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Lord Herbert Kitchener, British Chief of Staff in the Boer War from 1900
In the Second Boer War
, the British Empire gains
the upper hand.
"Boxer" rebels
The Boxer Rebellion, directed against Europe, Japan and the USA, breaks out in China .
Le Chateau d'eau and Plaza during the World's Fair
The world exhibition in Paris reaches 47 million visitors.
1900 in other calendars
Armenian calendar 1348/49 (turn of the year July)
Ethiopian calendar 1892/93 (turn of the year 10/11 September)
Baha'i calendar 56/57 (turn of the year 20/21 March)
Bengali solar calendar 1305/06 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)
Buddhist calendar 2443/44 (southern Buddhism); 2442/43 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )
Chinese calendar 76th (77th) cycle

Year of the Metal Rat庚子 ( since January 31 , before that Earth Pig己亥)

Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam) 1262/63 (turn of the year April)
Dangun era (Korea) 4233/34 (October 2/3)
Iranian calendar 1278/79 (around March 21)
Islamic calendar 1317/18 (April 30th / May 1st)
Japanese calendar Meiji 33 ( 明治 33 年);
Kōki 2560
Jewish calendar 5660/61 (23/24 September)
Coptic calendar 1616/17 (September 10-11)
Malayalam calendar 1075/76
Rumi Calendar (Ottoman Empire) 1315/16 (March 1st)
Seleucid era Babylon: 2210/11 (turn of the year April)

Syria: 2211/12 (New Year October)

Suriyakati Calendar (Thai Solar Calendar) 2442/43 (April 1)
Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar) 1956/57 (turn of the year April)

The year 1900 is a secular year . It has 365 days. The year 1900 was particularly marked by three events: the World Exhibition in Paris , the Second Boer War in South Africa and the beginning of the Boxer Rebellion in China.


Politics and world events

German Empire

Other events in Europe

  • January 1: Walter Hauser replaces Eduard Müller as President of Switzerland . Hauser becomes Federal President for the second time after 1892.
  • January 3: The French state court in Paris sentenced the poet and politician Paul Déroulède to ten years in exile for high treason .
  • January 4: In Bohemia and Moravia go about 70,000 miners in the strike . They demand a reduction in working hours and a wage increase of 20%. In February, thousands more miners all over the empire join. The poor organization and financial distress caused the strike in March to fail without any success.
  • January 4: Riots and strikes broke out in the Liège and Moravian-Ostrava coalfields .
  • February 12: Lenin returns from Siberian exile after three years .
  • February 27: Labor Representation Committee set up as the forerunner of the British Labor Party
  • March 31: Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk founds the Realistic Party (Czech People's Party) as a Czech independence movement and as a rejection of Pan-Slavism .
  • April 5th: The Belgian government adopts a subsidy program to develop the Congo area.
  • April 17: Ten Belgian merchants are charged in Brussels for the mass murder of natives of the Congolese colony .
  • May 5: After serious unrest and mass rallies in Barcelona , Madrid , Valladolid , Burgos and Saragossa against the new tax laws, the Spanish government imposes a state of siege on Barcelona. Spain has found itself in a desperate budget situation since 1898 due to the fight against the uprising in Cuba and the war against the USA .
  • May 20: The introduction of general accident and health insurance is rejected in Switzerland as a result of a referendum.
  • May 23: The House of Commons grants women the right to vote and stand for election to London local councils .
  • July 29th: King Umberto I of Italy is killed in an assassination attempt by the anarchist Gaetano Bresci in Monza , followed by his son Viktor Emanuel III. on the throne.
  • July 29th: Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov (later called Lenin ) leaves Russia and goes through Geneva to Munich in a five-year exile.
  • August 2: An unsuccessful assassination attempt on the Shah of Persia , Mozaffar ed-Din , is carried out in Paris . The Shah surprises the armed 25-year-old assassin with a blow on the wrist.
  • September 28: British Colonial Secretary Joseph Chamberlain is accused of having personally enriched himself as a result of his stakes in six arms companies.
  • December 1: There are 3,315,443 inhabitants in Switzerland, of which 383,424 (11.6%) are foreigners and 2,932,019 are Swiss citizens. Their number has increased by 8.3% since December 1, 1888.
  • December 15: France and Italy reach a secret agreement on their spheres of interest in Morocco and Tripolitania.
  • December 31: In Austria-Hungary there are 46,890,000 inhabitants. Since 1890 the population has increased by 9.3%.

