Wolfgang Ernst Pauli (born April 25, 1900 in Vienna ; † December 15, 1958 in Zurich ) was an Austrian scientist and Nobel Prize winner who was one of the most important physicists of the 20th century. In 1925 he formulated the Pauli principle , later named after him , which is a quantum mechanical explanation of the structure of an atom and has far-reaching significance for larger structures.
Pauli was born in Vienna as the son of a doctor and university professor of colloidal chemistry , Wolfgang Josef Pauli (1869–1955), who came from a Jewish publishing family in Prague but had converted to Catholicism (his original name was Wolf Pascheles). His mother Berta "Maria" was a journalist and women's rights activist . Pauli had a sister, Hertha Pauli , who was an actress and writer. Pauli's middle name was named after his godfather, the physicist Ernst Mach .
Even at high school in Vienna ( BG XIX , Gymnasiumstraße 83, 1190 Vienna) Pauli was considered a mathematical prodigy . In 1918, immediately after graduating from high school, he published his first work on Hermann Weyl's expansion of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity (Weyl's book Raum-Zeit-Materie had just appeared in the same year).
From 1919 he studied physics at the Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich with Sommerfeld , where he worked in the shortest possible time in 1921 with a thesis on the hydrogen molecule ion (the simplest molecule) summa cum laude doctorate was. A theory that explained all the phenomena had not yet been developed and, from his point of view, the result was a disappointment, as it clearly showed the limits of Bohr's atomic model , on which he continued to work as an assistant to Max Born in Göttingen in 1921/22 (application of Methods of celestial mechanics , especially perturbation theory , as it is presented by Born in his book Atomic Physics). In 1922/23 he went to Niels Bohr in Copenhagen for another year . He was a professor in Hamburg from 1923 to 1928, that is to say in the decisive "Sturm und Drang era" of quantum mechanics . In retrospect, he viewed his time in Hamburg as the happiest time of his life, certainly also because he found like-minded colleagues here in the physicist Otto Stern , the mathematician Erich Hecke and the astronomer Walter Baade , with whom he cultivated scientific and friendly exchanges could.
In 1928 Pauli moved to the ETH in Zurich. From 1935 he worked intermittently in the USA, where he a. a. 1935/36 did research at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton and where he was again from 1940 and during the Second World War. After the annexation of Austria he automatically became a German citizen. He then submitted an application for naturalization in Switzerland , which was rejected. After the beginning of the Second World War , Pauli submitted a second application for naturalization. This was also rejected. In the justification of the police authority it said:
“We regret to inform you that your application for naturalization cannot be granted because you do not meet the requirement of assimilation in the strict interpretation of the current practice. In addition, you intend, if only for some time, to move to America. This will further loosen your bond with our country. "
Pauli then wrote a letter to Frank Aydelotte , the director of the Institute for Advanced Studies in Princeton, in May 1940 , in which he described that under German law he was considered a "three-quarters Jew" and in the event of a feared German invasion of Switzerland too have to fear an appropriate treatment. In such a threatened case he would definitely try to flee to France in order to get to America. Pauli taught at the Institute for Advanced Study, where he was then and several times later, and at Princeton University and was visiting professor at Purdue University in 1942. However, he still retained his professorship at the ETH Zurich.
In the USA he did not work on projects that were important for the war effort. When his Rockefeller scholarship, with which he financed himself from 1940, was reduced in 1942, he tried, however, to be involved in war-related projects and turned to Robert Oppenheimer , who advised him against it in a strange reply and made the suggestion made to hold up the flag of basic research instead and also to publish articles from his own pen under the names of colleagues such as Hans Bethe , Edward Teller and Robert Serber , who worked on secret research, in order to counter the suspicion of Germans about the drying up of scientific publications To dampen scientists. Oppenheimer justified the strange proposal with Pauli's well-known inclination to burlesque, but Pauli declined. In 1946 he became an American citizen, but returned to the ETH in Zurich that same year . Although his position as a professor had been kept free for him there, there was resistance because of his absence, and influential forces in Switzerland wanted his resignation. A bitter correspondence ensued during the war with Pauli, who resisted it. That ended when it became known that Pauli would receive the Nobel Prize and he was able to return to his chair at ETH Zurich in 1946. In 1949 he finally became a Swiss citizen. Also in the 1950s he returned regularly to guest lectures at Princeton. Pauli was involved in founding CERN . In 1958 he died unexpectedly of a pancreatic cancer in a Zurich hospital in a room with the number "137", which he had regarded as a bad omen when he was admitted there (see value of the fine structure constant ).
