Calendar overview 1805
Royal Navy defeated under Vice Admiral Horatio Nelson
the French-Spanish fleet in the Battle of Trafalgar .
Napoleon Bonaparte wins
the Battle of Austerlitz .
|Muhammad Ali Pasha becomes Viceroy of Egypt .|
|1805 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1253/54 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1797/98 (September 10-11)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1210/11 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2348/49 (southern Buddhism); 2347/48 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||75th (76th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1167/68 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4138/39 (October 2/3)|
|French revolutionary calendar||Year XIII./XIV. of the Republic (September 21/22)|
|Islamic calendar||1219/20 (turn of the year March 31 / April 1)|
|Jewish calendar||5565/66 (23/24 September)|
|Coptic calendar||1521/22 (10/11 September)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2115/16 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2116/17 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1861/62 (April)|
Politics and world events
- March 17th : France's ruler Napoleon Bonaparte becomes king in the Kingdom of Italy in personal union . The dissolved Cisalpine Republic is incorporated here territorially.
- April 5 : Napoleon Bonaparte makes Rutger Jan Schimmelpenninck the new head of the Batavian Republic in the Netherlands .
- April 11 : Russia- Great Britain alliance against France
- May 26th : Napoleon Bonaparte puts on the Iron Crown of the Lombards (Lombardy) in Milan .
- June 4th : The Ligurian Republic with its capital Genoa is incorporated into the French Empire , as is the neighboring northern Italian duchy of Parma .
- July 22nd : In the Battle of Cape Finisterre in the Third Coalition War, ships of the Royal Navy under Admiral Robert Calder's command prevent a French-Spanish fleet led by Pierre de Villeneuve from entering the English Channel .
- August 9th : The third coalition against France is formed. It includes Austria , Great Britain , Russia , Sweden and the heavily decimated Kingdom of Sardinia-Piedmont .
- August 25 : In the secret Bogenhausen Treaty , the Electorate of Bavaria turns its back on its allies Austria and Russia in the Third Coalition War and goes to France's side . The treaty paves the way for the Kingdom of Bavaria .
- September 8th : Austrian troops invade Bavaria. That triggers France's declaration of war on Austria 15 days later. The Third Coalition War draws with the invasion.
- September 25th : Napoleon Bonaparte crosses the Rhine with his army.
- September 25 : In the Bogenhausen Treaty , the Electorate of Bavaria allows the invasion of French troops and thus gives up its alliance with the Empire of Austria and Russia . Bavaria supports Napoleon Bonaparte with troops in accordance with the contract.
- October 14 : In the Battle of Elchingen the French under Michel Ney win over the Austrian army under Karl Mack von Leiberich.
- October 15 : One day after the Battle of Elchingen in the Third Coalition War , Napoleon Bonaparte arrives there and negotiates surrender with Austrian Field Marshal Karl Mack von Leiberich , whose army around Ulm is surrounded by French troops under Michel Ney .
- 16th bis 19th October : In the group of several engagements Battle of Ulm a decisive victory of the French under Napoleon Bonaparte and the capture manages a portion of the opposing army.
- October 17 : Karl Mack von Leiberich surrenders in Ulm with the remains of the defeated Austrian army in the Third Coalition War to French troops under Napoleon Bonaparte .
- October 21 : The British Vice Admiral Horatio Nelson is killed in the Battle of Trafalgar , but he still manages a decisive victory over the Franco-Spanish fleet under Vice Admiral Pierre de Villeneuve and thus finally thwarted Napoleon's plans for an invasion of the British Isles. The sea battle off Cape Trafalgar near Cadiz lays the foundation for British supremacy at sea that lasted more than a century.
- October 25 : Tsar Alexander I in Berlin
- November 3 : Prussian-Russian Alliance (Treaty of Potsdam )
- November 11th : Russians and Austrians defeat French troops in the Battle of Dürnstein .
- November 13th : War of coalition : Napoleon Bonaparte's army takes Vienna . The troops enter the city without a fight.
- November 16 : In the battle of Hollabrunn and Schöngrabern, the attempt by the French army under Marshal Joachim Murat to prevent the unification of Russian and Austrian troops in the Third Coalition War fails . In the following battle at Austerlitz , the allies fight united.
