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The Berlin Congress - final session on July 13, 1878
At the Berlin Congress , the political situation
in the Balkans after the Peace of San Stefano is reorganized.
Reichsgesetzblatt with the law against the endangering efforts of the social democracy
Otto von Bismarck
sets after two attacks
on Kaiser Wilhelm I
, the Socialist Law by.
"Modus vivendi", caricature by Wilhelm Scholz on the Kulturkampf: The Pope and the Chancellor ask each other to kiss their feet.  Caption: Pontifex: “Well please, don't be embarrassed!” Chancellor Bismarck: “Please also!”, From the Kladderadatsch, No. 14/15 (March 18, 1878)
With Leo XIII. as Pope, the Kulturkampf is ended informally.
1878 in other calendars
Armenian calendar 1326/27 (turn of the year July)
Ethiopian calendar 1870/71 (September 10-11)
Baha'i calendar 34/35 (March 20/21)
Bengali solar calendar 1283/84 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)
Buddhist calendar 2421/22 (southern Buddhism); 2420/21 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )
Chinese calendar 76th (77th) cycle

Year of the Earth Tiger 戊寅 ( at the beginning of the year Fire Ox 丁丑)

Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam) 1240/41 (turn of the year April)
Dangun era (Korea) 4211/12 (October 2/3)
Iranian calendar 1256/57 (around March 21)
Islamic calendar 1294/ 1295 (January 4-5. // 25-26 December.) / 96
Japanese calendar Meiji 11 ( 明治 11 年 );

Kōki 2538

Jewish calendar 5638/39 (September 27-28)
Coptic calendar 1594/95 (September 10-11)
Malayalam calendar 1053/54
Rumi Calendar (Ottoman Empire) 1293/94 (March 1)
Seleucid era Babylon: 2188/89 (turn of the year April)

Syria: 2189/90 (turn of the year October)

Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar) 1934/35 (April)


Politics and world events

Balkans / Ottoman Empire

The Peace of San Stefano was signed in this house in 1878.
Bulgaria; Borders after the Peace of San Stefano and the Berlin Congress
Europe in 1878, after the Berlin Congress and the political and territorial reorganization of the Balkans

German Empire

Max Hödel
Karl Eduard Nobiling

Other events in Europe

King Umberto I of Italy
Giovanni Passannante





The captured mountain fortress Ali Masjid



Panorama of the world exhibition

science and technology

Series photography of a galloping horse by Eadweard Muybridge
Memorial stone for the deepest earth drilling in Germany in the 19th century


Visual arts

Snow-covered roofs (preparatory sketch for snow-covered roofs , oil on canvas)
  • After two motifs with Place St.-Augustin, painted in the summer, depicting a view of the city at street level, Gustave Caillebotte's views of Rue Halévy move on to the view of the viewer - from the window on an upper floor - down into the street to steer. In addition, Caillebotte shows a view of the roofs of Paris for the first time in the pictures of Rue Halévy. In December Caillebotte began work on the painting Snowy Roofs , which he would probably finish early the following year.

Music and theater

Poster for the premiere


Cleopatra's Needle in London as seen from the River Thames


Crowned Pope Leo XIII.


Destroyed house in Wallingford
Contemporary depiction of the misfortune of Princess Alice
  • September 3 : The British cruise ship Princess Alice collides with a coal freighter on the Thames and sinks in four minutes. 640 people die. It is the worst shipping accident to date in British inland waters.
  • October 31 : A major fire breaks out in Stockholm in the Eldkvarn grist mill in the Kungsholmen district . The destruction by the fire creates space for the construction of the Stockholm City Hall, which began in 1911, at this location.
  • December 18 : The French passenger steamer Byzantin collides with the British steamship Rinaldo in hurricane-like weather at the entrance to the Dardanelles and capsizes. About 150 people die.

Minor accidents are listed in the sub-articles of Catastrophe .

nature and environment

  • August 13 : The Luray Caverns are accidentally discovered in northwest Virginia . The three discoverers initially conceal the discovery of the cave system and purchase the land cheaply in an ongoing foreclosure auction. Your purchase will later be canceled once the true value is discovered.




Ferenc Molnár, 1941
Theodor Arldt, 1927
Rudolf Alexander Schröder around 1924


André Citroën


Reza Shah Pahlavi


Lionel Barrymore, 1947


Gustav Stresemann, 1925


Ludwig Dürr (around 1900)
Marie Elisabeth Lüders, 1932



Alfred Döblin, around 1930


Dorothea Douglass


Miguel Llobet, 1905


Carlos Saavedra Lamas
Lise Meitner, around 1946
Gustav Radbruch before 1921


Exact date of birth unknown


First quarter

Victor Emmanuel II
Pope Pius IX

Second quarter

George V of Hanover

Third quarter

Fourth Quarter

Web links

Commons : 1878  - Collection of Images, Videos, and Audio Files