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Wilhelm II says goodbye to his entourage at the Belgian-Dutch border crossing in Eysden.
The November Revolution overthrows the German Empire and leads into the First Republic . Kaiser Wilhelm II goes into exile .
Colored photo of the conclusion of the armistice
The First World War ends with the Armistice of Compiègne .

Scheidemann proclaims the republic from the west balcony (second window north of the portico) of the Reichstag building.
Philipp Scheidemann proclaims the German republic .
Nicholas II with his wife Alexandra and their five children (1913)
The Russian royal family is murdered in Yekaterinburg .

On October 28, Czechoslovak independence is proclaimed on Wenceslas Square
The Czechoslovak independence was proclaimed, the kingdom of Bohemia officially dissolved.
1918 in other calendars
Armenian calendar 1366/67 (turn of the year July)
Ethiopian calendar 1910/11 (September 10/11)
Baha'i calendar 74/75 (March 20/21)
Bengali solar calendar 1323/24 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)
Buddhist calendar 2461/62 (southern Buddhism); 2460/61 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )
Chinese calendar 76th (77th) cycle

Year of the Earth-Horse戊午 ( until February 10th fire-snake 丁巳)

Chuch'e ideology (North Korea) Chuch'e 7
Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam) 1280/81 (turn of the year April)
Dangun era (Korea) 4251/52 (October 2/3)
Iranian calendar 1296/97 (around March 21)
Islamic calendar 1336/37 (October 6-7)
Japanese calendar Taishō 7 ( 大 正 元年 );
Kōki 2578
Jewish calendar 5678/79 (September 6-7)
Coptic calendar 1634/35 (September 10-11)
Malayalam calendar 1093/94
Minguo calendar (China) Year 7 of the republic
Rumi Calendar (Ottoman Empire) 1333/34 (March 1)
Seleucid era Babylon: 2228/29 (turn of the year April)

Syria: 2229/30 (turn of the year October)

Suriyakati Calendar (Thai Solar Calendar) 2460/61 (April 1)
Tibetan calendar 1664
Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar) 1974/75 (April)

The year 1918 marks the end of the First World War . As a result, many European monarchies also collapse.


Politics and world events

First World War and the resulting revolutions and civil wars

Political and diplomatic developments
Eastern Front
Western front
Mountain war between Italy and Austria-Hungary
East Africa
Lettow-Vorbeck's surrender (contemporary drawing)

The German protection force under Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck , which withdrew to the area of Portuguese East Africa last year , will return to the area of German East Africa via the Rovuma border river on September 28 and move north along Lake Nyassa about Songea and Mbozi . Lettow-Vorbeck decides to continue the march to Northern Rhodesia , which according to his information is largely free of British troops who suspect him to be in other parts of the colony. Here he received news of the armistice in Europe from British parliamentarians on November 13th . On November 25, the capitulation was signed in Abercorn south of Lake Tanganyika and the only 1,300-strong unit officially dissolved.

