Klaus Störtebeker and the Vitalienbrüder
are caught by the Hansekogge Bunte Kuh ,
captured and executed in Hamburg.
|1401 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||849/850 (turn of the year July)|
|Aztec calendar||12. Feuerstein - Matlactli omome Tecpatl (until the end of January / beginning of February: 11th tubes - Matlactli ozce Acatl )|
|Buddhist calendar||1944/45 (southern Buddhism); 1943/44 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||68th (69th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||763/764 (turn of the year April)|
|Islamic calendar||803/804 (turn of the year 10/11 August)|
|Jewish calendar||5161/62 (September 7/8)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1711/12 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1712/13 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1457/58 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
King Ruprecht's coronation
The Archbishop of Cologne Friedrich III. von Saar Werden crowns the Palatinate Elector Ruprecht from the House of Wittelsbach on January 6th in Cologne Cathedral as Roman-German King . The cities of Aachen and Frankfurt am Main , which are on the side of King Wenzel from the House of Luxembourg , who was voted out by the Electors of Cologne , Mainz and Trier together with Ruprecht last year , have previously refused to open the gates to the new king.
In the empire , Ruprecht quickly found recognition in the areas close to the king, because Wenzel did nothing further. However, Ruprecht's sphere of activity remains very limited. In particular, the powerful House of Luxembourg does not recognize his choice. On the question of the occidental schism he adheres strictly to Rome and advocates a council to be convened by the king . Despite this support, Pope Boniface IX refused him . recognition as king.
Ruprecht sees himself confronted with several problems: The Reichsgut has shrunk more and more in the past decades and Ruprecht's own domestic power is not enough to cover all the costs. For this reason he makes a move to Italy . Ruprecht, however, cannot muster a large army, especially since Milan under Gian Galeazzo Visconti is an overpowering opponent in imperial Italy .
Prince Abbot Kuno von Stoffeln tries to reclaim legally justified taxes that have not been used from the state of Appenzell , which has been under the Prince Abbey of St. Gallen since the early Middle Ages . This arouses resistance in the state of Appenzell, but also in the city of St. Gallen , which on January 17th culminated in an alliance between the city of St. Gallen and the five Appenzell municipalities of Appenzell , Gais , Hundwil , Teufen and Urnäsch . The conflict between the two parties, from the up in the years to 1429 permanent Appenzeller wars develop, revolves mainly around the rights to freedom of movement, marriage, Vererb- and saleability of a fief of the Abbey as well as hunting and fishing rights.
The Hanseatic League and the Vitalienbrüder
- April 22nd : The pirate Klaus Störtebeker is arrested in front of Heligoland by an association of Hamburg peace ships under Nikolaus Schocke and Hermann Lange, both Hamburg councilors and England drivers, captured after a bitter fight and brought to Hamburg on the Hansekogge Bunte Kuh .
- October 21 : In Hamburg , dozens of former Vitalien brothers , including Klaus Störtebeker , Wichmann , Magister Wigbold and probably also Klaus Scheld , are beheaded and their heads are impaled as a deterrent. A little later Gödeke Michels is also executed. However, the historical authenticity of these events is disputed.
- May 25th : After the death of Queen Maria of Sicily , her husband Martin I rules the kingdom alone. He is completely under the influence of his father Martin I of Aragon .
- Under Dom João I of the House of Avis, Portugal recaptured the city of Bragança from the Kingdom of Castile , which it captured during the revolution of 1383 .
- March 24th : The Mongols under Timur take the city of Damascus , but fail with the siege of the citadel . In the summer the Mongol leader also conquered Baghdad and had a massacre of the population there.
- After the death of Saen Mueang Ma , his son Sam Fang Kaen becomes the eighth king of the Mengrai dynasty of Lan Na in northern Thailand with the help of his uncle Mun Lok . His older brother Thao Yikumkam , the ruler of Chiang Rai , tries to overthrow him with the support of the Sukhothai Kingdom , but he does not succeed.
First documentary mentions
- The Hungarian city of Aszód is first mentioned in a document.
- January 24th : In Solingen , hardeners and grinders receive a guild privilege ; this becomes the basis of the world-famous Solingen blade industry .
