Politics and world events
- 1860 to 1861 : After the procession of the thousand under Giuseppe Garibaldi in the Risorgimento, the Kingdom of Italy was founded .
- 1861 to 1865 : Civil War between the Confederate Southern States and the Union, the Northern States.
- 1861 to 1867 : French intervention in Mexico , proclamation of the Second Empire of Mexico .
- 1863 : Founding of the General German Workers 'Association (ADAV) under the leadership of Ferdinand Lassalle , who merged in 1875 with the Social Democratic Workers' Party ( SDAP ) founded by Wilhelm Liebknecht and August Bebel to form the Social Democratic Party of Germany ( SPD , name was not given until 1890).
- 1864 : German-Danish War .
- 1864 to 1870 : Triple Alliance War ( Argentina , Brazil and Uruguay against Paraguay ).
- 1866 : German war between Austria and Prussia.
- 1866: Founding of the North German Confederation , predecessor of the German Empire.
- 1867: Austro-Hungarian settlement .
- 1862–1865: The German tar paint industry is founded in many parts of the German Empire. Brilliant colors are available for consumer goods.
- 1869 : Opening of the Suez Canal , which shortens the sea route from Europe to India / Asia so that one no longer has to drive around the Cape of Good Hope.
science and technology
- Alfred Nobel makes dynamite in Germany .
- James Clerk Maxwell publishes the equations on the relationship between electricity and magnetism and shows that light is a form of electromagnetic radiation.
- Gregor Mendel formulates Mendel's rules , the basis of genetics .
- Dmitri Iwanowitsch Mendeleev developed the periodic table (independently of Lothar von Meyer ).
- Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy publishes War and Peace .
- Lewis Carroll publishes Alice in Wonderland .
- Karl Marx publishes Das Kapital (1867).
- Franz Joseph I , Emperor in Austria-Hungary
- Wilhelm I , King of Prussia
- Otto von Bismarck , Prussian Prime Minister
- Victor Emmanuel II , King in Italy
- Isabella II , Queen of Spain
- Napoleon III , King of France
- Pius IX , Pope
- Alexander II , Tsar in Russia
- Victoria , Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
- Benjamin Disraeli , Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
- William Ewart Gladstone , Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
- Andrew Johnson , President of the United States
- Abraham Lincoln , President of the United States
- Ulysses S. Grant , American general
- Nāser ad-Din Shah , Shah in Persia
- Kōmei , Emperor of Japan
- Cixi , Dowager Empress of China
Film and entertainment related
Numerous films, novels and computer games are about the Civil War (1861-1865). The most famous films include:
- Gone with the Wind (from 1939)
- Glory (with Morgan Freeman, among others )
- Gettysburg (monumental film with Martin Sheen as General Lee )
- Torches in the Storm (series)