Calendar overview 1878
Berlin Congress , the political situation
in the Balkans after the Peace of San Stefano is reorganized.
Otto von Bismarck
sets after two attacks
on Kaiser Wilhelm I
, the Socialist Law by.
|Leo XIII. as Pope, the Kulturkampf is ended informally.|
|1878 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1326/27 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1870/71 (September 10-11)|
|Baha'i calendar||34/35 (March 20/21)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1283/84 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2421/22 (southern Buddhism); 2420/21 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||76th (77th) cycle
Year of the Earth Tiger 戊寅 ( at the beginning of the year Fire Ox 丁丑)
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1240/41 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4211/12 (October 2/3)|
|Iranian calendar||1256/57 (around March 21)|
|Islamic calendar||1294/ 1295 (January 4-5. // 25-26 December.) / 96|
Meiji 11 (
明治 11 年 );
|Jewish calendar||5638/39 (September 27-28)|
|Coptic calendar||1594/95 (September 10-11)|
|Rumi Calendar (Ottoman Empire)||1293/94 (March 1)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2188/89 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2189/90 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1934/35 (April)|
Politics and world events
Balkans / Ottoman Empire
- January 9 : In the Russo-Ottoman War , the Russians succeed in capturing an Ottoman army at the embattled Shipka Pass , which allows the victors to advance to Rumelia .
- January 17 : The Battle of Plovdiv is one of the last battles in the Russo-Ottoman War.
- January 31 : The second Serbian-Ottoman war ends. On the same day, Russia and the Ottoman Empire sign the Edirne armistice .
- March 3rd : Peace of San Stefano : The Ottoman Empire has to bow to a dictated peace favorable to Russia . Since the increase in power in Russia is going too far for the great powers Austria-Hungary , Great Britain and France , the Berlin Congress will take place in the same year . Bulgaria regains independence after almost 500 years of Ottoman rule.
- May 22nd : Romania declares its independence from the Ottoman Empire .
- June 4th : Great Britain receives the island of Cyprus in an initially secret treaty with the Ottoman Empire , but the Sultan reserves the right to sovereignty. The British promise to support him in return for Russian expansion.
- June 10 : The League of Prizren is founded in the Bayrakli Mosque in Prizren , the first Albanian association of its kind with the goal of creating a nation-state for all areas in the Ottoman Empire where the majority of Albanians live . Three years later the League was forcibly disbanded by Ottoman soldiers and police.
- June 13. bis 13. July : Berlin Congress under the chairmanship of Otto von Bismarck : Romania , Serbia and Montenegro will be independent, Romania also receives the Dobrogea but must return for a portion of Bessarabia to Russia cede. Bulgaria received a special status, but remained tribute to the Ottoman Empire . Austria-Hungary is allowed to occupy Bosnia and Herzegovina , Great Britain receives Cyprus on a lease basis, while Raszien , Albania , Macedonia and Rumelia remain with the Ottoman Empire.
- July 29 : Austria-Hungary begins the occupation of Bosnia and Herzegovina in the occupation campaign in accordance with the peace made at the Berlin Congress .
- August 19 : When they march into Bosnia , Austrian troops under the command of Joseph Philippovich von Philippsberg take the city of Sarajevo .
- May 11th : After Max Hödel's assassination attempt on Kaiser Wilhelm I , Chancellor Otto von Bismarck calls for a ban on social democracy .
- June 2 : The German Kaiser Wilhelm I is seriously wounded in an assassination attempt by a shotgun shot by Karl Eduard Nobiling . The assassin shot himself in the head before being arrested and died a little later.
- June 11 : Because the majority of the Reichstag rejected a ban on the Social Democrats after an assassination attempt on Kaiser Wilhelm I , it is dissolved by the Kaiser in accordance with the provisions of the constitution. The subsequent new election brings the conservatives a clear victory in terms of mandates, after a second assassination attempt on the regent caused further resentment among parts of the population.
- July 30 : The German Reichstag election is won by the conservatives after two assassinations on Kaiser Wilhelm I. There is now a majority in favor of the Socialist Law desired by Chancellor Otto von Bismarck .
- October 19 : With 221 votes from conservatives and liberals against 149 votes from progressives , the center and social democrats, the German Reichstag passes the law against the efforts of social democracy that are dangerous to the public and legalizes the persecution of socialists, which Otto von Bismarck elevated to the state doctrine.
Other events in Europe
- January 9th : Umberto I succeeds his late father Victor Emanuel II as King of Italy .
- November 13 : In parliamentary elections in Portugal , the ruling Partido Progressista under António José de Ávila is defeated. The new Prime Minister will be António Maria de Fontes Pereira de Melo from the victorious Regeneration Party. For the first time, the Republicans , who advocate the abolition of the monarchy , also succeed in gaining a mandate.
- November 17 : In Italy's King Umberto I. is the chef Giovanni Passannante in Naples an assassination perpetrated. The ruler suffers minor injuries.
- February 10 : The Peace of Zanjón is concluded. The ten years war for Cuba's independence comes to an end with the surrender of the insurgents. Spanish authority over Cuba is accepted.
- May 28 : The Ten Years War against the colonial power Spain officially ends in Cuba . The Provisional Government also succeeds in persuading the rebel group commanded by Antonio Maceo to recognize the Zanjón Peace . In it the Cuban Independence Army surrenders.
- November 12 : US President Rutherford B. Hayes decides as arbiter requested by Argentina in the dispute over the border in the Gran Chaco in favor of Paraguay and at the expense of the Triple Alliance .
- March 12 : Whale Bay and a strip of land surrounding it in southwestern Africa become British property .
