The Ethiopian calendar is a variant of the Coptic calendar . In terms of the year count, the Ethiopian calendar is 276 years ahead of the Coptic. It is used in Ethiopia and in documents of the Ethiopian and Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church .
The year is 7 years and about 8 months behind the Gregorian calendar . The calendar year therefore begins on September 11th, or in the year before a leap year on September 12th - the Ethiopian year 2000 began on September 12th, 2007. As in the Gregorian calendar, the time calculation is traced back to the birth of Christ . The difference in the counting of the years is based on the Ethiopians adhering to the pre- Dionysian year of Christ's birth , which was set 5500 years after the then assumed date of creation. Epoch is August 29, 8 AD in the Julian calendar. The years after the birth of Christ are called ዓመተ ምሕረት ( amätä mïhrat ; "Years of Mercy"; abbreviated: ዓ.ም. ). Unlike the western calendar v. Chr. The years are not counted before the year one backward, but for this year the Alexandrian is world era used the v in the 5493rd Begins. The years counted in this way are designated with ዓመተ ዓለም ( amätä aläm ; "years of the world") and with ዓ.ዓ. abbreviated. Since the Ethiopian calendar, like the Julian calendar , in contrast to the Gregorian calendar, does not have any exceptions to the four-year cycle of leap years, Christian holidays are time-shifted from those of the Western churches.
Like the Coptic calendar, the Ethiopian calendar counts 13 months, with the first 12 respectively 30, the 13th, the leap month (Ṗagumen, from Greek: Epagomenen ), however, 5 or 6th days.
The last column indicates the beginning of a month for the period from September before a (Gregorian) leap year to February of a leap year, for example between September 2007 and February 2008:
|Old Ethiopian (and Tigrinya , Amharic )||Coptic||Beginning after greg. calendar||Start before / in leap year|
|Mäskäräm||Does||September 11||12th September|
|Ṭəqəmt||Babah||October 11th||October 12th|
|Ḫədar||Hatur||November 10th||November 11th|
|Taḫśaś||Kiyahk||10th of December||11th December|
|Ṭərr||Tubah||January 9th||10. January|
|Yäkatite (Tn. Läkatite)||Amshir||February 8||February 9|
|Ḥamle||Abib||8th of July|
|Sewing nose||Misra||August 7th|
(Note: these dates are only valid from 1900 to 2100.)
Monthly church holidays
Since all months have the same number of 30 days, a specific religious holiday is assigned to each of the 30 days. The monthly holidays are related to the holidays of the annual festival group. Churches whose tabot is dedicated to the person or event in question celebrate a festival on each monthly public holiday of the year. The 12th, 21st and 29th of each month (highlighted in bold) are general holidays:
- ልደታ (lïdät) - Birth of Mary
- ታዴዎስ - Squidward and ኣባ ጉባ - Abba Guba, one of the Nine Saints
- በአታ (ba'ata) - Mary's entry into the temple
- ዮሐንስ ወልደ ነግወድጓድ - John , "son of thunder"
- አቡነ ገብረ መንፈስ ቅዱስ - Abunä Gabrä Mänfäs Qïddus and ጴጥሮስ ወጳውሎስ - Peter and Paul
- ኢየሱስ (iyäsus) - Jesus name (which he was given when he was circumcised) and ደብረ ቊስቋም Qwesqwam Monastery, where the Holy Family is said to have spent six months and 10 days
- ሥላሴ (sïlasie) - Holy Trinity
- አባ ኪሮስ - Abba Kiros
- ቶማስ - Thomas and ሠለስቱ ምእት - the "300" Council Fathers of Nicaea
- መስቀል (mäsqäl) - Festival of the Cross
- ሐና - Hanna and ገላውዴዎስ - Claudius
- ሚካኤል - Michael
- ዘርአ ቡሩክ - Zar'a Burak (the servant of Abunä Gäbrä Mänfäs Qïddus)
- አቡነ አረጋዊ - Abuna Aragawi (one of the Nine Saints) and ገብረ ክርስቶስ - Gäbrä Krïstos, the hermit
- ቂርቆስ (qirqos) - Cyriacus
- ኪዳነ ምሕረት (kidanä mïhrät) - the covenant of mercy
- እስጢፋኖስ - Stefan and አባ ገሪማ - Abba Garima (one of the Nine Saints)
- ኤዎስጣቴዎስ (Ewostatewos) - Eustachius
- ገብርኤል - Gabriel
- ሕንጸተ ቤተ ክርስቲያን በስማ (hïndätä betä krïstiyan bäsïma) - the establishment of St. Mary's Church in Philippi
- እግዝእትነ ማርያም ( ïgzï'ïtna maryam ) - Our Lady Mary
- ደቅስዮስ - Ildefons of Toledo
- ጊዮርጊስ - Georg von Lydda
- አቡነ ተክለ ሃይማኖት - Abunä Täklä Haymänot
- መርቆሬዎስ - Mercurius
- አባ ሰላማ - Frumentius , called Abba Sälama
- መድኃኔ ዓለም (mädhane 'aläm) - Savior of the world
- አማኑኤል - Amanu'el and አብርሃም ይስሐቅ ያዕቆብ - Abraham , Isaac and Jacob
- በዓል እግዚእ or በዓል ወልድ ( bä'al 'ïgzio / bä'al wäld ) - feast of God or feast of the son
- ማርቆስ - Markus
- Emmanuel Fritsch: The Liturgical Year of the Ethiopian Church. The Temporal: Seasons and Sundays. St. Francis Major Seminary, Addis Ababa 2001 ( Ethiopian Review of Cultures , Special Issue Volume 9-10, ).
- Friedrich Karl Ginzel : Handbook of mathematical and technical chronology. Timekeeping of the Nations. Volume 3: Calculation of the times of the Macedonians, Asia Minor and Syrians, the Teutons and Celts, the Middle Ages, the Byzantines (and Russians), Armenians, Copts, Abyssinians, the calculation of modern times, as well as additions to the three volumes. JC Hinrichs, Leipzig 1906.