Calendar overview 1378
|Gregory XI. becomes Urban VI. elected pope . He tries to break the influence of Avignon on the church.||
, Clement VII is
elected antipope .
|1,417 permanent Western Schism begins.|
|1378 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||826/827 (turn of the year July)|
|Aztec calendar||2nd house - Ome Calli (until the end of January / beginning of February 1st Feuerstein - Ce Tecpatl )|
|Buddhist calendar||1921/22 (southern Buddhism); 1920/21 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||67th (68th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||740/741 (turn of the year April)|
|Islamic calendar||779/780 (turn of the year April 29/30)|
|Jewish calendar||5138/39 (August 24/25)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1688/89 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1689/90 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1434/35|
Politics and world events
- March 27th : Pope Gregory XI, hated in Italy . dies in Rome . On April 8, the one-day conclave elects Bartolomeo Prignano as Urban VI under massive pressure from the Roman population, who are demanding an Italian Pope . to the Pope . The Neapolitan is the last Pope who does not belong to the College of Cardinals at the time of his election . Weeks later, his refusal to return to Avignon is the cause of the Western Schism . He also appoints twenty-nine new cardinals, only three of whom are French. In doing so, he breaks the French dominance in the College of Cardinals. Thirteen cardinals - the French, several Italians and Cardinal Robert of Geneva - leave Rome angrily and travel to Fondi. In the summer the Aragonese Cardinal Pedro de Luna also comes to Fondi.
- September 20 : The fourteen predominantly French cardinals in Fondi, with the support of King Charles V of France, elect the "executioner of Cesena " Robert of Geneva as antipope . He takes the name Clement VII . In addition, the cardinals draft a declaration in which it is stated that they were forced to elect Pope Urban at the time. Then they travel on to Avignon.
Other events in Italy
- June 17th : Antoniotto Adorno becomes Doge of Genoa for a few hours in a coup , but is then overthrown by his co-conspirator Nicolò Guarco .
- June 18 : Salvestro de 'Medici , who had recently been elected gonfaloniere in Florence, succeeds with a law to overthrow the Guelph party under Piero degli Albizzi , who previously led a reign of terror in the city. For the people, however, the law is not far-reaching enough.
- July 22nd : The city government of Florence is overthrown in the Ciompi uprising ; Piero degli Albizzi and others are executed on charges of conspiracy. However, after a few weeks, with the support of Michele di Lando, conflicting interests of the rebels lead to the restoration of the old order under Salvestro de 'Medici.
- August 4th : After the death of Galeazzo II Visconti , his son Gian Galeazzo Visconti becomes ruler of Milan and Pavia as co-ruler of his uncle Bernabò Visconti . A power struggle soon ensues between the two.
- The Chioggia war between the two maritime republics of Genoa and Venice begins with an attack by the Genoese on Chioggia . Chioggia is besieged from the land and sea side at the same time. In August the Genoese conquer the port, then the town of Sottomarina, which they burn down. After conquering the small island of San Domenico, they can penetrate the center of Chioggia, where house-to-house fights with bare weapons occur everywhere. Allegedly 3,500 people are killed and several thousand more injured.
Other events in Europe
- March 14 : Charles IV grants Ellingen the right of fortification, which he withdraws ten days later following an objection from the imperial city of Weißenburg .
- April 27th / 28th or April 28th / 29th : In the Hersfeld Vitalis Night , but very likely not until the night after, the abbot of the Hersfeld Monastery , Berthold II von Völkershausen , tries to rule over the with the help of the Sterner Knight League City of Hersfeld . However, due to a previously sent feud letter , the attack fails. The city then sued the attackers before the king, after the verdict the abbot had to pay 10,000 marks and each of the eighteen knights involved had to pay a fine of 400 silver marks. The relationship between the city and the abbey has been disturbed for generations.
- November 29 : Wenceslaus of Luxembourg , who was crowned on July 6, 1376 , becomes king of Germany after the death of his father Charles IV .
First documentary mentions
- The anti-Jewish dice duty is documented for the first time.
- The Eisenach Charterhouse is supported by Landgrave Friedrich III. , Wilhelm I and Balthasar von Meissen founded. The first monks come from the Carthusian monastery in Erfurt .
nature and environment
Date of birth saved
- January 23 : Ludwig III. , Elector Palatinate († 1436 )
- March 2 : Edmund Stafford , English nobleman († 1403 )
- June 22nd : Walter Hungerford , English nobleman († 1449 )
- August 16 : Hongxi , Emperor of China from the Ming Dynasty († 1425 )
- October 24 : David Stewart , Scottish heir to the throne († 1402 )
- December 31 : Alonso de Borja, under the name Calixt III. Pope († 1458 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Angelotto Fosco , city Roman clergyman, bishop and cardinal († 1444 )
- Luis de Guardafía , last ruler of the Majos, the indigenous people of Lanzarote
- Joan II , Countess of Auvergne and Boulogne († 1422 )
- Catherine of Burgundy , Duchess of Austria († 1425 )
- Peter Mauley , English nobleman († 1415 )
- Guidantonio da Montefeltro , Count of Urbino († 1443 )
- John Oldcastle , leader of the English lollards († 1417 )
- Vittorino da Feltre , Italian Renaissance humanist and teacher († 1446 )
Born around 1378
Date of death secured
- February 6 : Jeanne de Bourbon , Queen of France (* 1338 )
- February 12 : Alexej Biakont , Metropolitan of Moscow and All Russia
- March 27th : Pierre Roger de Beaufort, under the name Gregory XI. Pope of the Catholic Church (* 1329 )
- April 5 : Gusai , Japanese monk and poet (* 1284 )
- May 31 : Thomas von Neumarkt , titular bishop of Sareptensis and auxiliary bishop in Breslau (* 1297 )
- July 1st : John IV of Arkel , Prince-Bishop of Utrecht and Liège
- 4th August : Galeazzo II. Visconti , lord of the city of Pavia (* around 1329 )
- September 4 : Bartolomeo Bulgarini , Italian painter (* around 1305 )
- September 17th : Marquard Bermann , Bishop of Schwerin
- October 4 : Agnes von der Vierbecke , person of Dortmund history (* around 1341 )
- November 29 : Charles IV , Holy Roman Emperor, King of Bohemia and King of Italy (* 1316 )
- December 5th : Gilles II. Aycelin de Montaigut , French diplomat and cardinal
Exact date of death unknown
- July: Owain Lawgoch , Welsh mercenary leader (* around 1330 )
- before November 24th: Guglielmo Sanseverino , Archbishop of Salerno
- Piero degli Albizzi , leader of the Guelphs in Florence
- Biligtü Khan , Great Khan of the Mongols (* 1338 )
- Ralph Daubeney , English knight and military man (* around 1304 )
- Jovan Dragaš , Serbian magnate in Macedonia (* 1343 )
- Jacques de Rue , Chamberlain to King Charles II of Navarre
- Pierre du Tertre , secretary to King Charles II of Navarre
- Hasso von Wedel-Falkenburg , court master of the Mark Brandenburg and Lausitz