- Under the name Mehmed Emin Pasha known explorer Emin Pasha from Opole is the governor of the Turkish-Egyptian Equatorial province appointed in Central Africa.
- Lewanika I. becomes Litunga (King) of Barotseland .
- August 16 : The island of Ensomheden ("loneliness") is discovered in the West Siberian Arctic Ocean .
- November 22nd : The Second Anglo-Afghan War begins with the Battle of Ali Masjid , won by the British Army near the Chaiber Pass . The war lasted until 1880 .
- Nauruan Tribal War : War between the twelve different tribes on the Pacific island of Nauru ; it lasted from 1878 to October 3, 1888 .
- February 21 : New Haven, Connecticut has the world's first directory of telephone subscribers . It includes 50 entries.
- May 1 : At the Paris Champ de Mars is the World Fair ( Exposition Universelle ) - the first time with country pavilions - opened. It lasts until October 1st and is visited by around 16 million people. The attractions of the exhibition include a large aquarium , a mighty tethered balloon and the head of the Statue of Liberty by Frédéric-Auguste Bartholdi . As novelties u. a. an ice machine and electric light are presented. The architect Gabriel Davioud and the engineer Jules Bourdais built the Palais du Trocadéro on the occasion of this world exhibition .
- May 14 : The Vaseline trademark is registered for Robert Chesebrough , who has held the patent for the manufacture of the ointment for six years.
- May 15 : In Tokyo which is the first exchange in Japan founded. Trading starts on June 1st .
- July 3 : The playing card tax becomes a legal source of income in the German Reich and replaces state taxes.
- Shōzō Kawasaki founds the Kawasaki Tsukiji Shipyard in Tokyo .
- In Germany the first is Maternity Protection Act enacted. It provided for three weeks off after the delivery .
- Foundation of the Moritz Fiege brewery .
science and technology
- January 19 : The first public phone booth is installed in New Haven , Connecticut .
- January 30th : In Breslau , Wilhelm Alexander Freund succeeds in the first scientifically sound and reproducible simple total removal of a cancerous uterus via an abdominal incision.
- May 9 : David Edward Hughes presents an improved microphone , the carbon microphone he developed , at the Royal Society in London .
- June 15 : Eadweard Muybridge succeeds in series photography of a galloping horse in front of an audience for the first time .
- July 4th : Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld sets off from Gothenburg on the first successful Northeast Passage .
- September 9 : Carl Humann begins excavations on Pergamon Castle Hill . The Pergamon Altar is one of the important finds after several years of work .
- October 23 : Édouard Jean-Marie Stephan sees the galaxy later known as NGC 304 in the constellation Andromeda .
- In Klein Nordende , a new deep drilling record is set at 1,338 meters .
- Josiah Willard Gibbs develops his phase rule of thermodynamics .
- Carl Gustav Patrik de Laval invents the milk centrifuge .
- Adolf von Baeyer develops the indigo synthesis .
- Thomas Edison developed the light bulb in the USA.
- Gerbillus pusillus , a so-called dwarf gerbil , is scientifically described for the first time.
- Coin find from Græsli
- After two motifs with Place St.-Augustin, painted in the summer, depicting a view of the city at street level, Gustave Caillebotte's views of Rue Halévy move on to the view of the viewer - from the window on an upper floor - down into the street to steer. In addition, Caillebotte shows a view of the roofs of Paris for the first time in the pictures of Rue Halévy. In December Caillebotte began work on the painting Snowy Roofs , which he would probably finish early the following year.
Music and theater
- January 5th : Der Teufel auf Erden , an operetta in four acts by Franz von Suppè based on the libretto by Karl Juin and Julius Hopp is premiered at the Carltheater in Vienna.
- March 23rd : Karl Millöcker's operetta The Enchanted Palace is premiered at the Theater an der Wien in Vienna . Alois Berla wrote the libretto . Alexander Girardi , to whom the composer dedicated his operetta, embodies the figure of Andredl .
- May 25 : The comic opera HMS Pinafore ; or, The Lass that Loved a Sailor by the composer Arthur Sullivan and the librettist William Schwenck Gilbert , known as Gilbert and Sullivan , has its world premiere at the Opera Comique in London . The work reached 571 performances in series.
- September 18 : The opera Tajemství ( The Secret ) by Bedřich Smetana based on the libretto by Eliška Krásnohorská is premiered at Nové České Divadlo in Prague.
- December 28 : Jacques Offenbach's Opéra-comique Madame Favart is premiered at the Théâtre des Folies Dramatiques in Paris .
- September 12 : In London, an Egyptian obelisk , one of Cleopatra's needles , is erected on the banks of the Thames . Muhammad Ali Pascha donated the obelisk to Great Britain in 1819 , but for decades nobody wanted to bear the transport costs.
- February 7th : Pope Pius IX. dies. His pontificate lasted 31 years and 8 months. This makes him the longest reigning Pope in the history of the Roman Catholic Church .
- February 20 : The conclave elects Vincenzo Gioacchino Pecci as Pope , he takes the name Leo XIII. on. The coronation will take place on March 3rd .
- April 21 : The inaugural encyclical of Leo XIII, Inscrutabili Dei consilio , is published.
- July 2. bis 27. July : Second Lambeth Conference of Anglican Church
- May 31 : The two German warships SMS König Wilhelm and SMS Großer Kurfürst collide in the English Channel . When the Great Elector went down , 269 people died.
- 3rd / 4th June : Küsnacht flood in 1878
- August 9 : The Wallingford tornado , the worst tornado in Connecticut history , kills 34 people and injures over 70.