Pauli was an outspoken "social person". Already in his student days he was known for spending the night in various pubs and therefore often not showing up for work until late the next morning. In his youth, Pauli was a strict abstainer . However, while he was in Hamburg with his friends, the astronomer Walter Baade , the physicist Otto Stern and the mathematician Erich Hecke , he had a different taste and later said: “When I came to Hamburg, I switched under the influence of Stern straight from mineral water to champagne. ”In Hamburg he was a frequent visitor to the nightlife in St. Pauli and was involved in disputes there because he lost control while drinking too much alcohol. His mentor from Göttingen, Max Born, wrote to Einstein about his former assistant in 1920: “The report on 'little Pauli' is not entirely complete. I remember he loved to sleep late and missed the 11 o'clock lecture more than once. We then sent our housemaid to him at half past ten to make sure he was up. He was undoubtedly a genius of the first order; but my concern, 'I will never get such a good assistant again, was unjustified. His successor Heisenberg was just as ingenious and at the same time more conscientious: we didn't need to wake him up or remind him of his duties in any other way. ” Werner Heisenberg , described in this way, received the 1932 Nobel Prize for Physics.
When it comes to physics, Pauli was known as a perfectionist. This was not only limited to his own work, but he also relentlessly castigated the mistakes of his colleagues. In this way, he became the conscience of physics, often bluntly describing work as “completely wrong” or increasing his rejection as follows: “Not only is this not right, it is not even wrong!”. As a result, jokes were circulated among colleagues, such as the following: “After Pauli's death, God granted him an audience. Pauli asked God why the fine structure constant had the value 1/137. God nodded, went to the blackboard and began to derive equation after equation at breakneck speed. Pauli looked on with great satisfaction at first, but soon he began to shake his head violently and decisively ... “In a Faust parody that the physicists of the Niels Bohr Institute performed in Copenhagen in 1932 under the direction of its author Max Delbrück ( the script had illustrations by George Gamow ), Bohr stood for God (played by Felix Bloch ) and Pauli for Mephistopheles (played by Léon Rosenfeld ), the neutrino was Gretchen.
Personal problems and marriages
The period at the end of the 1920s was marked by personal problems. His mother committed suicide because of an affair with his father, and he did not get along with his father's second wife. Pauli quit the church, entered into a brief marriage with a dancer and had alcohol problems. From 1932 to 1934 he underwent psychoanalytic treatment with an assistant to Carl Gustav Jung , Erna Rosenbaum (1897–1957), an English doctor who had just joined the C. G. Jungs group. Only when he married Franziska “Franca” Bertram (1901–1987) in 1934 brought calm to his life. They didn't have any children.
