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Europe 1867
Coronation of Franz Josef and Elisabeth as King and Queen of Hungary
Franz Joseph I and his wife Elisabeth become the royal couple of Hungary after the Austro-Hungarian Compromise .
Title page of the first edition Das Kapital
The first volume of Karl Marx 's
Capital is published.
On the beautiful blue Danube, title page
The waltz On the beautiful blue Danube by Johann Strauss (son) is heard for the first time in the Dianabad .
The check for the $7.2 million purchase price of Alaska
The Russian Empire sells Alaska to the United States
in the so-called Alaska Purchase .
1867 in other calendars
Armenian calendar 1315/16 (July turn of the year)
Ethiopian calendar 1859/60 (11/12 September)
Baha'i calendar 23/24 (20/21 March)
Bengali solar calendar 1272/73 (beginning of the year April 14 or 15)
Buddhist calendar 2410/11 (Southern Buddhism); 2409/10 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's parinirvana )
Chinese calendar 76th (77th) cycle

Year of the Fire Rabbit 丁卯 ( at the beginning of the year Fire Tiger 丙寅)

Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam) 1229/30 (April New Year)
Dangun era (Korea) 4200/01 (October 2nd/3rd)
Iranian calendar 1245/46 (around March 21)
Islamic calendar 1283/84 (4/5 May)
Jewish calendar 5627/28 (29/30 September)
Coptic calendar 1583/84 (11/12 September)
Malayalam calendar 1042/43
Rumi Calendar (Ottoman Empire) 1282/83 (March 1)
Seleucid era Babylon: 2177/78 (April turn of the year)

Syria: 2178/79 (October turn of the year)

Vikram Sambat (Nepalese calendar) 1923/24 (April)

In 1867 , the North German Confederation , founded the previous year, was transformed from a military alliance into a federal state by means of a constitution passed by a newly elected constituent Reichstag . Otto von Bismarck is appointed Chancellor .

The Habsburg monarchy also experienced a constitutional restructuring: the Austro-Hungarian Compromise transformed the former Austrian Empire into the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary . At the end of the year, the December constitution came into force in the Austrian half of the empire ( Cisleithania ) , which contained a catalog of basic rights with the basic law on the general rights of citizens .

There are also revolutionary developments in other parts of the world: in Japan , the last shogun of the Tokugawa shogunate formally abdicates under pressure from the reformers striving for a restoration of imperial rule . The Edo period ended and the Meiji period began with the accession of 14-year-old Mutsuhito to the throne . The execution of Emperor Maximilian I of Mexico by Republican troops of President Benito Juarez ended the short-lived 2nd Empire of Mexico . A few days later, the Canadian Confederation gained independence from Great Britain .

The Russian Empire signs a treaty with the United States for the sale of approximately 1.6 million km² of what is now the state of Alaska .


politics and world affairs

Ongoing Events
Rotativismo in Portugal (since 1856)
Nian Rebellion (since 1853) against the Qing Dynasty in China (since 1644)
Second Empire in France (since 1852)
Gründerzeit in Germany and Austria (since about 1840)
Tanzimat reforms in the Ottoman Empire (since 1839)
Victorian era in Britain (since 1837)

North German Confederation

Reichstag election February 1867 , with the results of the individual constituencies
Constitutive session of the constituent Reichstag . It is not a parliament, but an assembly that is supposed to agree a constitution with the individual states.
“The disguises of our steward” – caricature alluding to Bismarck's accumulation of offices; Kladderadatsch , 1867
  • Between June 21st and June 27th, the individual states put the federal constitution into force through publication patents.
The path to the North German Confederation: After consultations with the state governments involved, a constituent Reichstag was elected, which agreed on a draft constitution with the governments.
The results of the ordinary Reichstag election by constituency
  • August 31: Turnout in the Reichstag election in August 1867 is lower than in the February election. The necessary runoff elections will take place in the following weeks. The political balance of power after the election remains essentially unchanged. The North German Confederation now has its parliament.
  • 1 November: The Freedom of Movement Act is passed.
  • November 9: The Navy of the North German Confederation is founded by federal law, which emerges from the Prussian Navy . The other member states in the North German Confederation do not have their own naval forces, but are obliged to pay contributions and to provide personnel. Nevertheless, the North German Federal Navy is still subordinate to the Prussian Navy Ministry.