- September 3 : The British cruise ship Princess Alice collides with a coal freighter on the Thames and sinks in four minutes. 640 people die. It is the worst shipping accident to date in British inland waters.
- October 31 : A major fire breaks out in Stockholm in the Eldkvarn grist mill in the Kungsholmen district . The destruction by the fire creates space for the construction of the Stockholm City Hall, which began in 1911, at this location.
- December 18 : The French passenger steamer Byzantin collides with the British steamship Rinaldo in hurricane-like weather at the entrance to the Dardanelles and capsizes. About 150 people die.
Minor accidents are listed in the sub-articles of Catastrophe .
nature and environment
- August 13 : The Luray Caverns are accidentally discovered in northwest Virginia . The three discoverers initially conceal the discovery of the cave system and purchase the land cheaply in an ongoing foreclosure auction. Your purchase will later be canceled once the true value is discovered.
- October 14 : The first football match under floodlights is played in Sheffield , England . Four arc lamps from Siemens provide the lighting on the Sheffield FC playing field .
- The Augsburger EV is founded, the oldest ice sports club in Germany.
- The English football club Manchester United is founded as Newton Heath LYR .
- January 1 : Agner Krarup Erlang , Danish mathematician († 1929 )
- January 1 : Edwin Franko Goldman , American composer and conductor († 1956 )
- January 3 : Hugo Chanoch Fuchs , rabbi and Jewish historian († 1949 )
- January 4 : Gerdt von Bassewitz , German writer († 1923 )
- January 6th : Adeline Genée , Danish ballet dancer († 1970 )
- January 6 : Carl Sandburg , American poet († 1967 )
- January 9 : John B. Watson , American psychologist († 1958 )
- January 10 : Samuel C. Bradford , English librarian († 1948 )
- January 10th : Johann Lemmerz , German designer and entrepreneur († 1952 )
- January 10 : August Adriaan Pulle , Dutch botanist († 1955 )
- January 11 : Theodoros Pangalos , Greek general and politician († 1952 )
- January 12 : Ferenc Molnár , Hungarian writer and journalist († 1952 )
- January 13 : Sydney Arnold , British politician († 1945 )
- January 17 : Oscar Apfel , American actor, silent film director, screenwriter and producer († 1938 )
- January 17th : Emil Helfferich , German Southeast Asia businessman († 1972 )
- January 17 : Gustav Neckel , German old Germanist († 1940 )
- January 18 : Agostino Gemelli , Italian priest and medic († 1959 )
- January 18 : Thomas Edward Campbell , American politician († 1944 )
- January 19 : Herbert Chapman , English football player and coach († 1934 )
- January 20 : Theodor Arldt , German scientist, historian and writer († 1960 )
- January 21 : Egon Friedell , Austrian writer and actor († 1938 )
- January 23 : Edwin Plimpton Adams , physicist († 1956 )
- January 23 : Harry Steier , German opera singer (tenor) († 1936 )
- January 23 : Rutland Boughton , English composer († 1960 )
- January 23 : Oton Župančič , Slovenian writer († 1949 )
- January 24th : Johannes Runge , German athlete and Olympic participant († 1949 )
- January 25 : Ernst Alexanderson , Swedish-American electrical engineer († 1975 )
- January 25 : Harry L. Davis , American politician († 1950 )
- January 26 : Rudolf Alexander Schröder , German poet and writer († 1962 )
- January 28 : Walter Kollo , German composer († 1940 )
- January 29 : Mary Jobe Akeley , American naturalist and cartographer († 1966 )
- January 30 : Anne Catherine Ingeborg Andresen-Bödewadt , German teacher and regional writer († 1955 )
- January 31 : Heinrich Delp , German politician († 1945 )
- February 1 : Alfréd Hajós , Hungarian swimmer († 1955 )
- February 2 : Walter Evans-Wentz , American anthropologist and writer († 1965 )
- February 5 : André Citroën , French automobile designer († 1935 )
- February 7th : Magnus Freiherr von Braun , German politician, Reich Minister, father von Wernher, Siegmund and Magnus von Braun († 1972 )
- February 8 : Martin Buber , Jewish religious philosopher († 1965 )
- February 8 : Willem Hesselink , Dutch football player († 1973 )
- February 10 : Albin Frehse , German horn player and professor († 1973 )
- February 10 : Katayama Hiroko , Japanese poet and translator († 1957 )
- February 10 : Zdeněk Nejedlý , Czech historian, literary critic and musicologist († 1962 )
- February 14 : Hans Ledwinka , Austrian car designer († 1967 )
- February 14 : Hirota Kōki , Japanese Prime Minister († 1948 )
- February 15 : Arnold Ræstad , Norwegian historian and 1921 Foreign Minister († 1945)
- February 18 : Ada Sara Adler , Danish classical philologist and librarian († 1946 )
- February 18 : Regino E. Boti , Cuban writer († 1958 )
- February 18 : Hans Mühlhofer , German actor, radio play speaker and reciter († 1932 )
- February 20 : Gustav Rau , German hurdler
- February 21 : Franz Aubell , Austrian geodesist († 1954 )
- February 22 : Hiram Abrams , American entrepreneur and first president of the film distributor United Artists († 1926 )
- February 22nd : Walter Ritz , Swiss mathematician († 1909 )