Relationship with his colleagues
Pauli was feared and notorious because of his often ruthless and disrespectful criticism, even of friends or specialist authorities. In 1929 he wrote about Albert Einstein's work to his colleague Pascual Jordan in Hamburg: “Einstein is said to have made terrible nonsense about a remote parallelism in the Berlin Colloquium!” And in 1931 he reviewed his renewed attempt to construct a unified field theory : “It's a bold one The editors acted to include a lecture on Einstein's new field theory among the results of the exact natural sciences. After all, his never-failing ingenuity and persistent energy in pursuing a certain goal bring us an average of about one such theory per year lately - although it is psychologically interesting that the respective theory is usually viewed by the author as the 'definitive solution' for a while . "With his colleague Paul Ehrenfest , who like Pauli had written an article in the Encyclopedia of Mathematical Sciences , he had a warm friendship that did not prevent the two from exchanging biting bon motes:
Ehrenfest:" Mr. Pauli, I like your encyclopedia article better than yourself! ", Pauli replied:" That's funny, I feel like the other way round with you! "
Pauli also liked to make amused or malicious comments about his colleagues. He said of his assistant Rudolf Peierls : “Peierls speaks so quickly; until you understand what he is saying, he already claims the opposite! ”Another anecdote reports that the always optimistic Werner Heisenberg his unified field theory - which he had discussed with Pauli, but who increasingly distanced himself from it - on the radio as the “Heisenberg-Pauli theory” and said it was about to be completed, “only a few details” were missing. Pauli then sent George Gamow a postcard on March 1, 1958, on which only a square was drawn with the remark “This is supposed to show the world that I can paint like Titian .” Below it was written in small letters: “Only those are missing technical details. "
The only person he excluded from his criticism was his teacher Arnold Sommerfeld , whom he admired and in whose presence he was like a different person : he spoke to him as Privy Councilor and was extremely courteous and diplomatic when he formulated a dissenting opinion.
Pauli was notorious among experimental physicists for his manual clumsiness, and even jokingly suspected that his mere presence in the room or even in the same city caused laboratory equipment to fail (often referred to as the " Pauli effect "). Pauli attended the Bundesgymnasium XIX in Vienna at Gymnasiumstrasse 83, 1190 Vienna. In his class was Richard Kuhn , who received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1938 . It is said that the professor made a mistake on the blackboard in a physics lesson, but did not find it even after a long search. To the great amusement of the class he then called desperately: "Pauli, now tell me where the mistake is, you have known for a long time."
However, Pauli's criticism sometimes had negative consequences; in more than one case it prevented other physicists who relied on his judgment from publishing significant results. The case of Ralph Kronig in the case of spin is well known.
The Pauli-Jung Dialog
Pauli was friends with the depth psychologist Carl Gustav Jung and discussed his work with him. Jung was interested in Pauli's rich dream experiences and Pauli, conversely, stimulated contact with Jung to work on the history of science and the philosophy of science. In the correspondence between the two researchers between 1932 and 1958, it becomes clear that Wolfgang Pauli played a major role in the conception of the term synchronicity , as it was introduced by C. G. Jung, and also in the concretization of the collective concepts that are central to Jung's work Unconscious as well as the archetypes . Pauli was particularly interested in the genesis of Johannes Kepler's ideas. The previous examination of his notes shows that Pauli's examination of these topics did not arise from a purely academic interest, but was rooted in deep personal experience - the existential examination of the archetypal “spirit of matter”.
Even after his divorce in the 1930s, Pauli was in psychoanalytic treatment with Jung due to relationship and alcohol problems, which was completed in 1934. After the first sessions, in which he recognized Pauli as seriously endangered due to his one-sided intellectual orientation and loss of contact with his emotional life, he did not take over the treatment himself, but commissioned his young student Erna Rosenbaum to do it. The reason was that he wanted Pauli's dreams, which, according to Jung, were rich in archetypes, uninfluenced by his (Jung's) own prior knowledge. Later, however, he discussed the dream archetypes with Pauli personally. After the war, Pauli resumed dialogue with Jung, shared an interest in alchemy with him and also had close scientific contacts with Jung's student Marie-Louise von Franz . This was also his psychoanalyst at times.
Pauli made many essential contributions to modern physics, especially in the field of quantum mechanics . His urge for perfection meant that he hesitated before publication and instead exchanged his results in intensive correspondence with his colleagues, in particular with Niels Bohr , Werner Heisenberg (who in turn presented most of his work to Pauli) and Pascual Jordan , with whom he is close friends was, passed on (from him “only” 93 articles and 11 books, but over 2000 scientific letters have been received). Pauli was often completely satisfied that his results entered the “folklore” of physics (“I can afford not to be quoted”). Important work includes a .:
- 1920: his article Relativity Theory in the Encyclopedia of Mathematical Sciences, which was later published separately in book form. This work made him a legend at the Sommerfeld School. He showed an exceptional "mastery" and knowledge of literature for a student. The self-critical Pauli later accused himself of having overlooked important things like the Bianchi identity , which in general relativity expresses the conservation of energy.