Second Boer War in Southern Africa

In the Second Boer War the Boers were able to celebrate quick successes last year, to the surprise of the British, and march into the Cape Colony and the Natal Colony . They besieged several British garrisons and, around the turn of the year, inflicted four catastrophic defeats within six weeks in the battles of Magersfontein , Colenso , Stormberg and Spion Kop . At the beginning of 1900, however, the tide turned in favor of the British, with the arrival of 60,000 reinforcements. The besieged cities are fought free and the Boers defeated at Paardeberg , Diamond Hill and Belfast . On March 13, the capital of the Orange Free State, Bloemfontein , falls on June 5, the capital of the Transvaal , Pretoria . President Kruger then flees to Europe. Britain seems to have won the war. But now the Boers are changing their tactics and are starting a guerrilla war that is extremely costly for the British . Under their leader, General Christiaan De Wet , they continued to fight for a full two years.

French colonies in Africa

  • April 22nd: In the battle of Kousséri between three French colonial armies under the command of Amédée-François Lamy on the one hand and the troops of the Bornu empire under the usurper Rabih az-Zubayr ibn Fadl Allah on the other hand, both military leaders are killed. The Central African Empire defeated by the French in this battle is later divided among the colonial powers Great Britain, France and Germany.
  • May 29th: The French found Fort Lamy in Africa . It is developing into the capital of Chad and is now called N'Djamena .

Boxer Rebellion in China

The Chinese people's movement of boxers is directed against the growing influence of the colonial powers, and especially the unequal treaties , as well as Christian proselytizing in China, and wants to eliminate them by force. In addition, there is a general mood of crisis, triggered by natural disasters and famine. The Qing dynasty , which has only just had internal struggles in which the Dowager Empress Cixi prevailed, can do little to counter this, but is also supported by the boxers at the same time.

On April 15, the boxers were banned under pressure from foreign powers, but since regular imperial troops in Beijing and Tientsin allied with them, the ban could not be enforced. In May the movement reached the vicinity of the capital Beijing and began with attacks against foreigners and against the railway lines leading to the coast. The foreign envoys in Beijing then order around 450 soldiers to act as embassy guards in Beijing and begin to barricade the area.

On 17 June, the storm allied troops the coastal forts of Dagu near Tianjin. In response, the imperial court issued an edict on June 21, and imperial troops officially fight alongside the boxers. Around 20,000 Chinese troops and boxer militias then besiege the legation district in Beijing, while the international concession in Tianjin (Tientsin) is besieged at the same time.

In the meantime, six European countries as well as the USA and Japan have put together an expeditionary force for an intervention in China. When part of the German troops are leaving on July 27, Kaiser Wilhelm II gives his notorious Huns speech . However, the troops embarked in Europe are too late to take part in the relief of Tianjin and Beijing.

The expeditionary force reached Beijing on August 13, which fell the following day. On August 15, the Dowager Empress and her council flee Beijing to Xi'an . In an edict of September 7th, Cixi blames the boxers for the military defeat and orders the provincial governors to use government troops against them again. On September 25, high officials involved in the uprising were demoted from the imperial court. At the same time, the Allied troops begin to carry out punitive expeditions against insurgents and thus to break the last resistance.


Roosevelt's letter to Henry W. Sprague

Australia and Oceania


World Exhibition in Paris

Official opening of the world exhibition

Many technical achievements that will shape the 20th century will be presented at the Paris World Exhibition , including the diesel engine , the sound film and the escalator . The Paris Metro will also open at the time of the exhibition , and it will also host the Second Olympic Games .

  • April 14: The French President Émile Loubet opens the Paris World Exhibition . From the following day, the audience can marvel at the escalators and a rolling sidewalk, among other things .
  • November 12th: The world exhibition in Paris comes to an end. The organizers counted around 47 million visitors in the seven months.

Money economy

  • January 1: In Austria-Hungary , the Austrian crown becomes the exclusive means of payment. The new gold currency replaces the guilder , which has been slowly withdrawn from circulation since 1892. Two crowns correspond to one guilder.
  • March 14: US President William McKinley signs the Gold Standard Bill. This fixed gold backing of the monetary currency was canceled 71 years later by Richard Nixon .

Postal economy and telecommunications

Business start-ups


science and technology


Mathematics / natural sciences

Polar research


Teaching and Research

  • February 28: By decree, the Grand Duchy of Baden is the first German state to have women unrestrictedly admitted to university .
  • March 9: In order to gain admission to university studies, German women's associations send petitions to the Reichstag, whose members declare that they are "not responsible".
  • June 5: The German Gymnasium Association drafts a resolution in Braunschweig against the introduction of a curriculum without Latin for reform high schools where modern languages ​​and natural sciences are primarily taught.
  • June 8th: An expert commission of the Reich government, to which among others the Professors Virchow , Mommsen and Harnack belong, speaks out in favor of the equality of the reform high schools and for the equality of their qualifications.
  • September 14th: An imperial decree allows women in Austria-Hungary to study medicine and obtain a doctorate. The University of Vienna admits women to the medical faculty (1897 at the philosophy faculty, 1919 at the law and political science faculty, 1922 at the evangelical theological and 1945 at the catholic theological faculty).