- February 23 : Kazimir Malevich , Ukrainian painter of "futuristic" painting († 1935 )
- February 23 : Otto Schubert , German architect and university lecturer († 1968 )
- February 26 : Gustav Heinrich Angenheister , German geophysicist († 1945 )
- February 27 : Alvan T. Fuller , American politician († 1958 )
- February 28 : Stephan Angeloff , Bulgarian scientist († 1964 )
- February 28 : Pierre Fatou , French mathematician († 1929 )
- February 28 : Artur Kapp , Estonian composer († 1952 )
- March 1 : Gabriel Dupont , French composer († 1914 )
- March 1 : Max Hess , German horn player († 1975 )
- March 2 : Wander Johannes de Haas , Dutch physicist and mathematician († 1960 )
- March 3 : Leopold Jessner , German theater and film director († 1945 )
- March 4 : Charles Isaac Ginner , French-British painter († 1952 )
- March 4 : Arishima Takeo , Japanese writer († 1923 )
- March 8 : Cyrus Locher , American politician († 1929 )
- March 8 : Arthur Traube , German chemist († 1948 )
- March 11 : René Vierne , French organist and composer († 1918 )
- March 12 : Sepp Amschl , Austrian teacher and composer († 1943 )
- March 13 : Otto Hönigschmid , Czech-Austrian chemist († 1945 )
- March 15 : Reza Shah Pahlavi , Persian Shah († 1944 )
- March 16 : Edward Larrabee Adams , American Romanist and Provençalist († 1957 )
- March 16 : Clemens August Graf von Galen , German bishop and cardinal († 1946 )
- March 19 : Walther Paucker , German-Baltic pastor and Protestant martyr († 1919 )
- March 21 : Pasquale Amato , Italian singer († 1942 )
- March 22nd : Jean Strauwen , Belgian composer and conductor († 1947 )
- March 22 : Michel Théato , Luxembourgish athlete († 1905 )
- March 23 : Franz Schreker , Austrian composer († 1934 )
- March 25 : Sidney M. Goldin , American director of Yiddish films († 1937 )
- March 26 : Henry Somer Gullett , Australian politician († 1940 )
- March 26 : William P. Hobby , American politician († 1964 )
- March 26 : Leo von Prittwitz and Gaffron , Russian major general († 1957 )
- March 28 : Herbert H. Lehman , American politician († 1963 )
- March 31 : Jack Johnson , American boxer († 1946 )
- March 31 : August Winnig , German trade unionist and writer († 1956 )
- April 1 : Carl Sternheim , German playwright and author († 1942 )
- April 2 : Antun Dobronić , Croatian composer († 1955 )
- 3. / 4 April : Paul Adler , German writer († 1946)
- April 3 : François Lecot , French racing car driver († 1959 )
- April 4 : Walter Conrad Arensberg , American literary scholar and art collector († 1954 )
- April 5 : Georg Misch , German philosopher († 1965 )
- April 5 : Wolf Dohrn , German reformer († 1914 )
- April 5 : Paul Weinstein , German athlete († 1964 )
- April 6 : Carl Ehrenberg , German composer († 1962 )
- April 6 : Harry Leslie , American politician († 1937 )
- April 6 : Erich Mühsam , German anarchist and writer († 1934 )
- April 8 : Rudolf Nelson , German musician, pianist, composer and theater director († 1960 )
- April 9 : Bruno Ahrends , German architect († 1948 )
- April 9 : Marcel Grossmann , Swiss mathematician († 1936 )
- April 11 : Georg H. Schnell , German actor († 1951 )
- April 11 : Heinrich Altherr , Swiss painter († 1947 )
- April 12 : Richard Goldschmidt , German biologist and geneticist († 1958 )
- April 12 : Robert Pracht , German school musician and composer († 1961 )
- April 12 : Emma Trentini , American singer of Italian origin († 1959 )
- April 13 : Jan van der Hoeve , Dutch ophthalmologist († 1952 )
- April 15 : Robert Walser , Swiss writer († 1956 )
- April 18 : Engelbert Wittich , German writer († 1937 )
- April 21 : Albert Weisgerber , German painter and graphic artist († 1915 )
- April 23 : Franz Arnold , German playwright († 1960 )
- April 25 : Theodore Holland , English composer and music teacher († 1947 )
- April 27 : Sadriddin Aini , Tajik poet and writer († 1954 )
- April 27 : Victor Arendorff , Swedish writer, journalist and poet († 1958 )
- April 28 : Lionel Barrymore , American actor and director († 1954 )
- April 29 : Friedrich Adler , German architect († 1942 )
- April 29 : Peter Dörfler , German priest and local poet († 1955 )
- April 30 : Fernand Gabriel , French racing car driver († 1943 )
- May 1 : Ida Beer-Walbrunn , German painter († 1951 )
- May 5 : Edward James Gay , American politician († 1952 )
- May 6 : Harry Farjeon , British composer († 1948 )
- May 7 : Berta Schulz , social democratic politician († 1950 )
- May 10 : Gustav Stresemann , German Foreign Minister and Nobel Peace Prize Laureate († 1929 )
- May 12 : Martha Abicht , German kindergarten teacher († 1941 )
- May 16 : Eduard Biermann , German economist († 1937 )
- May 12 : Massimo Bontempelli , Italian writer († 1960 )
- May 12 : Ernst Thrasolt , German priest, poet, pacifist and savior of the Jews († 1945 )
- May 21 : Glenn Curtiss , American racing driver, aviation pioneer, pilot and entrepreneur († 1930 )
- May 24 : José Dolores Alfonseca , Dominican politician († 1933 )
- May 25 : Wolfgang Gaede , German physicist, pioneer of vacuum technology († 1945 )
- May 26 : Chris Lebeau , Dutch artist and anarchist († 1945 )