- 1924 ( Natural Sciences, Vol. 12): Discovery of nuclear spin to explain the hyperfine structure of atomic spectra.
- 1925 ( Zeitschrift für Physik, Vol. 31, 1925, p. 765): Pauli introduces a new degree of freedom in quantum mechanics in order to eliminate existing inconsistencies in the interpretation of observed atomic spectra. This degree of freedom was identified as electron spin by George Eugene Uhlenbeck and Samuel Abraham Goudsmit in 1925 . Pauli thus formulates his principle of exclusion , which is probably his most important contribution to quantum mechanics. It expresses the Fermi-Dirac statistics : Two fermions cannot be in the same quantum state (however, because of the spin, which can be “up” or “down”, they have two possible occupations for each energy level). Ultimately, this behavior of the fermions is the reason why matter does not collapse. In addition, the “magic numbers” in the periodic table can be explained by the occupation of the electron shells . The path to the exclusion principle is described by Pauli in his Nobel Lecture.
- 1926 ( Zeitschrift für Physik, Vol. 36, 336): Shortly after the publication of Heisenberg's matrix representation of quantum mechanics, Pauli solved the difficult case of the hydrogen atom , i.e. the fundamental case of atomic physics. This makes a decisive contribution to the acceptance of Heisenberg's theory. Also in the discussion between Heisenberg and Bohr about the interpretation of quantum mechanics, he participated as an "arbiter" and clarifying force.
- 1927 ( Zeitschrift für Physik, vol. 43, p. 601, on the quantum mechanics of the magnetic electron ): Pauli introduces the Pauli matrices to describe the spin of electrons.
- 1927 ( Zeitschrift für Physik, Vol. 41, 1927, pp. 81-102, About gas degeneration and paramagnetism ): Theory of paramagnetism , an important pioneering work in the quantum theory of the solid.
- 1930 (open letter to Lise Meitner and the “Radioactive Ladies and Gentlemen” at a conference in Tübingen): Pauli postulates the neutrino . He recognized that the law of conservation of energy and the law of conservation of momentum are only fulfilled in radioactive beta decay if a third particle is also formed when a neutron is converted into a proton and an electron . Since no one could detect this particle at this point in time, Pauli postulated an unknown particle. The Italian physicist Enrico Fermi later called the particle “small neutron”: neutrino. The neutrino was only empirically proven in 1956.
- In 1933 he wrote the volume The general principles of wave mechanics for the Handbuch der Physik , for which in 1926 he had already written the article quantum theory on the older quantum theory. Both articles were book-sized. Pauli later called it his Old and New Testament.
- Pauli was also a pioneer of quantum field theory in the 1930s and 1940s . Here he worked with Werner Heisenberg , Victor Weisskopf and Pascual Jordan . With Villars he found a method for regularizing the infinities in quantum field theory, the Pauli-Villars regularization ( Reviews of Modern Physics 1949, with Felix Villars ). His lectures on field quantization from 1950/51 were influential at the time.
- 1940 ( Physical Review, Vol. 58, 716): General proof of the spin statistics theorem in the relativistic quantum field theory. With that he found the deeper reason for the validity of his principle of exclusion.
- In 1946 he wrote a book about the meson theory of nuclear forces ( meson theory of nuclear forces, Interscience 1946, 1948), a subject with which he had employed mainly during his stay in the US during the Second World War.
- 1955 (in W. Pauli (Ed.): Niels Bohr and the development of physics. ) Proof that the combined symmetry operations P (space reflection), C (charge conjugation), T (time reversal) are a symmetry of relativistic quantum field theory ( CPT theorem ). When it was discovered in 1957 that P was violated in the weak interaction, it was a shock for Pauli.
In later years he also came back to the general theory of relativity and worked on Kaluza-Klein theories . His ETH lectures from the 1950s were also widely used.
His assistants included Ralph Kronig , Felix Bloch , Rudolf Peierls , Hendrik Casimir , Markus Fierz , Josef-Maria Jauch , Nicholas Kemmer , Victor Weisskopf , Charles Enz , Res Jost . Robert Oppenheimer was a student of his.