- December 26 : The Schiffergesellschaft in Lübeck is the St. Nicholas Brotherhood founded "to aid and comfort the living and the dead, and all who seek their honest maintenance in shipping" .
- The St. Katharinen Church in Brandenburg an der Havel , built by Hinrich Brunsberg , is consecrated.
- The church of St. Stephan in Gonsenheim near Mainz is first mentioned in a document.
- The Salmannshofen monastery becomes an extinction monastery .
Date of birth saved
- March 27th : Albrecht III. , Duke of Bavaria-Munich († 1460 )
- May 12 : Shōkō , 101st Emperor of Japan († 1428 )
- July 15 : Jakobäa , Duchess of Straubing-Holland († 1436 )
- July 23 : Francesco I. Sforza , founder of the Sforza dynasty in Milan († 1466 )
- August 30 : Georgios Sphrantzes , Byzantine historian († between 1477 and 1479 )
- September 9 : Giovanni Antonio Orsini del Balzo , Prince of Taranto, Duke of Bari, Count of Lecce, Acerra, Soleto and Conversano, Count of Matera and Count of Ugento († 1463 )
- October 27 : Katharina von Valois , also Catherine of France , ancestor of the English house of Tudor († 1437 )
- November: Ludovico Trevisan , Italian cardinal († 1465 )
- December 21 : Masaccio , Italian painter († 1428 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Adolf VIII , Count of Holstein and Stormarn and as Adolf I Duke of Schleswig († 1459 )
- Charles I , Duke of Bourbon and Auvergne († 1456 )
- Nikolaus von Kues (Cusanus), German priest and scientist († 1464 )
First half of the year
- May 18 : . Wladislaus II , Archduke of Opole and royal governor in Poland and Rothreußen, Palatine of Hungary (* 1326 / 1332 )
- May 25th : Erich III. , Duke of Saxony-Lauenburg
- May 25 : Mary of Sicily , Queen of Sicily, Duchess of Athens and Neopatria (* 1362 )
- May 26th : Andreas Franchi , Italian Dominican, Bishop of Lucca, Orvieto and Pistoia (* 1335 )
Second half of the year
- July 19 : Wilhelm Freseken , provost of the Meschede monastery, canon in Soest, cathedral provost in Münster and canon in St. Aposteln in Cologne
- September 27th : Michael of Prague , prior of the Carthusian monasteries in Prague, Aggsbach and Geirach in Lower Styria and visitor to the Upper German Order Province.
- October 19 : John Charlton, 4th Baron Charlton , Welsh Marcher Lord (* 1362 )
- presumably October 21 : Klaus Störtebeker , German pirate and leader of the Vitalienbrüder / Likedeeler (* 1370 )
- probably October 21 : Wichmann , German pirate and leader of the Vitalienbrüder / Likedeeler
- after October 21: Gödeke Michels , German pirate and leader of the Vitalienbrüder
- after October 21: Magister Wigbold , German pirate and leader of the Vitalienbrüder (* 1365 )
- October: Annabella Drummond , Queen of Scotland (* around 1350 )
- November 26th : Friedrich XI. , Count of Hohenzollern
- December: Pietro Pileo di Prata , Italian count, bishop of Treviso, cardinal and papal diplomat (* around 1330 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Arnaud-Amanieu d'Albret , French nobleman and mercenary, Sire of Albret and Nérac, Vice Count of Tartas and Count of Dreux (* 1338 )
- Thomas de Beauchamp, 12th Earl of Warwick , English nobleman, opponent Richard II. (* Around 1338 )
- Willer Crowell , Abbot of the Oldenstadt Monastery and Head of the Lüneburg Chancellery
- Engelbert III. , Count of Ziegenhain and Nidda
- Michele di Lando , Florentine cloth worker and insurgent (* 1343 )
- Thomas Morkerke , Mayor of Lübeck (* around 1330 )
- Saen Mueang Ma , 7th King of the Mengrai Dynasty from Lan Na in northern Thailand
Died around 1401
- Bartholomäus von Pisa , Italian Franciscan, author of an extensive work on the life and miracles of Francis of Assisi