- May 30 : Raymond Smith Dugan , American astronomer († 1940 )
- May 30th : Hermine Körner , German actress, director, theater manager († 1960 )
- May 30 : Walter Otto , German ancient historian († 1941 )
- June 2 : Alfredo Gómez Jaime , Colombian poet († 1946 )
- June 2 : Rudolf Löw , Swiss painter and writer († 1948 )
- June 3 : Alexander Ernemann , German entrepreneur and designer of cinema equipment († 1956 )
- June 3 : Lawrence Joseph Henderson , American chemist, biologist († 1942 )
- June 4 : Frank Buchman , American theologian († 1961 )
- June 4 : Ludwig Dürr , German airship designer († 1956 )
- June 5 : Jacob Dahl , Faroese provost and Bible translator († 1944 )
- June 5 : Pancho Villa , Mexican freedom fighter, folk hero, governor and general († 1923 )
- June 11 : Herbert Kund , German officer and Africa traveler († after 1925 )
- June 12th : Hans Aniol , German swimmer and water polo player
- June 12 : James Oliver Curwood , American writer († 1927 )
- June 16 : Fritz Behn , German sculptor († 1970 )
- June 19 : Edmond Jaloux , French writer and literary critic († 1949 )
- June 21 : Robert Debes , German professor of business administration († 1962 )
- June 21 : Robert Jackson Emerson , British sculptor, painter and medalist († 1944 )
- June 25 : Jean Gallon , French composer and composition teacher († 1959 )
- June 25 : Marie-Elisabeth Lüders , German politician († 1966 )
- June 26 : Albert Siklós , Hungarian composer († 1942 )
- June 28 : Robert Breuer , German journalist and publicist († 1943 )
- July 1 : Ernst Gehrcke , German physicist († 1960 )
- July 1 : Joseph Maréchal , French philosopher († 1944 )
- July 3 : Hans Woldemar Schack , German botanist († 1946 )
- July 4 : Wilhelm Amsinck Burchard-Motz , German lawyer and politician († 1963 )
- July 6 : Eino Leino , Finnish writer († 1926 )
- July 8 : Edgar Dacqué , German paleontologist and natural philosopher († 1945 )
- July 12 : Alfred Liebig , German architect († 1952 )
- July 17 : Artur Kutscher , German literary and theater scholar († 1960 )
- July 19 : Charles-Victor Mauguin , French professor of mineralogy († 1958 )
- July 22 : Janusz Korczak , Polish doctor, children's book author and educator († 1942 )
- July 22nd : Lucien Febvre , French historian († 1956 )
- July 23 : James Thomas Milton Anderson , Canadian politician († 1946 )
- July 24 : Edward Plunkett , Irish fantasy writer († 1957 )
- July 24 : Basil Ruysdael , American actor († 1960 )
- July 27 : August Aichhorn , Austrian educator and psychoanalyst († 1949 )
- July 27 : Matsui Iwane , Japanese officer († 1948 )
- July 27 : Béatrice La Palme , Canadian singer, violinist and music teacher († 1921 )
- July 28 : Vinzenz Schumy , Austrian politician († 1962 )
- July 29 : Gustav Bratke , German politician († 1952 )
- July 29 : Donald Robert Perry Marquis , American writer, poet and journalist († 1937 )
- July 29 : James M. Slattery , American politician († 1948 )
- July 30th : Hermann Jordan , German Protestant clergyman and university professor († 1922 )
- July 30th : Jørgen Skafte Rasmussen , Danish engineer and industrialist († 1964 )
- August 2nd : August Högn , German composer and historian († 1961 )
- August 3 : Constantino Gaito , Argentine composer, conductor and pianist († 1945 )
- August 4th : Robert Aumüller , German manager († 1953 )
- August 5 : Ernst Rodenwaldt , German medic († 1965 )
- August 7th : Maria Caspar-Filser , German painter († 1968 )
- August 8 : Nathan L. Bachman , American politician († 1937 )
- August 9 : Eileen Gray , Irish interior architect and designer († 1976 )
- August 9 : Paul Renner , German typographer († 1956 )
- August 10 : Alfred Döblin , German doctor and writer († 1957 )
- August 10 : Karl Geiler , German politician († 1953 )
- August 12 : Robert D. Carey , American politician († 1937 )
- August 12 : Arnold Hartig , Sudeten German medalist († 1972 )
- August 13 : William Lemke , American politician († 1950 )
- August 17 : Paul Ludwig Troost , German architect († 1934 )
- August 18 : Fritz Brun , Swiss composer († 1959 )
- August 19 : Manuel Quezon , Filipino politician († 1944 )
- August 20 : Jakub Deml , Czech priest, poet and writer († 1961 )
- August 22 : Edward Johnson , Canadian singer and opera director († 1959 )
- August 27 : Pyotr Nikolajewitsch Wrangel , General in the Russian Civil War († 1928 )
- August 28 : Hermann Essig , German playwright, storyteller and poet († 1918 )
- August 28 : Rudolf Swiderski , German chess master († 1909 )
- August 28 : George Hoyt Whipple , American pathologist († 1976 )
- August 30 : Arthur Koepchen , technical director of today's RWE AG († 1954 )
- August 31 : Frank Jarvis , American athlete († 1933 )
- August 31 : Albert Riemenschneider , American Bach researcher and music teacher († 1950 )
- September 1 : John Frederick Charles Fuller , British major general and military historian († 1966 )
- September 1 : Tullio Serafin , Italian conductor († 1968 )
- September 2 : Werner von Blomberg , German general and minister († 1946 )
- September 2 : Maurice René Fréchet , French mathematician († 1973 )