- December 2 : In the Battle of the Three Emperors near Austerlitz , Napoleon triumphs over the Austrians under Emperor Franz II and the Russians under Tsar Alexander I.
- December 15 : Territorial changes are regulated in the Treaty of Schönbrunn between Prussia and France's ruler Napoleon Bonaparte. Prussia leaves the Principality of Ansbach , Kleve and the Principality of Neuchâtel to France and receives the Electorate of Hanover , which, however, belongs to the English royal family.
- December 26th : Peace of Pressburg between Austria and France
- December 31st : French revolutionary calendar : the last day of its validity begins.
- November 2nd : Muhammad Ali Pasha becomes governor of Egypt .
- Muhammad Ali Pasha , Ottoman general, founds his own dynasty in Egypt.
United States of America
- July 4th : The United States forms the Louisiana Territory of part of the territory purchased by France in the Louisiana Purchase .
science and technology
- November 26 : The Pontcysyllte Aqueduct in Wales opens. It is the longest and tallest aqueduct in Britain.
- Joseph-Marie Jacquard presented his punch card- controlled weaving machine in Paris , which turned out to be the decisive trigger for the industrial revolution .
- Ignaz Edler von Mitis discovers the Schweinfurt green .
- Henri-Louis Pernod founds a distillery , today's Pernod company .
- The German Johann Gottlieb Ulrich founds a horticultural company in Warsaw , under the name Zakłady Ogrodnicze “C. Ulrich “developed into the largest nursery in Poland.
Culture and society
- The Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts is founded on the initiative of Charles Willson Peale . Founding members include Rembrandt Peale and William Rush .
Music and theater
- April 7th : The 3rd symphony ( Eroica ) by Ludwig van Beethoven is performed publicly for the first time in the Theater an der Wien under the direction of the composer.
- May 9 : The world premiere of the opera Délia et Verdikan by Henri Montan Berton takes place at the Opéra-Comique in Paris.
- November 20 : The world premiere of the first version of Ludwig van Beethoven's only opera Fidelio takes place at the Theater an der Wien in Vienna under the direction of Ignaz von Seyfried . Carl Demmer , Anna Milder and Joseph Rothe sing the leading roles.
- April 22nd : On the birthday of Immanuel Kant, who died last year, William Motherby invites the 22 participants of Kant's last birthday party to a “commemorative celebration” in Kant's house in Königsberg , thus establishing the Society of Friends of Kant .
- May 15 : The newly created Frankfurter or Viennese sausages hang for the first time in the display of Johann Georg Lahner's butcher's shop in Vienna .
- August 17th : The first Unspunnen Festival is held at Unspunnen Castle near Interlaken . For the first time, an Unspunnen stone is used to push stones.
- The prince abbey of St. Gallen is abolished.
- February 5 : The British East Indiaman Earl of Abergavenny sinks off Weymouth ( England ), after having been previously damaged by the beaching on a sandbank. 261 of the 405 people on board die, including Captain John Wordsworth, a brother of the poet William Wordsworth .
- July 26th : An earthquake struck central Italy from Naples to Campobasso claims over 26,000 deaths.
