1900

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1900
Lord Herbert Kitchener, British Chief of Staff in the Boer War from 1900
In the Second Boer War
, the British Empire gains
the upper hand.
"Boxer" rebels
The Boxer Rebellion, directed against Europe, Japan and the USA, breaks out in China .
Le Chateau d'eau and Plaza during the World's Fair
The world exhibition in Paris reaches 47 million visitors.
1900 in other calendars
Armenian calendar 1348/49 (turn of the year July)
Ethiopian calendar 1892/93 (turn of the year 10/11 September)
Baha'i calendar 56/57 (turn of the year 20/21 March)
Bengali solar calendar 1305/06 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)
Buddhist calendar 2443/44 (southern Buddhism); 2442/43 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )
Chinese calendar 76th (77th) cycle

Year of the Metal Rat庚子 ( since January 31 , before that Earth Pig己亥)

Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam) 1262/63 (turn of the year April)
Dangun era (Korea) 4233/34 (October 2/3)
Iranian calendar 1278/79 (around March 21)
Islamic calendar 1317/18 (April 30th / May 1st)
Japanese calendar Meiji 33 ( 明治 33 年);
Kōki 2560
Jewish calendar 5660/61 (23/24 September)
Coptic calendar 1616/17 (September 10-11)
Malayalam calendar 1075/76
Rumi Calendar (Ottoman Empire) 1315/16 (March 1st)
Seleucid era Babylon: 2210/11 (turn of the year April)

Syria: 2211/12 (New Year October)

Suriyakati Calendar (Thai Solar Calendar) 2442/43 (April 1)
Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar) 1956/57 (turn of the year April)

The year 1900 is a secular year . It has 365 days. The year 1900 was particularly marked by three events: the World Exhibition in Paris , the Second Boer War in South Africa and the beginning of the Boxer Rebellion in China.

Events

Politics and world events

German Empire

Other events in Europe

Second Boer War in Southern Africa

In the Second Boer War the Boers were able to celebrate quick successes last year, to the surprise of the British, and march into the Cape Colony and the Natal Colony . They besieged several British garrisons and, around the turn of the year, inflicted four catastrophic defeats within six weeks in the battles of Magersfontein , Colenso , Stormberg and Spion Kop . In early 1900, however, the tide turned in favor of the British, with the arrival of 60,000 reinforcements. The besieged cities are fought free and the Boers defeated at Paardeberg , Diamond Hill and Belfast . On March 13th, the capital of the Orange Free State, Bloemfontein , falls on June 5th, the capital of the Transvaal , Pretoria . President Kruger then flees to Europe. Britain seems to have won the war. But now the Boers are changing their tactics and are starting a guerrilla war that is extremely costly for the British . Under their leader, General Christiaan De Wet , they continued to fight for a full two years.

French colonies in Africa

Boxer Rebellion in China

The Chinese people's movement of boxers is directed against the growing influence of the colonial powers, and especially the unequal treaties , as well as Christian proselytizing in China, and wants to eliminate them by force. There is also a general mood of crisis, triggered by natural disasters and famine. The Qing Dynasty , which has only just had internal struggles in which the Dowager Empress Cixi prevailed, can do little to counter this, but is also supported by the boxers at the same time.

On April 15, the boxers are banned under pressure from foreign powers, but since regular imperial troops in Beijing and Tientsin allied with them, the ban cannot be enforced. In May, the movement reached the vicinity of the capital Beijing and began with attacks against foreigners and against the railway lines leading to the coast. The foreign envoys in Beijing then order around 450 soldiers to act as embassy guards in Beijing and begin to barricade the area.

On 17 June, the storm allied troops the coastal forts of Dagu near Tianjin. In response, the imperial court issued an edict on June 21, and imperial troops now officially fight alongside the boxers. Around 20,000 Chinese troops and boxer militias then besiege the legation district in Beijing, while the international concession in Tianjin (Tientsin) is besieged.

In the meantime, six European countries as well as the USA and Japan have put together an expeditionary force for an intervention in China. At the departure of some of the German troops on July 27, Kaiser Wilhelm II gives his infamous Huns speech . However, the troops embarked in Europe are too late to take part in the relief of Tianjin and Beijing.