Technical achievements


Visual arts

Lovis Corinth : Salome II. Version , oil on canvas


  • February 13: After around three and a half years of work, Gabriele D'Annunzio completes the novel Il Fuoco ( The Fire ). In this book he processes his five-year love affair with the actress Eleonora Duse . The book was a great scandal in Italy, but also in the rest of Europe and America.
Title page of the original English edition
Cover of the first edition

Music and theater

Original poster for the opera Tosca
Harriet Bosse in an English-language production of To Damascus around 1900


Advertisement for the first international culinary arts exhibition
Place at the Künstlerhaus with the street front of the Künstlerhaus (right)




  • January 4: An earthquake destroys ten villages in the Russian region around Tbilisi . Around 1,000 people are killed in the process.
  • June 30: A major fire in the port of Hoboken (New Jersey) affects four German ships of the line. Bales of cotton lying on the wooden pier catch fire. 147 people died on the ships of the North German Lloyd alone , a total of 326 deaths.
Galveston destroyed by the hurricane
  • September 8: The Galveston Hurricane , a level 4 hurricane , devastates the Texan coastal city of Galveston , killing 8,000 people.
  • October 1: A fire disaster in Baku destroys 97 drilling rigs and approx. 8,000 tons of crude oil .
  • October 29: Nearly 200 people are killed in an explosion in a New York chemical plant.
  • December 16: During a heavy storm, the German training ship " Gneisenau " sinks in the port of Málaga . 41 people lose their lives.

Minor accidents are listed in the sub-articles of Disaster .

nature and environment

  • March 24th: The last wild passenger pigeon is shot down by the fourteen-year-old son of a farmer in Ohio . Her stuffed hide is kept in a museum in Columbia.


Olympic games

Boxing, tennis

The US doubles at the Davis Cup 1900: Dwight Filley Davis and Holcombe Ward

Winter sports

  • February 6th: The first European speed skating championship takes place on Lake Csoba (High Tatras).
  • February 10: The 23-year-old Norwegian speed skater Peder Östlund sets five new world records in Davos within two days.

Sports associations

Founding of clubs

For entries of athletics world records, see the respective discipline under athletics .

Historical maps and views






Wolfgang Pauli, 1945



Antoine de Saint-Exupery





Heinrich Himmler, 1942
Edward Stettinius, 1941
  • October 22: Edward Stettinius Jr. , US Secretary of State († 1949)
  • October 22: Karl Walz , German politician († 1990)
  • October 22: Paul Wittmann , Romanian-German church musician and composer († 1985)
  • October 23: Valerian Gracias , Archbishop of Bombay and Cardinal († 1978)
  • October 24: Curt Frenzel , German publisher († 1970)
  • October 24: Paul Brosselin , French racing car driver († 1978)
  • October 24: Karl Ottó Runólfsson , Icelandic composer († 1970)
  • October 25: Hans Klotz , German church musician and organologist († 1987)
  • October 25: Funmilayo Ransome-Kuti , Nigerian politician and feminist († 1978)
  • October 26: Ibrahim Abbud , Sudanese President († 1983)
  • October 26: Karin Boye , Swedish writer († 1941)
  • October 27: Franziskus Demann , Bishop of Osnabrück († 1957)
  • October 29: Henri Meylan , Swiss Protestant theologian and university professor († 1978)
  • October 29: Hellmuth Will , German administrative lawyer in financial management († 1982)
  • October 30: Ragnar Granit , Finnish-Swedish neurophysiologist and Nobel Prize winner († 1991)
  • October 31: Cal Hubbard , American football player, coach, and baseball official († 1977)
  • October: Michel Hirvy , Canadian pianist and music teacher († 1966)


Margaret Mitchell, 1941


Richard Kuhn

Exact date of birth unknown


First quarter

Gottlieb Daimler

Second quarter

Third quarter

Umberto's tomb in the Pantheon in Rome
Little Nietzsche head , etching by Hans Olde based on the photo series Der sick Nietzsche , 1899

Fourth Quarter

Oscar Wilde's tomb in the Pere Lachaise cemetery in Paris

Exact date of death unknown

Web links

Commons : 1900  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files