Calendar overview 1402
Yongle becomes third emperor of
the Ming Dynasty in China .
|University of Würzburg is founded.|
Ottoman Sultan Bayezid I suffers
a crushing defeat against the Mongols
under Timur in the battle of Ankara .
|1402 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||850/851 (turn of the year July)|
|Aztec calendar||13th house - Matlactli omey Calli (until the end of January / beginning of February: 12th Feuerstein - Matlactli omome Tecpatl )|
|Buddhist calendar||1945/46 (southern Buddhism); 1944/45 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||68th (69th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||764/765 (turn of the year April)|
|Islamic calendar||804/805 (turn of the year July 31st / August 1st)|
|Jewish calendar||5162/63 (August 28-29)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1712/13 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1713/14 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1458/59 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
Empire of China
- July 13 : After defectors opened the gates of Nanjing to the rebellious army of Zhū Di, a fire broke out in the imperial palace, killing Emperor Jianwen and his wife. Years later, rumors persist that the emperor, who may have started the fire himself, escaped disguised as a monk.
- July 17 : Jianwens uncle Zhū Dì is after a bloody war of succession emperor of China and under the Äranamen Yǒnglè the third ruler of the Ming Dynasty .
- The Jianwen reign is deleted from the historical records, the missing time simply added to the Hongwu era. First, the new emperor begins a large-scale cleanup. He has all of his nephew's advisors executed along with their families. Large parts of the official staff are also eliminated. The remaining two sons of Jianwen and his three brothers are all executed as potential rivals. Around 20,000 people fell victim to the purges in the capital. After that, Yongle gradually disempowered his male relatives and deprived them of control over their troops as well as financial resources in order to avoid another civil war. Despite the bloody beginning, the reign of Emperor Yongle goes down in Chinese history as a heyday of the empire .
- July 20 : In the Battle of Angora, the Ottomans under Sultan Bayezit I suffer a crushing defeat against the Mongols under Tamerlane . Bayezite falls into captivity. The Ottoman Interregnum begins.
Holy Roman Empire
- The Italian expedition King Rupert fails. The hoped-for support from Florence is low and after a defeat by a Milanese army off Brescia and a winter in Padua , during which his troops dispersed, he had to break off the train through imperial Italy and start the return journey to Germany in April.
- End of June: Gian Galeazzo Visconti , Duke of Milan , conquers Bologna and continues his campaign towards Pistoia and Florence . On September 3rd, however , he died of the plague in a field camp . His successor is his 14-year-old son Giovanni Maria Visconti under the reign of the Condottiere Facino Cane de Casale . Most of the conquests made by Gian Galeazzo are quickly lost for Milan .
- July 6 : Ruprecht's son Ludwig marries ten-year-old Princess Blanca of England in Cologne Cathedral .
- July 17th : The feud between the Lords of Schauenburg and Bernhard von Baden begins.
- The Schaffhausen witch trials are the earliest known witch trials in the history of Switzerland .
- The Teutonic Order acquires the Brandenburg Neumark as a pledge.
Other events in Europe
- David Stewart, 1st Duke of Rothesay , heir to the Scottish throne and Guardian of Scotland , falls out with his uncle, the Great Chamberlain Robert Stewart, 1st Duke of Albany . He was then arrested by the latter and died on March 26 under unexplained circumstances in Falkland Palace in Fife .
- June 22 : The Welsh rebel army of Owain Glyndŵr defeated the British in the Battle of Bryn Glas .
- November 26th : Around a year and a half after the death of his wife Maria , Martin I of Sicily marries Princess Blanka of Navarre .
- The Norman nobleman and adventurer Jean de Béthencourt begins on behalf of King Henry III. of Castile with the conquest of Lanzarote .
City rights and first documentary mentions
- First documented mention of Rauental .
- The part of the state Ob der Staig zu Stuttgart in Württemberg is first mentioned in a document.
- The first exchange bank in Germany with fixed capital is founded in Frankfurt am Main under the name “ Der Wessil ”. The city forbids any exchange of money outside the institute.
- The paper money introduced in China in 1024 will be abolished due to high inflation .
science and technology
- Around February 8th : During Lent, Comet C / 1402 D1 , which is one of the Great Comets due to its extraordinary brightness, which makes it visible to the naked eye , is seen for the first time. It reaches its greatest brightness on March 12th .
- December 10 : The University of Würzburg is founded.
- The Bimdo Gönchen monastery is founded.
Date of birth saved
- February 6 : Ludwig I (the peacemaker), Landgrave of Hesse († 1458 )
- April 28 : Nezahualcóyotl , ruler in pre-Columbian Mesoamerica († 1472 )
- August 15 : Humphrey Stafford 1st Duke of Buckingham († 1460 )
- September 29 : Ferdinand von Avis , Grand Master of the Order of Avis († 1443 )
- November 23 : Jean de Dunois , Grand Chamberlain of France († 1468 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Eleanor of Aragon , Princess of Aragon and Queen of Portugal († 1445 )
- Rudolf von Rüdesheim , Bishop of Lavant and Archbishop of Breslau († 1482 )
First half of the year
- January 30th : Johann von Mayrhofen , Bishop of Gurk
- February 6 : Louis de Sancerre , Constable of France (* 1341 / 42 )
- February 16 : Wilhelm I./III. , Duke of Geldern and Jülich (* 1364 )
- February 17th : Diether VIII. , Count von Katzenelnbogen (* 1340 )
- March 26 : David Stewart , 1st Duke of Rothesay (* 1378 )
- April 25 : Jean de la Grange , French cardinal (* around 1325 )
- May 1st : Olbram von Škvorec , Archbishop of Prague
- May 8 : Alexander Leslie, 7th Earl of Ross , Scottish nobleman (* before 1366 )
- June 25 : Walter Devereux , English knight and politician
Second half of the year
- July 13 : Jianwen , Chinese Emperor of the Ming Dynasty (* 1377 )
- August 1 : Edmund of Langley 1st Duke of York (* 1341 )
- August 2nd : Elisabeth of Bavaria , mistress of Verona and countess of Württemberg (* 1329 )
- September 3 : Gian Galeazzo Visconti , Duke of Milan and Lombardy, Count of Pavia (* 1351 )
- October 10 : Ludwig von Thierstein , Abbot of Einsiedeln
Exact date of death unknown
- after July 27 : Bertrando d'Arvazzano , Bishop of Paderborn
- September: George Douglas, 1st Earl of Angus (* around 1378 )
- Johann Puliant von Eptingen , Mayor of Basel
- Katharina , daughter of Duke Albrecht I of Straubing-Holland (* 1360 )
- Nikolaus Puchník von Černice , Rector of the University of Prague