- In 1931 he received the Lorentz Medal .
- In 1932 he gave a plenary lecture at the International Congress of Mathematicians in Zurich (Mathematical Methods of Quantum Mechanics).
- In 1945 Pauli received the Nobel Prize in Physics in recognition of his formulation of the principle of exclusion .
- In 1950 he was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences .
- In 1958 he was awarded the Max Planck Medal .
"Wolfgang Pauli Lectures" take place every year at ETH Zurich .
In 1969, Wolfgang-Pauli-Gasse in Vienna- Penzing (14th district) was named after him.
The Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse runs through the campus Hönggerberg ETH Zurich.
A moon crater is named after Wolfgang Pauli .
At the University of Hamburg, the largest lecture hall in the physical institute is named after Wolfgang Pauli.
“I knew he was a genius, just like Einstein. As a scientist, he was even bigger than Einstein. But he was a completely different type of person who, in my eyes, did not reach Einstein's size. "
"He's extremely clever and can do a lot, I'll never get such a good assistant again."
The novel Walk, Walked, Gone by Jenny Erpenbeck is preceded by a quote from Wolfgang Pauli: "God created the volume, the devil the surface."
Wolfgang Pauli was a classmate of Richard Kuhn's when he was in high school , which gives rise to the curiosity that two Nobel Prize winners emerged from one and the same class.
Own writings and letters
- Wolfgang Pauli: Collected works. Edited in two volumes by Kronig and Weisskopf, Wiley, New York 1964.
- The same: Lectures on physics. 6 vols., MIT press 1973; also in German, ETH self-published (including wave mechanics, field quantization, optics and electrodynamics, thermodynamics and kinetic gas theory).
- Karl von Meyenn , Victor Weisskopf , Armin Hermann : Wolfgang Pauli - Scientific Correspondence. Several volumes, Springer Verlag, Berlin etc. 1979 ff.
- Pauli: The principles of wave mechanics. New edition. Springer Verlag, 1990.
- Pauli: The theory of relativity. Springer Verlag, 2000 (edited by Giulini), ISBN 3-540-67312-1 .
- Pauli: Five works on the exclusion principle and the neutrino. Reprint, Scientific Book Society, Darmstadt 1977.
Secondary biographical literature
- Charles P. Enz , Karl v. Meyenn (ed.): Wolfgang Pauli - The conscience of physics. Vieweg Verlag, 1988 (with reprint of some of Pauli's works and bibliography).
- Charles P. Enz, Beat Glaus, Gerhard Oberkofler (eds.): Wolfgang Pauli and his work at the ETH Zurich. From the official files of the Federal Institute of Technology. Vdf. University publishing house at the ETH, Zurich 1997.
- Charles P. Enz: Pauli said. Biography. NZZ LIBRO, Zurich 2005, ISBN 3-03823-144-4 .
- Same thing: No time to be brief - a scientific biography of Wolfgang Pauli. Oxford University Press 2002.
- The same: Pauli's scientific work. In: J. Mehra (Ed.): The physicists concept of nature. Reidel, Dordrecht 1973.
- The same: Wolfgang Pauli. In: Physics in Our Time. Vol. 31, 2000, p. 268.
- Markus Fierz, Victor Frederick Weisskopf (eds.): Theoretical physics in the twentieth century - a memorial volume to Wolfgang Pauli. Interscience Publishers, New York 1960, OCLC 864453 .
- M. Fierz: Pauli, Wolfgang . In: Charles Coulston Gillispie (Ed.): Dictionary of Scientific Biography . tape 10 : SG Navashin - W. Piso . Charles Scribner's Sons, New York 1974, p. 422-425 .
- Ernst Peter Fischer : At the Limits of Thought, Wolfgang Pauli - A Nobel Prize Winner on the Night Side of Science. Herder Verlag, Freiburg im Breisgau 2000, ISBN 3-451-04842-6 .
- Karl von Meyenn : Pauli's path to the exclusion principle. Part 1, 2, Phys. Blätter, Volume 36, 1980, pp. 293-298, Volume 37, 1981, pp. 13-19, Part 1, Part 2.