- September 3 : Dorothea Douglass , British tennis player († 1960 )
- September 5 : Robert von Lieben , Austrian physicist († 1913 )
- September 7th : Laura Schradin , German politician and member of the Bundestag († 1937 )
- September 8th : Théodore Aubert , Swiss politician († 1963 )
- September 8 : Georg Lotter , German engineer († 1949 )
- September 9 : Sergio Osmeña , Filipino politician and President († 1961 )
- September 12 : James Ashcroft , English football goalkeeper († 1943 )
- September 14 : Scott Loftin , American politician († 1953 )
- September 15 : Hans Detlev Abraham Otto von Arnim-Kröchlendorff , German politician († 1947 )
- September 16 : Karl Albiker , German sculptor, pupil of Auguste Rodin († 1961 )
- September 16 : Carl Joseph Kuckhoff , German politician and member of the Reichstag († 1944 )
- September 17 : Vincenzo Tommasini , Italian composer († 1950 )
- September 18 : Józef Jarzębski , Polish violinist and music teacher († 1955 )
- September 19 : Stefan I (Exarch) , Bulgarian Metropolitan and Exarch († 1957)
- September 19 : Aurél Stromfeld , Austro-Hungarian officer and Chief of Staff of the Army of the Hungarian Soviet Republic († 1927 )
- September 20 : Upton Sinclair , American writer († 1968 )
- September 21 : Waldemar Lestienne , French racing driver, designer and entrepreneur († 1967 )
- September 21 : Hans Thaler , Austrian gynecologist and obstetrician († 1926 )
- September 22 : Yoshida Shigeru , Japanese Prime Minister († 1967 )
- September 24 : Albert Gottheiner , German architect († 1947 )
- September 24 : Charles-Ferdinand Ramuz , Swiss writer († 1947 )
- September 26 : Kurt von Hammerstein-Equord , German general and opponent of Hitler († 1943 )
- September 29 : Heinrich Köhler , German politician († 1949 )
- October 1 : Othmar Spann , Austrian economist, sociologist and philosopher († 1950 )
- October 2 : George Dorrington Cunningham , English organist and music teacher († 1948 )
- October 4 : Selmar Samuel Aschheim , German gynecologist († 1965 )
- October 5 : Erich Kühn , German writer and editor († 1938 )
- October 10 : Albert von Trentini , Austrian writer († 1933 )
- October 11 : Karl Hofer , German Expressionist painter († 1955 )
- October 12 : Karl Buresch , Austrian politician († 1936 )
- October 12 : Achille Philip , French organist and composer († 1959 )
- October 13 : Josef Keil , Austrian historian, epigraphist and archaeologist († 1963 )
- October 16 : Jean Agélou , French photographer († 1921 )
- October 16 : Eugenio Canfari , Italian football official and entrepreneur († 1962 )
- October 16 : Maxie Long , American sprinter and Olympic champion († 1959 )
- October 17 : Henri Mulet , French organist and composer († 1967 )
- October 18 : James Truslow Adams , American historian and writer († 1949 )
- October 18 : Miguel Llobet , Spanish guitarist and composer († 1938 )
- October 19 : Hermann Claudius , German homeland poet († 1980 )
- October 22 : Carl Otto Czeschka , Austrian graphic artist and painter († 1960 )
- October 22 : John Lee Pratt , American entrepreneur and art collector († 1975 )
- October 28 : Conrado del Campo , Spanish composer, violinist and music teacher († 1953 )
- October 28 : Dora Dreesen-Horn , German painter († 1966 )
- October 29 : Alexander von Falkenhausen , German general († 1966 )
- October 30 : Paul August Reimund Frank , German architect († 1951 )
- October 30 : Emil Röthong , German gymnast († 1970 )
- October 30 : Arthur Scherbius , German inventor and entrepreneur († 1929 )
- October 31 : Gyula Grosz , German doctor († 1959 )
- November 1 : Carlos Saavedra Lamas , Argentine politician († 1959 )
- November 4 : Giuseppe Adami , Italian playwright, librettist, screenwriter and music critic († 1946 )
- November 5th : Max Ammermann , German rower
- November 5 : Mikhail Arzybaschew , Russian writer († 1927 )
- November 5 : Julius Petersen , German literary scholar († 1941 )
- November 6 : Raymond Asquith , British lawyer († 1916 )
- November 6 : Kurt Goldstein , German neurologist and psychiatrist († 1965 )
- November 7th : Lise Meitner , Austrian-German-Swedish nuclear physicist († 1968 )
- November 8 : Manuel Magallanes Moure , Chilean writer and literary critic († 1924 )
- November 9 : Álvaro de Castro , Portuguese military and politician, Prime Minister († 1928 )
- November 10 : Jorge Ubico Castañeda , Guatemalan President and dictator († 1946 )
- November 10 : Arthur Liebert , German philosopher († 1946 )
- November 10 : Heinrich von Srbik , Austrian historian († 1951 )
- November 11th : Dankwart Otto Heinrich Emil Rudolf Ackermann , German physiologist and chemist († 1965 )
- November 14th : Louis Marcoussis , Polish graphic artist and painter († 1941 )
- November 15 : Erich Basarke , German architect († 1941 )
- November 17 : Grace Abbott , American social reformer, child rights activist and university teacher († 1939 )
- November 17 : George MacFarlane , American singer and actor († 1932 )
- November 17 : Berta Lask , German poet († 1967 )
- November 18 : Helene von Nostitz , German writer († 1944 )
- November 20 : Albert W. Hawkes , American businessman and politician († 1971 )
