Álvaro de Castro

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Álvaro de Castro

Álvaro Xavier de Castro (born November 9, 1878 in Guarda , † June 29, 1928 in Coimbra ) was a Portuguese military and politician from the time of the First Republic . He was twice head of government in his country.


On January 25, 1915 , General Joaquim Pimenta de Castro launched a coup against the republic, dissolved parliament and established the " dictatorship of swords" ( ditatura das espadas ), which was ended by another coup on May 14, 1915. Álvaro de Castro was one of the putschists, a group of young, radical democratic officers who wanted to restore the republic. A “constitutional junta ” ( Junta Constitucional ), to which Álvaro de Castro also belonged, initially took power, but after three days handed it over to José de Castro as the new prime minister.

From 1915 to 1918 Álvaro de Castro was Governor General of Mozambique .

He later took part in the putsch in Santarém on January 11, 1919. In Portugal, another military man, Sidónio Pais , took power through a coup on December 5, 1917 and subsequently an authoritarian state, the so-called "New Republic" ( República Nova ) tries to build up. Pais was killed in an assassination attempt on December 14, 1918. Álvaro de Castro and his co-conspirators from Santarém turned against his successors, President João do Canto e Castro and Prime Minister João Tamagnini de Sousa Barbosa , because they accused them of wanting to continue the system of government of the Sidónio Pais. The coup failed, but contributed to the fact that on January 27, 1919 José Carlos de Mascarenhas Relvas from the Democratic Party was able to take over the government, and thus constitutional conditions were restored in Portugal.

Later, Álvaro de Castro founded the Republican Party of National Reconstruction (PRRN) , a split from the Liberal Republican Party (PLR) that had just formed itself out of the merger of evolutionists and unionists . Álvaro de Castro became leader of the PRRN and initially supported the first government of PLR politician António Joaquim Granjo , but then withdrew that support, which resulted in the overthrow of the Granjo government. Álvaro de Castro became head of government for the first time and ruled for ten days, from November 20 to 30, 1920, when he had to hand over the government to Liberato Ribeiro Pinto from the Democrats, his political opponents.

Later, Álvaro de Castro united his PRRN with the Liberal Republican Union , another party that emerged from the PLR ​​and the remnants of the old Sidónio Pais party (the National Republicans ) to form the Republican Nationalist Party (PRN) , of which he became leader. With the PRN he managed again to become Portuguese Prime Minister from December 18, 1923 to July 7, 1924.

predecessor Office successor
Joaquim Pimenta de Castro Prime Minister of Portugal
( constitutional junta:
together with:
José Norton de Matos
António Maria da Silva
José de Freitas Ribeiro
Alfredo de Sá Cardoso )
José de Castro
António Joaquim Granjo Prime Minister of Portugal
Liberato Ribeiro Pinto
António Ginestal Machado Prime Minister of Portugal
Alfredo Rodrigues Gaspar