Heinrich I. (Braunschweig)

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Heinrich I the Mildness on a wall painting in the Fürstensaal in the town hall of Lüneburg .

Henry I of clemency , Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (to 1355 *; † 14. October 1416 ) from the House of Guelph , was from 1400 to 1409 Prince of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel and of 1388 until his death in 1416 Prince of Luneburg . He was a son of Magnus II.


Duke Heinrich I of Braunschweig and Lüneburg, "the Mild", was the founder of the middle Braunschweig line and was nicknamed "King of the Haide" among his contemporaries. He ruled in Lüneburg from 1388 to 1400, then in Braunschweig and Lüneburg jointly with his brother Bernhard until 1409, then in Lüneburg alone until his death on October 14, 1416. In contrast to his father, the Duke of Guelph was strictly concerned with maintaining peace to uphold law and justice and to protect peaceful work from any act of violence. In the course of a trip he took the halter from a horse's head and had the Vogt von Celle who was accompanying him tie it to the next tree because the latter had taken a farmer's coat away. Heinrich Bünting first reported on this in the second part of his Brunswick-Lüneburg Chronicle (1620).

Margarete von Hessen, mother or stepmother of the Brunswick princes, kept Celle as a widow's residence as a widow. Her father, the Landgrave of Hesse, had ensured that these rights were preserved in 1428 in the partition contract that he had brokered between the Guelphs. With a document dated February 27, 1443, the dukes Otto and Friedrich concluded an agreement with their sister-in-law Margarete.


Heinrich was with Sophie von Pomerania (around 1370-1406), daughter of Wartislaw VI. , Duke of Pomerania, married. Their children together were:

Heinrich then married Margarethe von Hessen (1389–1446) on January 30, 1409, a daughter of Landgrave Hermann II and his second wife, Margarethe von Hohenzollern . With her he had only one son:

  • Heinrich der Friedfertige (1411–1473) ∞ on October 12, 1435, 12-year-old Helene (1423–1471) from the house of the aspiring dukes of Kleve on the Lower Rhine. From this marriage Heinrich left only his daughter Margareta, born in 1451, whom he had married to Count Wilhelm von Henneberg in 1469.


Heinrich der Milde, Duke of Braunschweig and Lüneburg, Duke Magni son, ruled for 16 years, died ao. Christi 1416, is buried in Braunschweig.


Individual evidence

  1. Blazek, Matthias: "Duke Heinrichs Standgericht in der Heide - A Lüneburg incident from the life of Duke Heinrich von der Haide". In: Braunschweiger Calendar 2010. Joh. Heinr. Meyer Verlag, Braunschweig 2010, p. 99ff.
  2. ^ Brigitte Streich , Magdalene Gärtner: Stadt - Land - Schloss, Celle as residence: volume accompanying the exhibition. Celle 2000, p. 37.
  3. ^ Historical Commission for Lower Saxony, Lower Saxony Yearbook for State History, Volume 61, Hanover 1989, p. 40.
  4. ^ Dieter Brosius: Document book of the city of Celle. Hanover 1996 (Lüneburg Document Book; Section 17), p. 93.
  5. ^ Princess Margarethe of Hesse.
  6. Jarck, Horst-Rüdiger; Schildt, Gerhard (Hrsg.): The Braunschweigische Landesgeschichte: A millennium review of a region. Appelhans Verlag, Braunschweig 2000, ISBN 3-930292-28-9 , p. 240. Helene, geb. Duchess of Kleve, Countess of the Mark, daughter of Duke Adolf von Kleve (* August 18, 1423, † July 3, 1471).
  7. ^ Otto von Heinemann: History of Braunschweig and Hanover. Volume 1-2. Gotha 1882, p. 210. Adolph Friedrich Heinrich Schaumann writes in 1864, p. 173: “With his wife, Helene von Cleve, who died in 1471, he had only married one daughter, Margarethe, to Friedrich, Count von Henneberg, and no other male ones Inherit."
  8. ^ Hans Georg Gmelin: Late Gothic panel painting in Lower Saxony and Bremen. Munich 1974, p. 685.
predecessor Office successor
Wenceslas of Saxony-Wittenberg Duke of Braunschweig-Lüneburg,
Prince of Lüneburg

Heinrich II. And
Wilhelm the Victorious
Friedrich I. Duke of Braunschweig-Lüneburg,
Prince of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel

Bernhard I.