- December 14 : A fire in Melk Abbey in Lower Austria kills around two to three hundred Russian prisoners of war who had been interned in the Abbey’s northern bastion since the Battle of Austerlitz
- January 3 : Ludwig Dindorf , German classical philologist († 1871 )
- January 5 : Per Gustaf Berg , Swedish publisher († 1889 )
- January 6 : Charles J. Jenkins , Governor of Georgia († 1883 )
- January 8 : John Bigler , 3rd Governor of California († 1871 )
- January 11 : Johann Nepomuk Geiger , painter and draftsman († 1880 )
- January 23 : Tommaso Vallauri , Italian philologist and professor of rhetoric († 1897 )
- January 27 : Sophie Friederike von Bayern (Sophie of Austria), daughter of King Maximilian I of Bavaria († 1872 )
- January 27 : Maria Anna Leopoldine , daughter of King Maximilian I of Bavaria († 1877 ), Queen of Saxony
- February 1 : Samuel Earnshaw , English clergyman, physicist and mathematician († 1888 )
- February 2 : Alphonse Gilbert , French composer and organist († 1870 )
- February 2 : Johann Baptist Sonderland , German painter and etcher († 1878 )
- February 3 : Otto Theodor von Manteuffel , Prussian politician († 1882 )
- February 4 : James William Harrison Ainsworth , English author († 1882 )
- February 5 : Friedrich Wilhelm Otto , German classical philologist († 1866 )
- February 7th : Louis-Auguste Blanqui , French, revolutionary and socialist theorist († 1881 )
- February 13 : Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet , German mathematician († 1859 )
- February 14 : Francis Valentine Woodhouse , Apostle of the Catholic Apostolic Church († 1901 )
- February 16 : Heinrich von Hofstätter , Bishop of Passau († 1875 )
- February 21 : Theodor Hartig , founder of the Arboretum Riddagshausen († 1880 )
- February 21 : David Tod , American politician († 1868 )
- February 22nd : Sarah Flower Adams , English poet († 1848 )
- March 3 : Jonas Furrer , Swiss politician († 1861 )
- March 4 : Friedrich Wilhelm Walther von Walderstötten , royal Bavarian infantry general and cartographer († 1889 )
- March 5 : Théodore Labarre , French harp virtuoso and composer († 1870 )
- March 7 : Franz Theodor Wangenheim , German writer († 1848 )
- March 14th : August Soller , architect and Schinkel student († 1853 )
- March 14 : Count Eduard Clam-Gallas , Austrian general († 1891 )
- March 16 : Ernst von Lasaulx , German classical philologist, historical philosopher and politician († 1861 )
- March 17 : Manuel Patricio Rodríguez García , Spanish opera singer, singing teacher and music teacher († 1906 )
- March 19 : Pětr Młónk , Sorbian folk poet († 1887 )
- March 22 : Jurij Mihevec , Slovenian composer († 1882 )
- March 31 : Abel Burckhardt , Swiss pastor and composer († 1882 )
- April 1 : Johanna Etienne , founder of the Neuss Augustinian women († 1881 )
- April 2 : Hans Christian Andersen , Danish poet and writer († 1875 )
- April 5 : Julius Freudenthal , German composer and numismatist († 1874 )
- April 8 : Hugo von Mohl , German botanist († 1872 )
- April 8 : Fidel von Baur-Breitenfeld , officer and Württemberg Minister of War († 1882 )
- April 10 : Eduard Daege , German painter († 1883 )
- April 12 : Johannes Zeltner , factory owner and entrepreneur, honorary citizen in Wittenberg († 1882 )
- April 15 : Edmund Strother Dargan , American politician († 1879 )
- April 20 : Franz Xaver Winterhalter , German portrait painter and lithographer († 1873 )
- April 22 : Johann Philipp Holzmann , building contractor and founder of the construction company Philipp Holzmann AG († 1870 )
- April 23 : Karl Rosenkranz , German philosopher and Hegel biographer († 1879 )
- April 26 : Julius Rockwell , American politician († 1888 )
- April 27 : Hines Holt , American politician († 1865 )
- April 28 : Henri-Auguste Barbier , French writer († 1882 )
- April 28 : Heinrich Kurz , German literary historian († 1873 )
- April 29 : Ludwig Schneider , German actor and writer († 1878 )