- November 21 : Ibra Charles Blackwood , American politician († 1936 )
- November 21 : Bess Brenck-Kalischer , German poet († 1933 )
- November 21 : Gustav Radbruch , German legal scholar and politician († 1949 )
- November 21 : Clara Westhoff , German sculptor († 1954 )
- November 23 : Ernest J. King , American admiral in World War II († 1956 )
- November 23 : Holcombe Ward , American tennis player († 1967 )
- November 24th : Heinrich Allina , Austrian politician and publicist († 1953 )
- November 25 : Georg Kaiser , German playwright of the Expressionist generation († 1945 )
- December 1 : George Sidney Arundale , Anglo-Indian Freemason and theosophist († 1945 )
- December 1 : Lorenz Rogger , Swiss Catholic clergyman and educator († 1954 )
- December 1 : Bruno Tanzmann , German writer and publisher († 1939 )
- December 4 : Mikhail Romanov , Grand Duke of Russia († 1918 )
- December 6 : Andō Kō , Japanese violinist († 1963 )
- December 8 : Hansi Arnstaedt , German theater and film actress († 1945 )
- December 8 : Eugene Cook Bingham , American chemist and pioneer of modern rheology († 1945 )
- December 9 : Georges Malfait , French athlete († 1946 )
- December 15 : Hans Carossa , German poet and author († 1956 )
- December 15 : Albert Colomb , French racing car driver († 1941 )
- December 18 : Josef Stalin , dictator of the Soviet Union 1927–1953 († 1953 )
- December 18 : Gerhard Bohlmann , German writer and journalist († 1944 )
- December 21 : Jan Łukasiewicz , Polish philosopher, mathematician and logician († 1956 )
- December 21 : Hugo Peitsch , German gymnast
- December 23 , Micheil Tsereteli , Georgian historian and diplomat († 1965 )
- December 24th : Gustav von Bergmann , German internist and medical professor († 1955 )
- December 30 : William Aberhart , Canadian politician and preacher († 1943 )
- December 30th : Erwin Guido Kolbenheyer , Austrian author, playwright and poet († 1962 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Robert Atherley , English football player († 1963 )
- Craig Campbell , Canadian singer (tenor) († 1965 )
- Ibrahim Dalliu , Albanian clergyman and publicist († 1952 )
- Andrés Madariaga , Chilean painter († 1920 )
- Yanaki Manaki , Ottoman film pioneer († 1954 )
- Ernst Mohr , German gymnast
- Fathollah Akbar Sepahdar , Iranian Prime Minister († 1947 )
- Cora Tracey , Canadian singer († after 1960)
- January 9 : Victor Emanuel II , King of Italy (* 1820 )
- January 9 : Karl Theodor Gustav Julius Krafft , German church councilor and doctor of philology (* 1804 )
- January 10 : August Julius Streichenberg , German sculptor (* 1814 )
- January 18 : Antoine César Becquerel , French physicist (* 1788 )
- January 22nd : August Willich , leader of the rebels during the Baden Revolution and general in the Civil War (* 1810 )
- January 26 : Ernst Friedrich Adickes , German politician (* 1811 )
- January 26 : Ernst Heinrich Weber , German physiologist and anatomist (* 1795 )
- January 31 : Franz Joseph von Buß , German lawyer and Catholic politician (* 1803 )
- February 7th : Pius IX. , Pope (* 1792 )
- February 8 : Elias Magnus Fries , Swedish botanist (* 1794 )
- February 9 : Adolf Theodor Hermann Fritzsche , German classical philologist (* 1818 )
- February 10 : Claude Bernard , French physiologist (* 1813 )
- February 14 ː Gustav Rasch , German journalist and travel writer (* 1825 )
- February 23 : Friedrich Joseph Ark , German architect and construction officer (* 1807 )
- February 26 : Jean-Pierre-Alexandre Antigna , French painter (* 1817 )
- February 26 : Angelo Secchi , Italian astronomer and Jesuit priest (* 1818 )
- February 27 : Mirzə Fətəli Axundov , Azerbaijani enlightener, writer, philosopher and literary critic (* 1812 )
- March 1 : Carl Ludwig Arndts von Arnesberg , German lawyer, professor and politician (* 1803 )
- March 1 : Charles Christian Nahl , German-American painter (* 1818 )
- March 6 : Asa Biggs , American lawyer and politician (* 1811 )
- March 7th : Ludwig Julius Asher , German landscape painter and sculptor (* 1804 )
- March 8 : Wilhelm Siegmund Teuffel , German classical philologist (* 1820 )
- March 14 : Joseph Audo , Patriarch of the Chaldean Catholic Church (* 1790 )
- March 20 : Julius Robert von Mayer , German doctor and physicist (* 1814 )
- March 27 : George Gilbert Scott , English architect (neo-Gothic) (* 1811 )
- March 30th : Luigi Amat di San Filippo e Sorso , Italian diplomat and cardinal to the Curia (* 1796 )
- April 4 : Wolf Heinrich Graf von Baudissin , German diplomat, writer and translator (* 1789 )
- April 4 : Buckshot Roberts , American buffalo hunter, cowboy, and rancher
- April 6 : Giuseppe Berardi , Italian cardinal (* 1810 )
- April 8 : Peter Wilhelm Friedrich von Voigtländer , German-Austrian entrepreneur, optician and photography pioneer (* 1812 )
- April 10 : Pierre-Ignace Aubry , Swiss politician (* 1796 )
- April 12th : François Schubert , German concertmaster and composer (* 1808 )
- April 16 : Johann Baptist Schiedermayr the Younger , Austrian clergyman (* 1807 )
- April 17th : Luigi Bienaimé , Italian sculptor (* 1795 )
