List of rulers of Bulgaria

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The first Bulgarian empire was founded in 681 by Knjas Asparuch and lasted until submission to Byzantium in 1018 .

Although the Bulgarian rulers up to Simeon I are referred to by the title Khan in most history books, there is not a single historical source to confirm the title. Since Simeon I , the rulers called themselves Tsars .

The second Bulgarian empire existed from 1186 to 1396 .

After the liberation from Ottoman rule in 1878 , the third state first emerged as a principality , before Ferdinand I proclaimed himself tsar again in 1908 . In 1946 the monarchy was abolished after a referendum .

Greater Bulgarian Empire

title Surname dynasty Years of reign / remark
Mythical rulers of the (old) Greater Bulgarian Empire
Avitochol House Dulo ruled for 300 years
Irnik House Dulo ruled for 150 years
Gostun House Ermi ruled for 2 years
Ruler of the (old) Greater Bulgarian Empire
Patricius Kubrat House Dulo 632-665
Batbajan House Dulo 665-668

First Bulgarian Empire

title Surname dynasty Years of reign / remark
Ruler of the First Bulgarian Empire
Knyaz Asparuch House Dulo 668-700
Knyaz Terwel House Dulo 700 - approx. 721
Knyaz Kormesij House Dulo approx. 721-738
Knyaz Sewar House Dulo 738-753 or 754
Knyaz Kormisosh House Wokil 753 or 754-756
Knyaz Winech House Wokil 756-760
Telez House Ugain 760-765
Subin House Wokil 765-766
Umor House Wokil August - September 766
Toktu presumably House Ugain 766-767
Pagan unknown house 767-768
Telerig unknown house 768-777
Cardam unknown house 777-803
Krum unknown house, maybe house Dulo 803-814
Omurtag House Krum 814-831
Malamir House Krum 831-836 (probably with regency of Vice Khan Isbul)
Presian I. House Krum 836-852 (probably initially with the reign of Vice Khan Isbul)
Knjaz Boris I. (Michael) (Saint Boris) House Krum 852-864 - Khan
864-889 - Knjaz
Knjaz Vladimir Rassate House Krum 889-893
Knjaz /  Tsar Simeon I. House Krum 893-913 - Knjaz
913-927 - Tsar
Tsar Peter I. (Holy Tsar Peter) House Krum 927-969
Tsar Boris II House Krum 970-977
common reign of the Komitopuli 971-977
Tsar novel House Krum 977-997
Tsar Samuil House Komitopuli 997-1014
Tsar Gavril Radomir House Komitopuli 1014-1015
Tsar Ivan Vladislav House Komitopuli 1015-1018
Knjaz Presian II. House Komitopuli 1018

Byzantine rule

title Surname dynasty Reign
Appointed rulers during the revolts against Byzantine rule
Tsar Peter II (Deljan) House Komitopuli 1040-1041
Tsar Peter III (Konstantin Bodin) Komitopuli House and the Serbian House Vojisavljević 1072

Second Bulgarian Empire

title Surname dynasty Reign
Ruler of the Second Bulgarian Empire
Tsar Ivan Assen I. House Assen 1186-1196
Tsar Peter IV (Teodor) House Assen 1186-1197
Tsar Ivanko House Assen 1196
Tsar Kaloyan House Assen 1197-1207
Tsar Boril House Assen 1207-1218
Tsar Ivan Assen II. House Assen 1218-1241
Tsar Kaliman I. Assen House Assen 1241–1246 (council of rulers)
Tsar Michael II. Assen House Assen 1246 - approx. 1253 - Council of rulers, led by Irene Komnene
approx. 1253–1256 - independent rule
Tsar Kaliman II. Assen House Assen 1256
Tsar Mizo Assen House Mizo / House Assen 1256-1257
Tsar Konstantin Tich Assen House Tich / House Assen 1257-1277
Tsar Ivajlo unknown 1278-1279
Tsar Ivan Assen III. House Mizo / House Assen 1279-1280
Tsar Georgi I. Terter House Terter 1280-1292
Tsar Smilez House Smilez 1292-1298
Tsar Ivan IV Smilez House Smilez 1298-1300
Tsar Tschaka Nogai Tatars, descendants of Genghis Khan / House of Terter 1299-1300
Tsar Todor Svetoslav House Terter 1300-1321
Tsar Georgi II. House Terter 1321-1322
Tsar Michael III Schischman Schischmaniden / House Assen 1323-1330
Tsar Ivan Stefan Schischmaniden / House Assen 1330-1331
Tsar Ivan Alexander Schischmaniden ( Strazimir ) 1331-1371
Tsar Ivan Shishman Schischmaniden (Strazimir) 1371-1393
Tsar Ivan Strazimir Schischmaniden (Strazimir) 1356–1396 (in Vidin )

Ottoman rule

title Surname dynasty Reign
Appointed rulers during the uprisings against Ottoman rule
Tsar Constantine II. Assen Schischmaniden (Strazimir) 1396 - approx. 1422 (in Vidin )
Tsar Schischman III. Schischmaniden (Strazimir) 1598
Knjaz Rostislav Stratimirovich Schischmaniden ( Strazimir ) 1686
king Karposch 1689

Third Bulgarian Empire

title Surname dynasty Reign
Ruler (constitutional monarch) of the Third Bulgarian Empire
Knjaz Alexander I. House Battenberg April 17, 1879 to August 26, 1886
Knjaz /
Ferdinand I. House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha July 7, 1887 to October 5, 1908 - Knjaz
October 5, 1908 to October 3, 1918 - Tsar
Tsar Boris III House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha October 3, 1918 to August 28, 1943
Tsar Simeon II House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha August 28, 1943 to September 15, 1946 (Council of Rulers)

See also