Richard Earl Belcredi
  • February 1: Richard Belcredi , representative of a federalist settlement with all nationalities of the multi-ethnic Austrian state, submits his resignation request after the meeting of the Council of Ministers.
Friedrich Ferdinand Freiherr von Beust, lithograph by Josef Kriehuber , 1867

Other events in Europe

Signatures of the London Treaty
Clerkenwell prison wall destroyed by the explosion


  • February 5: The last French troops leave Mexico City for Veracruz. Leaving his European units in garrison, Emperor Maximilian I marched to Querétaro with his Mexican troops under Generals Miguel Miramón and Tomás Mejía , accompanied by his aide-de-camp, the Prussian Prince Felix zu Salm-Salm .
  • Maximilian's wife Charlotte of Belgium went to Europe with the French units to ask the Pope for support in Paris, Vienna and finally in Rome, but was unsuccessful.
  • While the French troops disembark in Veracruz, the Republican troops of President Benito Juárez advance quickly and besiege Querétaro as early as March. General Porfirio Díaz takes the city of Puebla.
  • April 27: An attempt by the imperial troops to break out of Querétaro fails. On May 15, the city is taken by republican troops under Mariano Escobedo . A court-martial set up by Escobedo sentences Maximilian and two of his generals to death. Many European heads of state, as well as celebrities such as Victor Hugo and Giuseppe Garibaldi , then wrote petitions for clemency to President Juárez, but he refused.
Photo of the execution of Maximilian (right), and generals Mejía (left) and Miramón (middle)
Maximilian's body before its transfer to Europe

Other events in Central and South America

  • February 2: A liberal uprising against the conservative government of Vicente Cerna Sandoval in Guatemala begins, led by Serapio Cruz and Justo Rufino Barrios Auyón , but is quickly crushed. The leaders of the uprising flee abroad.
  • February: Argentinian President Bartolomé Miter has to relinquish command of the triple alliance army against Paraguay due to domestic political difficulties and returns to his homeland. The Brazilian Luís Alves de Lima e Silva will become the new supreme commander .
  • August: Paraguayan dictator Francisco Solano López considers resigning and going into exile because of the hopeless situation. He increasingly distrusts his officers and senior officials and senses conspiracies everywhere. He has numerous officers executed. A large part of the civilian leadership is also sentenced to death, including López's two brothers and sisters and his mother. The death sentence against one of the brothers is carried out, the rest of the family remains in prison until the end of the war. In addition to numerous high-ranking officials, cabinet members, judges, bishops and priests, as well as more than 200 foreigners, including several diplomats, were executed on López's orders or according to the rulings of his special courts.

United States of America

  • Beginning of the year: The Ku Klux Klan , founded two years ago, holds a federal convention in Nashville , Tennessee, in order to bring the now numerous local groups together as a common organization and to place them under a unified leadership. The Klan adopts a constitution and elects ex-Southern General Nathan Bedford Forrest to be the first Great Warlock . At this time the Klan has about half a million active members and countless supporters throughout the South. He prevents blacks from enjoying and exercising their newfound civil rights through intimidation, arson, physical violence, kidnapping, and murder. In addition, many of the Klan's abuses involve sexual violence against women. The so-called scalawags (collaborators with the Yankees, civil rights activists and members of the Republican Party) as well as carpetbaggers (war profiteers) and members of the US Army are also victims of the Klan .
  • March 1: The south-eastern part of the former Nebraska territory joins the USA as the 37th state under the name Nebraska . The remaining parts are added to other territories .
  • 2 March/23 March/19 July: Against President Andrew Johnson 's veto , the United States Congress passes several Reconstruction Acts : the former states of the Confederacy are militarily occupied on their basis, the existing governments of the southern states are deposed and replaced by military governors. No one who supported the former Confederate or state government may vote or hold political office. Only after the adoption of the 14th amendment , which guarantees equal rights for African Americans, should the southern states be admitted back into the Union. Johnson's previous policy of reconstruction , which was very friendly to the southern states and directed against Afro-Americans, is thus ended.
  • March 3: Again against the president 's veto , Congress passes the Tenure of Office Act , which regulates the dismissal of ministers from the cabinet.
William H. Seward and Eduard von Stoeckl during the Alaska Purchase negotiations; Painting by Emanuel Leutze
United States after absorbing Nebraska and purchasing Alaska