- May 1 : Johann Jacoby , Prussian politician and leading German radical democrat († 1877 )
- May 10 : Alexander Braun , German botanist († 1877 )
- May 11 : Friedrich Heinrich Eduard Kochhann , Berlin politician († 1890 )
- May 11 : Philipp von Foltz , German painter († 1877 )
- May 14 : Johann Peter Emilius Hartmann , Danish composer († 1900 )
- May 16 : Alexander Burnes , British traveler and explorer († 1841 )
- May 20 : Michael Aigner , Austrian engraver († 1861 )
- May 20 : Georg Gottfried Gervinus , German historian and national liberal politician († 1871 )
- May 23 : Heinrich Buff , German physicist and chemist († 1878 )
- June 5 : Samuel Adams , American politician († 1850 )
- June 5 : Jacob Niclas Ahlström , Swedish conductor and composer († 1857 )
- June 7 : Karl Fichtner , actor († 1873 )
- June 10 : Victor Baltard , French architect († 1874 )
- June 12 : Henriette Carl , a German opera singer with a soprano voice († 1890 )
- June 14 : Robert Anderson , American major general († 1871 )
- June 17 : Christian Friedrich Ludwig Buschmann , German musical instrument maker († 1864 )
- June 22nd : Juan Arolas , Spanish poet († 1849 )
- June 22nd : Carl Oesterley senior , German painter († 1891 )
- June 22nd : Giuseppe Mazzini , Italian nationalist and founder of "Young Italy" († 1872 )
- June 22nd : Ida Hahn-Hahn , German writer and poet († 1880 )
- June 23 : Friedrich Drake , German sculptor and architect († 1882 )
- June 27 : Napoléon Coste , French guitarist († 1883 )
- June 28 : František Cyril Kampelík , Czech public educator and founder of self-help cooperatives († 1872 )
- June 28 : Adolph Schroedter , German painter and graphic artist († 1875 )
- June 29 : Charles Théobald de Choiseul-Praslin , French nobleman and murderer († 1847 )
- July 5 : Robert FitzRoy , British naval officer and meteorologist († 1865 )
- July 6 : Heinrich Strack , German architect († 1880 )
- July 14 : Maximilian Joseph Auer , German porcelain painter († 1878 )
- July 15 : Johann Heinrich Deinhardt , German educator († 1867 )
- July 16 : Johann Christoph Blumhardt , German pastor and Protestant theologian († 1880 )
- July 17 : Guido von Usedom , Prussian diplomat († 1884 )
- July 18 : Johann Gustav Stickel , German Protestant theologian, orientalist and numismatist († 1896 )
- July 21 : Christian August Berkholz , German-Baltic clergyman and educator († 1889 )
- July 22 : Rudolf von Feistmantel , Austrian forest scientist († 1871 )
- July 26 : Claude Félix Abel Niépce de Saint-Victor , French chemist, inventor and photographer († 1870 )
- July 28 : Samuel Price , American politician († 1884 )
- July 29 : Alexis de Tocqueville , French publicist and politician († 1859 )
- July 31 : August Siebert , German medic († 1855 )
- August 2 : Heinrich Berges , German sculptor († 1852 )
- August 4 : William Rowan Hamilton , Irish-English mathematician and physicist († 1865 )
- August 10th : Sophie Countess von Hatzfeldt , first "red Countess" in German history († 1881 )
- August 10 : Ferenc Toldy , Hungarian literary historian († 1875 )
- August 12 : Johann Karl Rodbertus , German economist, founder of state socialism († 1875 )
- August 13 : Robert Rantoul , American politician († 1852 )
- August 16 : Amancio Alcorta , Argentine composer and politician († 1862 )
- August 19 : Jules Barthélemy-Saint-Hilaire , French scholar and statesman († 1895 )
- August 19 : Josef Danhauser , Austrian painter and graphic artist († 1845 )
- August 21 : August Bournonville , Danish dancer and choreographer († 1879 )
- August 21 : Friedrich Wilhelm Rettberg , German Protestant theologian, philosopher and church historian († 1849 )
- August 23 : Anton von Schmerling , Austrian politician and lawyer († 1893 )
- August 24 : Gustav von Manstein , Prussian infantry general († 1877 )
- August 29 : William Gannaway Brownlow , American politician († 1877 )
- September 1 : Karl Ludwig Friedrich von Hinckeldey , under Friedrich Wilhelm IV. Police chief in Berlin († 1856 )
