Calendar overview 1444
Battle of St. Jakob an der Birs , the
Kingdom of France defeats the
Old Confederation .
Johann Hunyadi ends with a
in the Battle of Varna .
|the Old Zurich War it comes to the murder of Greifensee .|
|1444 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||892/893 (turn of the year July)|
|Aztec calendar||3rd tubes - Jei Acatl (until the end of January / beginning of February: 2nd rabbit - Ome Tochtli )|
|Buddhist calendar||1987/88 (southern Buddhism); 1986/87 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||68./69. (69./70.) Cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||806/807 (turn of the year April)|
|Islamic calendar||847/48 (turn of the year 19/20 April)|
|Jewish calendar||5204/05 (September 13-14)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1754/55 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1755/56 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1500/01 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
Old Zurich War
- May 28 : After almost a month of siege, Greifensee is murdered in the Old Zurich War : Wildhans von Breitenlandenberg and the remaining defenders of Zurich's Greifensee fortress are beheaded by the besiegers after they surrender.
- August 26th : In the battle of St. Jakob an der Birs , the Kingdom of France defeats the Old Confederation .
- October 28 : After the heavy losses of the Armagnacs at the Battle of St. Jakob an der Birs , the French Dauphin Ludwig promises the Confederates a lasting friendship in the Peace of Ensisheim .
- March 2 : Under the leadership of the Castriotic Prince Skanderbeg , the League of Lezha is formed , a defense alliance of Albanian and Montenegrin princes against the Ottomans . In addition to the Kastrioti , regents from the Muzaka , Zaharia , Spani , Arianiti , Dushmani , Thopia , Balšić and Crnojević families take part in the alliance.
- November 10th : A Turkish crusade under Johann Hunyadi ends with the heavy defeat in the battle of Varna against the Ottomans . Wladyslaw III. , King of Poland , and as Ulászló I./Vladislav I. also King of Hungary and Croatia , is killed in the battle. This is followed by a three-year interregnum in Poland .
- Skanderbeg was able to defeat the Ottomans on the Torvioll plain between what is now Librazhd and Pogradec . The news of the victory of Christians over Muslims is spreading very quickly in Europe.
- Sultan Murad II leaves the throne of the Ottoman Empire to his twelve-year-old son Mehmed II for a short time.
Other events in Europe
- June 5 : With the adoption of a new rulers, the Duke of Cleves-Mark , the old, the Archbishop instead of Cologne , the city of Soest starting Soest feud .
- November 3 : In the Battle of Linnich in the Second War of the Geldrian Succession , Duke Gerhard von Jülich-Berg wins the victory over Arnold von Egmond , the Duke of Geldern . Despite his victory, he renounces the inheritance claim to the duchy.
- England and France agree an armistice in the Hundred Years War , but this does not lead to a final peace.
- Schönberg is mentioned for the first time in a document.
European voyages of discovery and colonialism
- Portuguese ships return to Europe for the first time with African slaves .
- Dinis Dias , Portuguese navigator, sailed around Cabo Verde (Senegal), the westernmost tip of continental Africa , for the first time .
- Niccolo di Conti returns to Venice after 25 years. His travel reports are recorded by Poggio Bracciolini .
- March 17th : Elector Friedrich II of Saxony carries out the “great Saxon coin reform”. A double silver currency is created , which is called Oberwahr and Beiwahr . Good so-called Jewish head groschen are minted as Oberwähr . Friedrich's brother, Duke Wilhelm III , also participates in this project . the brave . Although the government explains the use of the double currency in extensive publications, it is almost impossible for ordinary subjects to get into the conversions. The difficulties are compounded by the fact that the old currencies are still allowed. The result is a great mess in trade and change.
Date of birth saved
- February 4 : Anne Beauchamp, 15th Countess of Warwick , English noblewoman († 1449 )
- April 22 : Elizabeth of York , English noblewoman, Duchess of Suffolk († 1503 or 1504)
- May 29th : Otto III. , Duke of Pomerania-Stettin († 1464 )
- June 14 : Nilakantha Somayaji , Indian mathematician and astronomer († 1544 )
- June 28 : Charlotte , Queen of Cyprus († 1487 )
- October 18 : John Mowbray, 4th Duke of Norfolk , English nobleman († 1476 )
- November 5 : Johann (VI.) Von Saalhausen , Bishop of Meißen († 1518)
Exact date of birth unknown
- Donato Bramante , Italian master builder and founder of High Renaissance architecture († 1514 )
- Gaston de Foix , Prince of Viana († 1470 )
- Leonhard von Görz , Austrian nobleman, governor of Lienz and East Tyrol, Count of Görz († 1500 )
- Konoe Masaie , Kampaku (regent) for the Go-Tsuchimikado-tennō in Japan († 1505 )
- Margaret of Saxony , Abbess of Seusslitz († 1498 )
- Antonio de Nebrija , Spanish humanist and philologist († 1522 )
- Francesco de 'Pazzi , Florentine nobleman, co-conspirator of the Pazzi conspiracy against Lorenzo il Magnifico († 1478 )
Born around 1444
Date of death secured
- January 3 : Hermann III. Köppen , Bishop of Schwerin
- February 14 : Henriette von Mömpelgard , Countess of Württemberg (* between 1384 and 1391)
- March 7th : François de Metz , Bishop of Ghent
- March 9 : Leonardo Bruni , State Chancellor of Florence (* around 1369 )
- April 8th : Regnault de Chartres , Archbishop of Reims
- April 26 : Robert Campin , Flemish painter (* around 1375 )
- May 20 : Bernardine of Siena , Italian saint (* 1380 )
- May 20 : Margarete von Kleve , Duchess of Bavaria-Munich and Württemberg (* 1416 )
- May 27th : John Beaufort, 1st Duke of Somerset , English nobleman, Commander in Chief of the English Armed Forces in France (* 1404 )
- May 28 : Wildhans von Breitenlandenberg , Swiss nobleman and captain of Greifensee (* around 1410 )
- June 4th : Aleksander Ziemowit , Prince-Bishop of Trento and Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church (* 1400 )
- June 23 : Mark of Ephesus , Metropolitan of Ephesus and Orthodox saints (* 1391 / 92 )
- July 2 : Oddantonio da Montefeltro , Duke of Urbino (* 1426 )
- August 27 : Hynek Ptáček z Pirkštejna , Bohemian nobleman and representative of the Hussites (* 1404 )
- September 25th : Gianfrancesco I. Gonzaga , Margrave of Mantua (* 1395 )
- October 15 : Niccolò Piccinino , Italian condottiere (* around 1380 )
- November 10 : Wladyslaw I , King of Poland and King of Hungary and Croatia (* 1424 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Euphemia von Oels , Electress of Saxony-Wittenberg (* around 1390 )
- Katherina Hane , the first woman who is documented that she was executed in Hamburg on charges of " magic "
- Conrad Heyden , German town clerk and author of the Klagspiegel (* around 1385 )