Hungarian King Sigismund
suffers a crushing defeat
against the Ottomans in the battle of Nicopolis .
|1396 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||844/845 (turn of the year July)|
|Aztec calendar||7th tubes - Chicome Acatl (until the end of January / beginning of February 6th Rabbit - Chicuace Tochtli )|
|Buddhist calendar||1939/40 (southern Buddhism); 1938/39 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||68th (69th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||758/759 (turn of the year April)|
|Islamic calendar||798/799 (turn of the year 4th / 5th October)|
|Jewish calendar||5156/57 (September 3-4)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1706/07 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1707/08 (New Year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1452/53|
Politics and world events
Ottoman Empire / Balkans
Since his accession to the throne in 1387 , the Hungarian King Sigismund has sought support in the Western world in the fight against the Ottomans , who have been steadily advancing north for half a century and have already reached the Hungarian border. After lengthy efforts on the part of Pope Boniface IX. and the antipope Benedict XIII. , a crusade army rallies under Johann Ohnefurcht and Marshal Boucicaut in Buda . The majority of Burgundian Crusaders march at the side of the Hungarian army in Bulgaria and reached on 10 September Nikopolis . For two weeks they overran the fortress in vain, and the reinforcement of the Johanniter who had moved across the Danube did not turn the tide . Then reaching Ottoman army of Bayezid I , along with the armored horsemen of his Serbian vassal Stefan Lazarevic Nikopolis.
In the Battle of Nicopolis , the Burgundian-Hungarian crusader army suffered a devastating defeat against the Ottomans on September 25th . Bayezid has many of the captured crusaders killed, for whom no ransom is to be expected, either out of personal anger over the victory, which was bought with high losses, or to provide his soldiers with an outlet for their thirst for revenge . The sources speak of 300 to 3,000 men here. The high-ranking prisoners, such as Johann Ohnefurcht and Jean II. Le Maingre , are deliberately avoided by the Turks from this massacre in order to demand a handsome ransom, which in most cases is also paid by their relatives. Some of the prisoners, such as Johannes Schiltberger , survive because they are spared due to their young age. The numerous refugees from the battle often try to get back to their homeland on their own, but many of them perish on the way home. Sigismund and the Grand Master of St. John can also flee across the Danube with the help of Hermann II von Cilli . They take the sea route across the Black Sea into the Mediterranean, fearing that they will be captured by what they consider to be the treacherous Wallachian voivod Mircea the Old .
As a result of the battle, Ottoman troops penetrate as far as northern Greece and Syrmia .
Holy Roman Empire
- June 20 : Gottfried von Leiningen is elected by the majority of the cathedral chapter of Speyer as the successor to Nikolaus von Wiesbaden , who died on June 7, as Bishop of Speyer , but not confirmed by the Pope, whereupon his opponent, the Speyer and Worms , who were unsuccessful in the election Canon Raban von Helmstatt was made Bishop of Speyer the following year.
- September 14 : The city of Cologne receives the Verbundbrief a constitution that in governing alongside the patricians and guilds equal and merchants permits.
- September 25th : Further division of the Leopoldine line of the Habsburgs after the division in the Treaty of Neuberg 1379
- Shortly after his unconfirmed election in Speyer, Gottfried von Leiningen was elected archbishop there on November 12th by the Mainz Cathedral Chapter as the successor to Konrad II von Weinsberg , who died on October 19th . This election was not confirmed by the Pope either, as Leiningen is a partisan of King Wenceslas .
Other events in Europe
- May 19 : John I dies without offspring after falling from a horse and is inherited by his brother Martin I as King of Aragón . At this point in time, he was in Sicily in order to enforce his inheritance claims.
First documentary mentions
- Tschappina is first mentioned in a document.
- March 10 : By law in Venice all professional associations are obliged to register training contracts with the courts.
Culture and society
- The beautiful fountain in Nuremberg is completed.
- The game of dice is banned in Milan . Failure to do so will result in a 200 lire fine and be at least 100 miles from town.
- The campanile of the Church of Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari in Venice is completed.
- Raban von Helmstatt becomes Bishop of Speyer .
- Citizens of Frankfurt an der Oder found the Carthusian Monastery of Frankfurt (Oder) outside the city walls .
Date of birth saved
- May 26 : Johann , titular Count of Freiburg, Count of Neuchâtel and Lord of Badenweiler († 1458 )
- June 5 : Giannozzo Manetti , Florentine humanist and politician († 1459 )
- July 31 : Philip the Good , Duke of Burgundy († 1467 )
- October 15 : Jean IV , Count of Armagnac, Fézensac and Rodez († 1450 )
- October 16 : William de la Pole , English military leader in the Hundred Years War, Lord Chamberlain of England († 1450 )
- November 30 : Richard le Despenser , English aristocrat († 1413 / 1414 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Alfonso V , King of Aragón, as Alfonso I also King of Naples and Sicily († 1458 )
- Michelozzo di Bartolommeo , Italian sculptor and architect († 1472 )
- John Capgrave , English Augustinian, historian and theologian († 1464 )
- Muhammad IX , Emir of Granada († 1453 )
- Burkhard Zingg , Memmingen merchant and chronicler in Augsburg († around 1475 )
Born around 1396
- Jean IV. De Melun , Burgrave of Ghent, Viscount de Melun, Lord of Antoing, Épinoy and Wingels as well as Konnetabel von Flanders († 1484 )
- Casimir I , Duke of Auschwitz and Duke of Tost and half of Gleiwitz († 1434 )
- Kaspar Schlick , Count of Passaun and Weißkirchen and Chancellor of the Holy Roman Empire († 1449 )
Date of death secured
- March 1st : Johann , Duke of Görlitz (* 1370 )
- April 5 : Pilgrim II of Puchheim , Archbishop of Salzburg and administrator of the Reich Prelature Berchtesgaden (* around 1330 )
- April 20 : Hermann von Höxter , German medic (* around 1370 )
- April 26th : Stefan of Perm , Bishop of Little Perm and Apostle of the Syrian (* 1340 or 1345 )
- May 13 : William Zouche , English nobleman (* 1340 )
- May 19 : John I , King of Aragón (* 1350 )
- May 24 : Matteo da Campione , Italian Gothic sculptor (* around 1335 )
- June 7th : Nikolaus von Wiesbaden , Prince-Bishop of Speyer
- June 15 : Friedrich von Erdingen , Bishop of Chur and Brixen
- July 27th : Manfioli Lampugnano , Archbishop of Ragusa, Messina, Krakow and Płock
- July 31 : William Courtenay , Archbishop of Canterbury (* 1342 )
- August 20 : Marsilius von Inghen , Masters degree from the University of Paris and the University of Heidelberg
- September 9 : John Beaumont , English nobleman (* 1361 )
- September 25 : Leonhard Reichartinger , Bavarian crusader
- September 25th : Jean de Vienne , French knight and admiral during the Hundred Years War (* 1341 )
- September 28 : Henry II of Montfaucon , Lord of Orbe, Echallens, Oron, Palézieux and Montagny-le-Corbe (* 1360 )
- October 16 : Agnolo Gaddi , Italian painter (* around 1350 )
- October 19 : Konrad II. Von Weinsberg , Archbishop and Elector of Mainz (* around 1340 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Dietrich IV. Von Volmerstein , German knight (* 1335 )
- Juan Fernández de Heredia , scribe, humanist, diplomat and Grand Master of the Order of St. John (* around 1310 )
- Rüdiger von Elner , Knight of the Teutonic Order