Friedrich II. (Saxony)

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Elector Friedrich II of Saxony, called the Meek

Friedrich II the Meek (born August 22, 1412 in Leipzig ; † September 7, 1464 there ) from the House of Wettin , was from January 4, 1428 to September 7, 1464 Elector of Saxony , Duke of Saxony-Wittenberg and Margrave of Meissen and (from May 7, 1440 to 1445) Landgrave of Thuringia . He took over in 1428 together with his brothers Wilhelm III. "The brave", Heinrich and Sigismund the government. In 1433 the Wettins made peace with the Hussites .


Frederick the Meek

Friedrich was the eldest son of Duke and Elector Friedrich I (1370–1428) and his wife Katharina von Braunschweig-Lüneburg (1395–1442), daughter of Duke Heinrich I. He married on June 3, 1431 with Margaretha , daughter of Archduke Ernst I of Austria. To compensate for the its due jointure the Elector built his wife in 1456, the Mint Colditz giving it access there own coins, the so-called Margarethe penny to mint. Previously, he approved the city of Wittenberg to mint municipal coins (Heller) in their mint .

Ernst (1464–1513), Friedrich the Meek (1412–1464) and Albrecht the Brave (1443–1500); Prince procession , Dresden

The meeting of the estates in 1438 is considered to be the first state parliament in Saxony. They were given the right to come together on innovations in taxation even without being convened by the ruler. From 1466 they had to be heard when decisions about war and peace were made.

The Elector led with quality so-called Jews head pennies in 1441 for the first time a dual currency consisting of Oberwähr and Beiwähr , which did not lead to the hoped-for success. In 1451 he had the Leipzig mint rebuilt and the first Saxon gold coins (gold guilders) minted between 1454 and 1461.

With the death of Frederick the Peaceful in 1440, Thuringia came back to the electorate. After Heinrich and Sigismund had left as co-regents, Friedrich and Wilhelm divided the property. In the Altenburg division in 1445, Wilhelm III. the Thuringian and Franconian part, Friedrich the eastern part of the electorate. The mines remained common property.

William III. separated from his brother Friedrich II and took over the independent regency in the state of Thuringia. The coinage previously carried out in fraternal communion was ended. Elector Friedrich II. Took the Sangerhausen Mint , which had been closed since the death of Balthasar , back into operation from around 1445 to 1449 due to the sole minting of his brother Wilhelm in Jena . The disputes over the distribution led to the Saxon Fratricidal War in 1446 , which only ended on January 27, 1451 with the Peace of Naumburg. In the Treaty of Eger in 1459, Elector Friedrich, Duke Wilhelm of Saxony and King George of Podiebrad of Bohemia established the border between Bohemia and Saxony at the level of the Ore Mountains and the middle of the Elbe , which is still largely valid today. It is one of the oldest still existing borders in Europe .

After the death of Frederick II in 1464, his two sons, Ernst and Albrecht , initially took over the government together. After Duke Wilhelm III. had died, Thuringia fell back to the Electorate of Saxony.


On June 3, 1431 he married Margaretha of Austria (* 1416/17; † February 12, 1486), daughter of Duke Ernst of Austria. The marriage had eight children.

  • Amalia (born April 4, 1436 in Meißen; † November 19, 1501 Rochlitz) ⚭ February 21, 1452 Duke Ludwig IX. of Bavaria-Landshut (February 23, 1417 - January 18, 1479)
  • Anna (* March 7, 1437 in Meißen; † October 31, 1512 Neustadt an der Aisch ) ⚭ November 12, 1458 Albert III. Achilles , Elector of Brandenburg
  • Frederick (born August 28, 1439 in Meißen; † December 23, 1451)
  • Ernst (born March 24, 1441 in Meißen; † August 26, 1486 in Colditz) ⚭ Elisabeth von Bayern (1443–1484), daughter of Duke Albrecht III. (Bavaria) (1401–1460)
  • Albrecht (born July 31, 1443 in Grimma; † September 12, 1500 in Emden) ⚭ Zedena ( Sidonie von Böhmen ) (1449–1510), daughter of Georg von Podiebrad (1420–1471)
  • Margarete (* 1444 in Meißen; † approx. November 19, 1498 in Seusslitz?), Abbess in Seusslitz
  • Hedwig (born October 31, 1445 in Meißen; † June 13, 1511 in Quedlinburg), Abbess in Quedlinburg (1458–1511)
  • Alexander (born June 24, 1447 in Meißen; † September 14, 1447, Meißen)


Web links

Commons : Friedrich II.  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Reiner Groß: The Wettins. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 2007, ISBN 978-3-17-018946-1 , p. 74.
  2. Gerhard Krug: The Meissnisch-Saxon Groschen 1338-1500. Berlin 1974, p. 164.
predecessor Office successor
Friedrich I. Elector of Saxony
Albrecht III. (as duke)
Friedrich IV. Landgrave of Thuringia
William III.