- Karl von Meyenn, Engelbert Schücking : Wolfgang Pauli. Physics Today, February 2001, pp. 43-48, online.
- Manfred Jacobi: Of anti-metaphysical origin. For the 100th birthday of Wolfgang Pauli. Phys. Blätter, Vol. 56, 2000, pp. 57-60, online.
- Pascual Jordan: Memories of Wolfgang Pauli. Phys. Blätter, Volume 29, 1973, pp. 291-298.
- Karl von Meyenn, Armin Hermann: Wolfgang Pauli's contribution to the Göttingen quantum mechanics. Phys. Blätter, Volume 32, 1976, pp. 145-150, online.
- Karl von Meyenn: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 20, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 2001, ISBN 3-428-00201-6 , pp. 118-121 ( version ). In:
- Pascual Jordan : Encounters - Albert Einstein, Karl Heim, Hermann Oberth, Wolfgang Pauli, Walter Heitler, Max Born, Werner Heisenberg, Max von Laue, Niels Bohr. Stalling, Oldenburg 1971, ISBN 3-7979-1934-4 .
- Norbert Straumann : Wolfgang Pauli and Modern Physics. Conference The Nature of Gravity. Bern 2008, Arxiv.
To his philosophical work
- Wolfgang Pauli: The influence of archetypal ideas on the formation of scientific theories in Kepler. Published in Jung / Pauli: Declaration of Nature and Psyche. Rascher Verlag, Zurich 1952.
- CA Meier (eds.): Wolfgang Pauli and CG Jung. An exchange of letters from 1932 to 1958. Springer, Berlin 1992, ISBN 3-540-54663-4 .
- English: Routledge, London et al. 2001, ISBN 0-415-12078-0 .
- Harald Atmanspacher, Hans Primas : The Pauli-Jung Dialogue and its Significance for Modern Science. Springer, Heidelberg 1995, ISBN 3-540-58518-4 .
- Harald Atmanspacher, Hans Primas: Recasting Reality - Wolfgang Pauli's Philosophical Ideas and Contemporary Science . Springer-Verlag, 2009, ISBN 978-3-540-85197-4 .
- Herbert van Erkelens: Wolfgang Pauli and the spirit of matter. Königshausen & Neumann, 2002, ISBN 3-8260-2222-X .
- Tom Keve: Triad: the physicists, the analysts, the kabbalists. Rosenberger & Krausz, London 2000, ISBN 0-9536219-0-1 (historical fiction).
- Suzanne Gieser: The Innermost Kernel. Depth Psychology and Quantum Physics. Wolfgang Pauli's Dialogue with CG Jung. Springer, 2005, ISBN 3-540-20856-9 .
- Kalervo V. Laurikainen: The Message of the Atoms: Essays on Wolfgang Pauli and the Unspeakable. Springer, Heidelberg 1997, ISBN 3-540-61754-X .
- Same: Beyond the atom - philosophical thought of Wolfgang Pauli. Springer Verlag, 1988, ISBN 3-540-19456-8 .
- Arthur I. Miller: 137. CG Jung, Wolfgang Pauli and the search for the cosmic number. Deutsche Verlagsanstalt, Munich 2011, ISBN 978-3-421-04290-3 .
- Remo, F. Roth: Return of the World Soul, Wolfgang Pauli, CG Jung and the Challenge of Psychophysical Reality [unus mundus], Part 1: The Battle of the Giants. Pari Publishing, 2011, ISBN 978-88-95604-12-1 .
- Remo, F. Roth: Return of the World Soul, Wolfgang Pauli, CG Jung and the Challenge of Psychophysical Reality [unus mundus], Part 2: A Psychophysical Theory. Pari Publishing, 2012, ISBN 978-88-95604-16-9 .