- September 2 : Esteban Echeverría , Argentine poet († 1851 )
- September 3 : Isaac S. Pennybacker , American politician († 1847 )
- September 5 : James W. Flanagan , American politician († 1887 )
- September 7th : Modest Bogdanowitsch , Russian lieutenant general and military writer († 1882 )
- September 11th : Friedrich von Bothmer , Bavarian infantry general († 1886 )
- September 17 : Karl Otto von Raumer , Prussian statesman († 1859 )
- September 18 : John Stevens Cabot Abbott , American clergyman and writer († 1877)
- September 18 : Bernhard Brand von Lindau , Prussian lawyer († 1856 )
- September 27 : Georg Müller , German missionary († 1898 )
- October 2 : Carl Theodor Barth , German lawyer and democratic publicist († 1837 )
- October 10 : Peter Beising , German theologian († 1896 )
- October 11 : Gustav von Struve , German politician and revolutionary († 1870 )
- October 23 : Adalbert Stifter , Austrian poet, painter and teacher († 1868 )
- October 29 : August Heinrich Simon , German politician († 1860 )
- October 30 : Christoph Ulrich Hahn , German diaconal pioneer († 1881 )
- November 1 : Alessandro Nini , Italian composer († 1880 )
- November 4 : John Adams Gilmer , American politician († 1868 )
- November 10 : Augustin Keller , Swiss politician († 1883 )
- November 14 : Johann Friedrich Hermann Albers , German physician and pathologist († 1867 )
- November 14 : Fanny Hensel , German composer († 1847 )
- November 18 : Carl Alexander Simon , German painter and poet († 1852 )
- November 19 : Édouard Drouyn de Lhuys , French statesman († 1881 )
- November 19 : Ferdinand de Lesseps , French engineer and builder of the Suez Canal († 1894 )
- November 21 : Wilhelm Friedrich Christian Gustav Krafft , German politician († 1864 )
- November 24th : Luise Grimm , German photographer and painter († after 1850)
- November 25 : William B. Preston , American politician († 1862 )
- November 27 : Ralph Lowe , American politician († 1883 )
- November 28 : Cäsar Albano Kletke , German educator († 1893 )
- November 28 : Carl Overweg , German politician and industrialist († 1876 )
- November 28 : John Lloyd Stephens , explorer and amateur archaeologist († 1852 )
- November 29 : Friedrich Wilhelm Kasiski , Prussian infantry major and cryptographer († 1881 )
- December 6th : Adolf Reubke , German organ builder († 1875 )
- December 7th : Jean Eugène Robert-Houdin , French magician († 1871 )
- December 10 : Karl Ferdinand Sohn , German painter († 1867 )
- December 12 : William Lloyd Garrison , American writer († 1879 )
- December 13 : Johann von Lamont , Scottish-German astronomer and physicist († 1879 )
- December 14 : James Pearce , American politician († 1862 )
- December 16 : Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire , French zoologist and ethologist († 1861 )
- December 18 : Adolphe Dumas , French poet, playwright and Provençalist († 1861 )
- December 21 : Thomas Graham , British chemist († 1869 )
- December 23 : Joseph Smith , founder and first Mormon prophet († 1844 )
- December 31 : Marie Cathérine Sophie d'Agoult , French writer († 1876 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Karl Caesar Antz , German doctor and botanist († 1859 )
- Mastura Ardalan , Kurdish poet and writer († 1848 )
- Borys Halpert , Polish theater director, librettist and musician († 1861 )
First half of the year
- January 1 : Heinrich Theodor Wehle , German-Sorbian landscape painter, etcher and draftsman (* 1778 )
- January 1 : Adolf von Hüpsch , art collector (* 1730 )
- January 6th : Conrad Moench , German botanist and chemist (* 1744 )
- January 13 : Franz Anton Ernst , Bohemian composer (* 1745 )
- January 17th : Abraham Hyacinthe Anquetil-Duperron , French orientalist, first translator of the Avesta (* 1731 )
- January 28 : Mihály Csokonai Vitéz , Hungarian poet (* 1773 )
- February 4 : John Sloss Hobart , American lawyer and politician (* 1738 )