The expeditionary force reached Beijing on August 13, which fell on the following day. On August 15, the Dowager Empress and her council flee from Beijing to Xi'an . In an edict of September 7, Cixi blames the boxers for the military defeat and orders the provincial governors to use government troops against them again. On September 25th, high officials involved in the uprising were demoted from the imperial court. At the same time, the Allied troops begin to carry out punitive expeditions against insurgents and so break the last resistance.

America

Roosevelt's letter to Henry W. Sprague

Australia and Oceania

economy

World Exhibition in Paris

Official opening of the world exhibition

Many technical achievements that will shape the 20th century will be presented at the Paris World's Fair , including the diesel engine , the sound film and the escalator . The Paris Metro will also open at the time of the exhibition , and it will also host the Second Olympic Games .

  • April 14 : French President Émile Loubet opens the Paris World Exhibition . From the following day, the audience can marvel at the escalators and a rolling sidewalk, among other things .
  • November 12th : The world exhibition in Paris comes to an end. The organizers counted around 47 million visitors in the seven months.

Money economy

Postal economy and telecommunications

Business start-ups

traffic

science and technology

archeology

Mathematics / natural sciences

Polar research

psychology

Teaching and Research

  • February 28 : By decree, the Grand Duchy of Baden is the first German state to have unrestricted admission to university studies .
  • March 9 : In order to gain admission to university studies, German women's associations send petitions to the Reichstag, whose members declare that they are "not responsible".
  • June 5th : The German Gymnasium Association drafts a resolution in Braunschweig against the introduction of a curriculum without Latin for reform high schools, where modern languages ​​and natural sciences are primarily taught.
  • June 8th : An expert commission of the Reich government, to which among others the Professors Virchow , Mommsen and Harnack belong, speaks out for the equality of the reform high schools and for the equality of their qualifications.
  • September 14th : An imperial decree allows women in Austria-Hungary to study medicine and obtain a doctorate. The University of Vienna admits women to the medical faculty ( 1897 at the philosophy faculty, 1919 at the law and political science faculty , 1922 at the evangelical theological faculty and 1945 at the catholic theological faculty).

Technical achievements

Culture

Visual arts

Lovis Corinth : Salome II. Version , oil on canvas

literature

Title page of the original English edition
Cover of the first edition

Music and theater

Original poster for the opera Tosca
Harriet Bosse in an English-language production of To Damascus around 1900

other

Advertisement for the first international culinary arts exhibition
Place at the Künstlerhaus with the street front of the Künstlerhaus (right)

society

religion

Disasters

Galveston destroyed by the hurricane

Minor accidents are listed in the sub-articles of Catastrophe .

nature and environment

  • March 24th : The last wild passenger pigeon is shot down by the fourteen year old son of a farmer in Ohio . Her stuffed hide is kept in a museum in Columbia.

Sports

Olympic games

Boxing, tennis

The US doubles at the Davis Cup 1900: Dwight Filley Davis and Holcombe Ward

Winter sports

  • February 6th : The first European speed skating championship takes place on Lake Csoba (High Tatras).
  • February 10 : The 23-year-old Norwegian speed skater Peder Östlund sets five new world records in Davos within two days.

Sports associations

Founding of clubs

For entries of athletics world records, see under the respective discipline under athletics .

Historical maps and views

Born

January

February

March

April

Wolfgang Pauli, 1945

May

June

Antoine de Saint-Exupery

July

August

September

October

Heinrich Himmler, 1942
Edward Stettinius, 1941

November

Margaret Mitchell, 1941

December

Richard Kuhn

Exact date of birth unknown

Died

First quarter

Gottlieb Daimler

Second quarter

Third quarter

Umberto's tomb in the Pantheon in Rome
Little Nietzsche head , etching by Hans Olde based on the photo series Der sick Nietzsche , 1899

Fourth Quarter

Oscar Wilde's tomb in the Pere Lachaise cemetery in Paris

Exact date of death unknown

Web links

Commons : 1900  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files