Sea and air war
Wrecks of the sunken block ships in the port entrance of Zeebrugge , but a sufficiently wide fairway remains free for the German submarines
  • April 22 to May 10 : During the attack on Zeebrugge and Ostend , the Royal Navy tried unsuccessfully to block the submarine ports of Zeebrugge and Ostend in occupied Belgium in order to prevent the submarines from leaving.
  • On April 23, the deep sea fleet made its last advance into the northern North Sea, where a British convoy is to be attacked. Since the fleet completely dispenses with the use of radio equipment, the deep sea fleet pushes up to the height of mountains without the British reacting. When the radio silence had to be broken on the following day due to a machine breakdown of the battle cruiser SMS Moltke , the Royal Navy ran out immediately with superior forces, but could not provide the deep sea fleet, although the SMS Moltke had to be towed.
  • May 7th : The HMT Olympic sinks the submarine SM U 103 with its port propeller.
One of the most modern and largest ships in the Austrian Navy, the SMS Szent István , sinks after a torpedo attack by an Italian MAS
The disintegration of the Central Powers
Events by summer
Approx. 800 Austrian-Hungarian seamen revolt
  • February 1st to 3rd : On 40 ships of the Austro-Hungarian navy in the port of Cattaro (today: Kotor) a sailors' revolt begins with the raising of the red flags , which is soon put down. The officers are temporarily disarmed and sailors' councils are formed. The support sought in Vienna and Budapest does not take place.
Ottoman Empire
German Empire
Proclamation of the takeover of power by the Workers 'and Soldiers' Council on November 15th at Bremen City Hall
Demonstration on Unter den Linden and the start of the general strike
Imperial Assembly of Workers 'and Soldiers' Councils on December 16
The people at the proclamation of independence
Hungarian Revolutionaries (October 31)
The waiver of November 11, 1918, countersigned by Prime Minister Lammasch
Proclamation of the Republic, view of the parliament ramp in Vienna
Károlyi speaks on November 16, 1918
Resolution of the National Assembly of Alba Iulia: Transylvania, Banat and other areas that were previously part of Hungary are connected to Romania
The disintegration of Russia
Soviet Russia
Viktor Chernov
Anton Denikin in Ekaterinodar
The basement in which the tsarist family and their entourage were murdered; the damage to the wall came from white investigators' search for evidence.
Fanny Kaplan
Ukraine and Bessarabia
Group of insurgents during the Arsenal Revolt
"The Ukrainian People's Republic within its prospective borders": German poster from 1918
Nikolos Tschcheidze
Azerbaijani victims in Baku
Declaration of Independence of Georgia
Picture collage of the Caucasus expedition in the "Great Picture Atlas of the World War"
Ottoman artillery bombs Baku
Baltic states
Original of the Lithuanian declaration of independence
Estonian independence proclaimed in Pärnu (February 23, 1918)
"Brothers, quickly to the people's troops" - mobilization poster for the Estonian armed forces in 1918
  • January 12th : The Finnish parliament decides against the bitter resistance of the socialists to authorize the government to take all measures "which it considers necessary to establish a strict public order."
  • January 16 : Senate Chairman Pehr Evind Svinhufvud instructs Lieutenant General of the Russian Army Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim , who has returned to Finland, as commander with the formation of armed forces. On January 25, the previously private “ white ” protective corps are declared the government's regular army. The socialists interpret this as the creation of a class war army against the working class.
Balance of power at the beginning of February 1918
  • Sphere of influence of the "whites"
  • Power of the "Reds"
    • January 27 : Almost two months after the declaration of independence , the Finnish civil war breaks out in Helsinki with the occupation of the most important buildings by the Red Guards . The following day, a people's commissariat is installed as government. This immediately faces a general strike by the public administration and the banks.
    • On the night of January 28, the white protective corps began disarming the Russian garrisons in southern Ostrobothnia . The garrisons in Laihia , Lapua , Seinäjoki , Ylistaro , Ilmajoki , Kaskinen , Nykarleby and Jakobstad offer little resistance, and Vaasa can also be taken on the same day. In Kristinestad and Kokkola , on the other hand, the protective corps had to break the resistance of the soldiers supported by the Red Guards. Until January 31st, however, all of southern Ostrobothnia is under white control. 8,000 rifles and heavy weapons are captured
    • February 20 : The red government adopts a constitution drafted by Otto Ville Kuusinen based on the model of Switzerland, which is to be submitted to a referendum after the war.
    • March 7th : The White Finnish government in Vaasa and the German Empire conclude a separate peace , a trade and shipping agreement and a secret agreement in Berlin , which obliges Finland to use almost all of the current war-economically relevant production and other available materials until a general peace agreement "as Payment for the delivered war materials “to leave Germany. The revolutionary government in Helsinki immediately declares the Berlin agreements null and void.
    Tampere after the battle
    German soldiers in Helsinki after conquering the city
    Flag of Finland

    Other events in Scandinavia

    Flag of Iceland 1918 to 1944
    • December 1 : Iceland signs the Union Treaty, which heralds the independence of the country from Denmark with the establishment of the Kingdom of Iceland . The two countries are only loosely connected by real union under the common king Christian X. Iceland gets its own flag and coat of arms , and Denmark only takes on the island's external relations and defense. The contract is set to run for 25 years, after which a referendum is to be held on complete independence.


    Ballot from October 13, 1918





    • In the Soviet Union , large-scale industry and railways are nationalized.

    science and technology

    Rock paintings with a white lady


    Visual arts


    Movie poster Tarzan of the Apes


    The subject , cover from 1918

    Music and theater

    scene image by Gianni Schicchi


    • May 21 : The founding meeting of the German Philosophical Society takes place in Weimar . An important initiator of the Association of Conservative Philosophers is Bruno Bauch , who, as a representative of the Southwest German School of Neo-Kantianism, represents an independent philosophy of values ​​that places a special focus on the connection between value and life . In the report on the founding meeting, the aim is to “maintain, deepen and preserve the German character”. The opposition to the Kant Society , founded in 1904 , is expressed in the emphasis that one does not have the "philosophy of all civilized peoples" as their topic, but rather see oneself as a "national complement".
    • December 8th : Freemasons found the Grand Lodge of Vienna . They were banned in the monarchy in Austria since 1795.



    The destroyed trains after the head-on collision near Nashville
    The locomotive after it fell from the embankment onto the road below. The first cars are burnt out behind the locomotive and the dining car is at a 45-degree angle on the embankment.

    Minor accidents are listed in the sub-articles of Catastrophe .

    nature and environment

    Carolina's Parakeet (showpiece)
    • February 21 : Incas , the last Caroline Parakeet , dies at the Cincinnati Zoo . Since then, the only parrot species in North America has been considered extinct.

    Nobel Prizes

    Nobel Prizes in Physiology or Medicine, Literature or Peace were not awarded.










    Ernst Rudolph
    Leonard Bernstein, 1971





    Exact date of birth unknown


    January February

    Georg Cantor
    Gustav Klimt, 1913
    Tomb ( Türbe ) of Abdülhamid II on the Divan Yolu in Istanbul

    March April

    Frank Wedekind
    Claude Debussy, around 1908
    Ferdinand Braun, 1909
    Manfred von Richthofen, 1917

    May June

    Peter Rosegger's house where he lived
    and where he died in Krieglach

    July August

    Mehmed V. (1913)
    Hans at the end
    Korbinian Brodmann

    September October

    Carl Peters
    Koloman Moser , 1905
    Schiele's death mask

    November December

    Albert Ballin

    Exact date of death unknown

    See also

    Web links

    Commons : 1918  - Collection of Pictures, Videos and Audio Files