- February 16 : Johann Hermann Schacht , German Reformed theologian (* 1725 )
- February 17th : Josephus Nicolaus Laurenti , Austrian doctor, naturalist, herpetologist and zoologist (* 1735 )
- February 20 : Justus Claproth , German lawyer and inventor (* 1728 )
- February 25 : Friederike von Hessen-Darmstadt , wife of King Friedrich Wilhelm II. (Prussia) (* 1751 )
- February 25 : Joseph Anselm Freiherr Adelmann von Adelmannsfelden , German politician (* 1728 )
- March 10 : Felice Fontana , Italian scientist (* 1730 )
- March 10 : Friedrich Wilhelm Dresde , German linguist and Lutheran theologian (* 1740 )
- 15 March : Stanisław Szczęsny Potocki , Polish magnate (* 1751 / 52 )
- March 16 : Franz Xaver Freiherr von Wulfen , physicist, mathematician, botanist and mineralogist (* 1728 )
- March 18 : Johann Jacob Ebert , German mathematician, poet, astronomer, journalist and author (* 1737 )
- March 21 : Jean-Baptiste Greuze , French painter (* 1725 )
- March 24th : Alois I , Prince of Liechtenstein (* 1759 )
- April 7th : Gabriel Gruber , Order General (* 1740 )
- April 13 : Pietro Arduino , Italian botanist (* 1728 )
- April 21 : Bernt Anker , Norwegian merchant (* 1746 )
- April 28 : Jean-Baptiste Gaspard d'Ansse de Villoison , French classical philologist (* 1750 )
- April 29 : Lorenz Pasch the Younger , Swedish painter (* 1733 )
- May 3 : Heinrich Zimmermann , took part in the last voyage of James Cook (* 1741 )
- May 7 : William Petty , British statesman and British Prime Minister (* 1737 )
- May 9 : Friedrich Schiller , German poet, playwright and historian (* 1759 )
- May 10 : Johann Evangelist Haydn , Austrian tenor (* 1743 )
- May 12 : Ferdinand von Hompesch zu Bolheim , German Grand Master of the Order of Malta (* 1744 )
- May 15 : Maximilian Thaddäus von Egger , Austrian iron industrialist and nobleman (* 1734 )
- May 16 : Friedrich Eberhard von Rochow , Prussian nobleman and school reformer (* 1734 )
- May 24 : Fedot Ivanovich Schubin , Russian sculptor (* 1740 )
- May 25 : William Paley , English theologian and philosopher (* 1743 )
Second half of the year
- July 10th : Thomas Wedgwood , pioneer of photo technology (* 1771 )
- July 27 : Joseph Alexandre de Ségur , Count of Segur and brother of Louis Philippe Ségur (* 1756 )
- July 27 : Johann Friedrich Wilhelm von Charpentier , German geologist and Saxon mining captain (* 1738 )
- August 12 : Johann Friedrich Anthing , German silhouetteur (* 1753 )
- August 25 : William Henry, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh , third son of Friedrich Ludwig von Wales (* 1743 )
- August 25 : Joseph Roos , German painter (* 1726 )
- August 31 : Joseph Marie Clemens dall 'Abaco , Italian musician and composer (* 1710 )
- September 3 : Johann Martin von Abele , German publicist and historian (* 1753 )
- September 10 : Johann Friedrich Burscher , German Lutheran theologian (* 1732 )
- September 27 : William Moultrie , American politician (* 1730)
- September 28th : Christoph Franz von Buseck , last Prince-Bishop of Bamberg (* 1724 )
- October 5th : Charles Cornwallis , British general (* 1738 )
- October 15 : Johann Georg Bechtold , German philosopher, literary scholar and theologian (* 1732 )
- October 15 : Arthur Fenner , American politician (* 1745 )
- October 21 : Horatio Nelson , British admiral (* 1758 )
- October 25 : Albrecht Heinrich von Arnim , Prussian Minister of Justice (* 1744 )
- October 25 : Jacques Antoine Marie de Cazalès , French politician (* 1758 )
- October 28 : Joseph Jones , American politician (* 1727 )
- November 8 : François-Thomas-Marie de Baculard d'Arnaud , French poet and playwright (* 1718 )
- November 14 : Ivan Petrovich Saltykov , Russian field marshal (* 1730 )
- November 22nd : Franz von Sonnenberg , German poet (* 1779 )
- December 6th : Heinrich Ernst Güte , Protestant theologian, pastor and professor of theology (* 1754 )
- December 23 : Geneviève Thiroux d'Arconville , French writer, translator and chemist (* 1720 )