allen C. Beach , American politician (* 1825 )
- October 17 : Malak Hifnī Nāsif , Egyptian women's rights activist (* 1886 )
- October 18 : Thomas Kearns , American politician (* 1862 )
- October 18 : Koloman Moser , Austrian painter, graphic artist and artisan (* 1868 )
- October 19 : Harold Lockwood , American actor (* 1887 )
- October 20 : Roger Boucher , French organist and composer (* 1885 )
- October 20 : Joseph Boulnois , French composer and organist (* 1884 )
- October 24 : Daniel Burley Woolfall , British President of FIFA (* 1852 )
- October 27 : Eugene Hale , American politician (* 1836 )
- October 27 : Alexander Pomeranzew , Russian architect (* 1849 )
- October 29 : Maria Gugelberg von Moos , Swiss botanist (* 1836 )
- October 29 : Rudolf Tobias , Estonian composer and organist (* 1873 )
- October 31 : Egon Schiele , Austrian painter (* 1890 )
- October 31 : István Tisza , Austro-Hungarian politician and Prime Minister of Hungary (* 1861 )
- November 4 : František Balej , Czech lawyer, translator and humanistic philosopher (* 1873 )
- November 5 : Shimamura Hōgetsu , Japanese writer, literary critic and scholar (* 1871 )
- November 9th : Guillaume Apollinaire , French poet, writer and critic (* 1880 )
- November 9 : Albert Ballin , German shipowner (* 1857 )
- November 11th : Victor Adler , Austrian politician (* 1852 )
- November 11th : Hermann Gladenbeck , German sculptor (* 1827 )
- November 11 : Joseph Henry Sweney , American politician (* 1845 )
- November 13 : Tadeusz Nalepiński , Polish poet and writer (* 1885 )
- November 13 : Paul Wieczorek , first commander of the People's Naval Division (* 1885 )
- November 14th : Seumas O'Kelly , Irish journalist and writer (* 1881 )
- November 15 : Robert Anderson , British policeman (* 1841 )
- November 19 : Malachia Ormanian , Armenian Archbishop and Patriarch of Constantinople of the Armenian Apostolic Church (* 1841 )
- November 22nd : William D. Hoard , American politician (* 1836 )
- November 22nd : Jakob Hillier , Romanian-German composer, church musician and music teacher (* 1848 )
- November 24th : Alexander Schnütgen , German theologian and art collector (* 1843 )
- November 27 : Bohumil Kubišta , Czech painter (* 1884 )
- November 28 : Alexis Contant , Canadian composer, organist and music teacher (* 1858 )
- December 2 : Edmond Rostand , French playwright (* 1868 )
- December 5 : Martin Boelitz , German writer (* 1874 )
- December 6th : Hendrik Enno Boeke , Dutch mineralogist (* 1881 )
- December 6th : William Wolfensberger , Swiss pastor poet (* 1889 )
- December 7th : Nicanor Plaza , Chilean sculptor (* 1844 )
- December 11th : Ottilie Schwahn , German narrator (* 1849 )
- December 13 : Hermann Erler , German music publisher, composer and writer (* 1844 )
- December 14 : Walter Kern , German architect and government master builder (* 1860 )
- December 14 : Sidónio Pais , Portuguese putschist, later president (* 1872 )
- December 18 : Carl Immanuel Philipp Hesse , German-Baltic pastor, Protestant martyr in Estonia (* 1875 )
- December 18 : Henryk Jarecki , Polish composer, conductor and music teacher (* 1846 )
- December 21 : Walter Hines Page , American journalist, publisher and diplomat (* 1855 )
- December 25 : John Wilbur Chapman , American Presbyterian pastor, author, evangelist and church leader (* 1859 )
- December 26th : Wassili Wassiljewitsch Andrejew , Russian balalaika virtuoso, orchestra conductor and composer (* 1861 )
- December 26th : Karl Elsener , Swiss cutler, businessman and politician (* 1860 )
- December 27 : Birt Acres , British photographer and film pioneer (* 1854 )
- December 27th : Carl Schlechter , Austrian chess player (* 1874 )
- December 29th : Otto Crusius , German classical philologist (* 1857 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Rasim Haşmet Akal , Turkish poet, writer and publisher (* 1880 )
- Josep Amargós i Samaranch , Spanish architect (* 1849 )
- Julio Bertrand Vidal , Chilean architect, photographer and draftsman (* 1888 )
- Aurel Eisenkolb , Romanian-German composer (* 1849 )
- John Forrest , Australian explorer and politician (* 1847 )
- Alois Lutz , Austrian figure skater (* 1898 )
- Tadeusz Miciński , Polish writer (* 1873 )
- Alwin Vater , German track cyclist and speed skater (* 1869 )
- Digitized newspapers from 1918 in the newspaper information system (ZEFYS) of the Berlin State Library