- April 19 : Peter Tidemand Malling , Norwegian printer, publisher and bookseller (* 1807 )
- April 24 : Albín Mašek , Czech composer (* 1804 )
- April 25 : Anna Sewell , British writer (* 1820 )
- May 6 : François Benoist , French composer (* 1794 )
- May 8 : Meir Auerbach , Russian scholar, rabbi and chief rabbi (* 1815 )
- May 8 : Charles Morgan , American railroad and transportation tycoon (* 1795 )
- May 8 : Théophile Tilmant , French violinist and conductor (* 1799 )
- May 11 : Maximilian Joseph Auer , German porcelain painter (* 1805 )
- May 12 : Catherine Esther Beecher , American writer (* 1800 )
- May 13 : Joseph Henry , American scientist and professor (* 1797 )
- May 14 : Okubo Toshimichi , Japanese interior minister of the Meiji period (* 1830 )
- May 23 : Francisco Júlio de Caldas Aulete , Portuguese politician, didactic, Romanist, Lusitanist and lexicographer (* 1826 )
- June 5 : Ernst von Bibra , German naturalist and writer (* 1806 )
- June 6th : Achille Baraguey d'Hilliers , French general, Marshal of France (* 1795 )
- June 6th : Robert Stirling , Scottish priest and engineer (* 1790 )
- June 8 : Elisabeth Concordia Crola , German painter (* 1809 )
- June 12th : George V , King of Hanover (* 1819 )
- June 12 : Julius Faucher , German journalist, free trader and Manchester liberal (* 1820 )
- June 12 : William Cullen Bryant , American poet and journalist (* 1794 )
- June 15 : Soamiji Maharaj , Indian mystic and founder of the Radhasoami religion (* 1818 )
- June 21 : Johann Jakob Rychner , Swiss veterinarian (* 1803 )
- June 27 : Sidney Breese , American lawyer and politician (* 1800 )
- June 30 : Karl Weigand , German Germanist (* 1804 )
- July 1 : Catherine Winkworth , English translator of hymns (* 1827 )
- July 2 : François Bazin , French composer (* 1816 )
- July 3 : Daniel Sturgeon , American politician (* 1789 )
- July 4th : Vital Maria Conçalves de Oliveira , Brazilian bishop (* 1844 )
- July 8 : Juan Pedro Esnaola , Argentine composer (* 1808 )
- July 16 : Laura Gonzenbach , Swiss-Sicilian writer and storyteller (* 1842 )
- July 21 : Johann Baptist Sonderland , German painter and etcher (* 1805 )
- July 28 : George Law Curry , American politician (* 1820 )
- July 30 : George F. Shepley , American politician (* 1819 )
- August 14 : Wilhelm Rustow , German freedom fighter and revolutionary, military writer and historian (* 1821 )
- August 17 : Garnett Bowditch Adrain , American politician (* 1815 )
- August 23 : Adolf Fredrik Lindblad , Swedish composer (* 1801 )
- August 26 : Seth Padelford , American politician (* 1807 )
- September 2 : Henry Huntly Haight , American politician (* 1825 )
- September 7th : Mehmed Ali Pascha , Turkish general (* 1827 )
- September 9 : Karl Tomaschek , Austrian Germanist, literary historian and university lecturer (* 1828 )
- September 12 : Friedrich von Alberti , German geologist (* 1795 )
- September 17th : Jakob Anderegg , Swiss mountain guide (* 1829 )
- September 22 : Wilhelm Zimmermann , German Protestant theologian (* 1807 )
- October 11th : Satanta , chief of the Kiowa
- October 24 : John S. Carlile , American politician (* 1817 )
- October 24 : Paul Cullen , Irish cardinal and archbishop (* 1803 )
- October 28 : Johann Georg Kohl , German travel writer, geographer and historian (* 1808 )
- October 28 : Johann Wöbcken , German politician (* 1802 )
- November 4 : Ludwig Meyn , German agricultural scientist (* 1820 )
- November 8 : Hermann Goedsche , German writer (* 1815 )
- November 12th : Berthold v. Freydorf , Royal Prussian General (* 1820 )
- November 16 : Johann Adolf Karl van Heusde , Dutch philologist and literary scholar (* 1812 )
- November 17 : Adolph Methfessel , German composer (* 1807 )
- November 22nd : Ludwik Mierosławski , Polish revolutionary (* 1814 )
- November 26 : Theodor Albert Anton Muther , German legal scholar and historian (* 1826 )
- November 27 : Albert Emil Brachvogel , German writer (* 1824 )
- November 30th : Julius Krais , German pastor and poet (* 1807 )
- December 10th : Henry Wells , American entrepreneur (* 1805 )
- December 15 : Nikolai Chanykow , Russian explorer (* 1819 )
- December 16 : Richard Hartmann , German mechanical engineering entrepreneur (* 1809 )
- December 18 : Michael Anthony Anfossi , Indian Titular Bishop and Apostolic Vicar (* 1799 )
- December 18 : Heinrich Proch , Austrian composer (* 1809 )
- December 18 : Philipp Wirth , German painter and photographer (* 1808 )
- December 19 : Bayard Taylor , American travel writer and poet (* 1825 )
- December 23 : Fabio Maria Asquini , Italian cardinal to the Curia (* 1802 )
- December 23 : Johann Jakob Scherer , Swiss politician (* 1825 )
- December 24th : Lucy Anderson , English pianist (* 1797 )
- December 24th : Heinrich Buff , German physicist and chemist (* 1805 )
- December 26th : Auguste Auspitz-Kolár , Austrian-Bohemian pianist and composer (* 1844 )
- December 26th : Georgine Schubert , German actress and singer (* 1840 )
- December 28 : José Bernardo Alcedo , Peruvian composer (* 1788 )
- December 29th : Onslow Stearns , American politician (* 1810 )