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Heads of State · Nekrolog

Map of the Battle of Nicopolis with the approach routes of the armies involved (the army strengths are the maximum numbers given in the sources)
The Hungarian King Sigismund
suffers a crushing defeat
against the Ottomans in the battle of Nicopolis .
1396 in other calendars
Armenian calendar 844/845 (turn of the year July)
Ethiopian calendar 1388/89
Aztec calendar 7th tubes - Chicome Acatl (until the end of January / beginning of February 6th Rabbit - Chicuace Tochtli )
Buddhist calendar 1939/40 (southern Buddhism); 1938/39 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )
Chinese calendar 68th (69th) cycle

Year of the Fire Rat丙子 ( at the beginning of the year wood pig 乙亥)

Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam) 758/759 (turn of the year April)
Iranian calendar 774/775
Islamic calendar 798/799 (turn of the year 4th / 5th October)
Jewish calendar 5156/57 (September 3-4)
Coptic calendar 1112/13
Malayalam calendar 571/572
Seleucid era Babylon: 1706/07 (turn of the year April)

Syria: 1707/08 (New Year October)

Spanish era 1434
Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar) 1452/53


Politics and world events

Ottoman Empire / Balkans

Since his accession to the throne in 1387, the Hungarian King Sigismund has sought support in the Western world in the fight against the Ottomans , who have been steadily advancing north for half a century and have already reached the Hungarian border. After lengthy efforts on the part of Pope Boniface IX. and the antipope Benedict XIII. , a crusade army rallies under Johann Ohnefurcht and Marshal Boucicaut in Buda . The majority of Burgundian Crusaders march at the side of the Hungarian army in Bulgaria and reached on 10 September Nikopolis . For two weeks they overran the fortress in vain, and the reinforcement by the Johanniter who had advanced across the Danube did not turn the tide . Then reaching Ottoman army of Bayezid I , along with the armored horsemen of his Serbian vassal Stefan Lazarevic Nikopolis.

Above: The Battle of Nicopolis. Below: execution of the captured knights by Bajezid

In the Battle of Nikopolis , the Burgundian-Hungarian crusader army suffered a devastating defeat against the Ottomans on September 25th . Bayezid has many of the captured crusaders killed, for whom no ransom is to be expected, either out of personal anger over the victory, which was bought with high losses, or to provide his soldiers with an outlet for their thirst for revenge . The sources speak of 300 to 3,000 men here. The high-ranking prisoners, such as Johann Ohnefurcht and Jean II. Le Maingre , are deliberately avoided by the Turks from this massacre in order to demand a handsome ransom, which in most cases is also paid by their relatives. Some of the prisoners, such as Johannes Schiltberger , survive because they are spared due to their young age. The numerous refugees from the battle often try to get back to their homeland on their own, but many of them perish on the way home. Sigismund and the Grand Master of St. John can also flee across the Danube with the help of Hermann II von Cilli . They take the sea route across the Black Sea into the Mediterranean, fearing that they will be captured by what they consider to be the treacherous Wallachian voivod Mircea the Old .

As a result of the battle, Ottoman troops penetrate as far as northern Greece and Syrmia .

Holy Roman Empire

Other events in Europe

  • May 19: John I dies without offspring after falling from a horse and is inherited by his brother Martin I as King of Aragón . At this point in time, he was in Sicily to enforce his inheritance claims.

First documentary mentions


Culture and society

The beautiful fountain, on the right the towers of the Sebalduskirche



Date of birth saved

  • May 26: Johann , titular Count of Freiburg, Count of Neuchâtel and Lord of Badenweiler († 1458)
  • June 5: Giannozzo Manetti , Florentine humanist and politician († 1459)
  • July 31: Philip the Good , Duke of Burgundy († 1467)
  • October 15: Jean IV , Count of Armagnac, Fézensac and Rodez († 1450)
  • October 16: William de la Pole , English military leader in the Hundred Years War, Lord Chamberlain of England († 1450)
  • November 30th: Richard le Despenser , English nobleman († 1413/1414)

Exact date of birth unknown

Born around 1396

  • Jean IV. De Melun , Burgrave of Ghent, Viscount de Melun, Lord of Antoing, Épinoy and Wingels as well as Konnetabel von Flanders († 1484)
  • Casimir I , Duke of Auschwitz and Duke of Tost and half of Gleiwitz († 1434)
  • Kaspar Schlick , Count of Passaun and Weißkirchen and Chancellor of the Holy Roman Empire († 1449)


Date of death secured

  • March 1st: Johann , Duke of Görlitz (* 1370)
  • April 5: Pilgrim II of Puchheim , Archbishop of Salzburg and administrator of the Reich Prelature Berchtesgaden (* around 1330)
  • April 20: Hermann von Höxter , German medic (* around 1370)
  • April 26th: Stefan of Perm , Bishop of Little Perm and Apostle of the Syrian (* 1340 or 1345)

Exact date of death unknown

Died around 1396

Web links

Commons : 1396  - Collection of Images, Videos, and Audio Files