- Information from the Nobel Foundation on the award ceremony in 1945 to Wolfgang Pauli (English)
- Literature by and about Wolfgang Pauli in the catalog of the German National Library
- Publications by and about Wolfgang Pauli in the Helveticat catalog of the Swiss National Library
- Pauli at CERN COURIER
- The “Pauli Effect” article on ETHistory
- Excerpt from the Pauli / Jung correspondence (PDF file; 259 kB)
- Pauli's assistants
- John J. O'Connor, Edmund F. Robertson : Wolfgang Ernst Pauli. In: MacTutor History of Mathematics archive .
- Rudolf Mumenthaler: Pauli, Wolfgang. In: Historical Lexicon of Switzerland .
- Wolfgang Pauli. List of manuscripts and correspondence in the archive of ETH Zurich. doi : 10.3929 / ethz-a-000959257
- Wolfgang Pauli and modern physics. Virtual exhibition of the ETH library.
- Pauli Archives, CERN, estate directory
References and comments
- Failed naturalization and departure to the USA.
- Enz: No time to be brief. P. 355 f.
- Enz: No time to be brief. P. 359 ff.
- Charles P. Enz: No time to be brief. A scientific biography of Wolfgang Pauli. Oxford 2002, p. 147.
- Arthur I. Miller: 137. Jung, Pauli, and the Pursuit of a Scientific Obsession. Norton 2010, Chapter 4: Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde.
- Letter of March 3, 1920. In: Albert Einstein - Max Born: Briefwechsel 1916–1955. Langen / Müller publishing house; March 2005, ISBN 3-7844-2997-1 .
- According to Rudolf Peierls , Physics Today, December 1992, p. 112, Paulis This is not even wrong was a reaction to a paper by a young theoretical physicist, on which a colleague (after Peierls probably Sam Goudsmit ) asked for his opinion.
- The image of Pauli as Mephistopheles is printed in Karl von Meyenn, Engelbert Schücking, Wolfgang Pauli, Physics Today, February 2001, p. 46.
- As early as the early 1920s, he was known for his nightly bar visits and often slept through the morning lectures.
- Karl von Meyenn (Ed.): Wolfgang Pauli. Scientific correspondence with Bohr, Einstein, Heisenberg et al . Vol. I – IV, Berlin 1979–2001.
- Results of the exact natural sciences. Vol. 10, 1931.
- Charles P. Enz, Karl von Meyenn (ed.) Wolfgang Pauli. The conscience of physics. Braunschweig, Vieweg-Verlag, 1988, p. 69.
- Wolfgang Pauli: Scientific correspondence with Bohr, Einstein, Heisenberg and others. Ed .: Karl von Meyenn. 1st edition. tape IV , no. IV . Springer Verlag, Berlin / Heidelberg 2005, ISBN 3-540-40296-9 , pp. 998 .
- Arthur I. Miller: 137. Jung, Pauli, and the Pursuit of a Scientific Obsession. Norton 2010, chapter 7 (Mephistopheles).
- For example Charles Enz: Wolfgang Pauli, Physics in our time. Volume 31, 2000, pp. 271, 273.
- Carl Alfred Meier (eds.): Wolfgang Pauli and CG Jung. An exchange of letters from 1932 to 1958. With the collaboration of CP Enz and M. Fierz. Springer Verl., Berlin etc. 1992.
- H. Atmanspacher, H. Primas, E. Wertenschlag-Birkhäuser (Ed.): The Pauli-Jung dialogue and its significance for modern science. Springer, Berlin 1995.
- Herbert van Erkelens: Wolfgang Pauli and the spirit of matter. Studies from the existential-psycholog. Education and meeting place Todtmoos-Rütte. Vol. 7, edited by Thomas doctor u. a., Königshausen & Neumann, Würzburg 2002.
- Arthur I. Miller: 137, Jung, Pauli, and the Pursuit of a Scientific Obsession. Norton 2010, Chapter 8: The dark hunting ground of the mind.
Wolfgang Pauli Lectures.
Records since 2008.
At: math.ethz.ch. Accessed September 9, 2013.
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Pauli, Wolfgang Ernst|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||Austrian physicist and Nobel Prize winner|
|DATE OF BIRTH||April 25, 1900|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Vienna , Austria|
|DATE OF DEATH||December 15, 1958|
|Place of death||Zurich , Switzerland|