May 22: Proclamation of the Canadian Confederation


Tokugawa Yoshinobu

Other events in Asia

US Marines and Sailors Attack on Formosa Island Pirates, East Indies (from Harpers Weekly , September 7)
  • June 19: American marines land on the coast of Formosa to conduct a punitive expedition against the native population there. The reason for this is the killing of American castaways by the natives a few months earlier. The Americans march inland but encounter significant difficulties. They are ambushed by the natives and the unfamiliar tropical climate weighs heavily on the men. It's hard to get through the thick jungle. Eventually the lead officer is killed as well and the marines are forced to retreat back to their ships after a period of time in some disarray. After this first, not very successful venture, there will be a second campaign in September. This second force consists essentially of Chinese provided by the Chinese government. This force moves inland to the Paiwan settlement area , where, without major fighting, the commander negotiates with the Paiwan chief and concludes an agreement in which the Paiwan pledge to stop attacking shipwrecked people and seafarers to do.
  • October 7: Mohammed Afzal Khan of the Baraksai dynasty dies after a reign of around one year . His younger brother Shir Ali , who he ousted the previous year, ascended the throne again the following year as Emir of Afghanistan .
  • After the outbreak of fierce fighting between the Al Thani dynasty in Qatar and the Al Chalifa dynasty of Bahrain , which has been under British protectorate since 1861, Britain is forced to intervene in the conflict.


Paris world exhibition

Exhibition Palace of the Universal Exhibition on the Champ de Mars
Édouard Manet , Vue de l'Exposition de 1867

In Paris, on April 1st, on the Champ de Mars , the Emperor Napoleon III. based world exhibition on 66.8 hectares of exhibition space. 52,200 exhibitors from 41 nations take part. The English landscape park Parc des Buttes-Chaumont with grottos , designed by urban planner Jean-Charles Alphand and newly built by Jardinier principal von Paris Édouard François André with the support of landscape gardener and Jardinier en chef de la ville Jean-Pierre Barillet-Deschamps , will also be on display for the exhibition , cascades and greenhouses opened. Jean Darcel is responsible for the rock constructions, Eugène Belgrand for the hydraulic engineering and the general inspector of Parisian architects Gabriel Davioud for the buildings. Gustave Eiffel designed the machine hall , the first Bateaux Mouches sailed on the Seine. Gioachino Rossini composed a hymn to Napoleon III and his brave people as the official exhibition anthem. The exhibition, which features innovations such as a hydraulic elevator and reinforced concrete , will be visited by around ten million people until November 3, including Hans Christian Andersen , Jules Verne and King Ludwig II of Bavaria. During the world exhibition, the Parisian family company Léon & Lévy received the concession to make stereoscopic images of the world exhibition, and Pierre Petit was appointed official photographer.

postal and banking services



Exterior view of a Pullman car


science and technology


Machu Picchu with the summit of Huayna Picchu
The Roman wine from Speyer is considered the oldest surviving grape wine in the world


medicine and natural sciences

Construction and technical inventions

The Roebling Bridge about 1870
The Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad 1860, Kansas City Red circle thick.svglower left


Teaching and Research


architecture and fine arts

The Gazebo 1867: Galleria Vittorio Emanuele


One of the first editions of the No. 1

music and theatre

Blue Danube Waltz, title page of the first edition
Posters 1867
Her Majesty's Theater in the fire of 1867


Joseph Albert : Official engagement photo
  • January 22: King Ludwig II of Bavaria and Princess Sophie in Bavaria , sister of Empress Elisabeth , announce their engagement. However, the planned wedding date in August is postponed several times and the engagement is finally broken at the end of the year. Meanwhile, Sophie begins an affair with the photographer's son Edgar Hanfstaengl .
  • March 28: One of the first full-page illustrated open cards in Germany is sent out in Berlin. Another such precursor of the postcard will be sent from Wrocław on October 30th.
Today's Kursalon Hübner
Karl Heinrich Ulrichs





January February

Carl Lammle
Birthplace of Ludwig Thoma in Oberammergau
  • January 21: Ludwig Thoma , German writer (died 1921)
  • January 21: Maxime Weygand , French general and politician in World Wars I and II (died 1965)
  • January 24: Ernst Zahn , Swiss writer (died 1952)
  • January 25: Simon Fraser Tolmie , Canadian politician (died 1937)
  • January 27 Katherine Mayo , American writer and journalist (d. 1940)
  • January 27: Claude Terrasse , French operetta composer (d. 1923)
  • January 28 Albert Ahn , German publisher and industrialist (died 1935)
  • January 29: Elisabeth Büchsel , German painter (died 1957)
  • January 31 - Mariusz Zaruski , Polish general, yachtsman, mountaineer, writer, poet and painter (died 1941)

March April

Gutzon Borglum, 1919
Paul Davidson
Wilbur Wright

May June

  • 0June 3: Franz Goldenberger , Bavarian Minister of Education († 1948)
  • 0June 4: Eugen Abresch , German entrepreneur, inventor, art collector and politician (d. 1952)
  • 0June 4 Gustaf Mannerheim , Finnish officer and statesman (died 1951)
  • 0June 5: Max Warburg , German banker (died 1946)
  • 0June 8: Dagny Juel , Norwegian novelist and playwright (d. 1901)
  • 0June 8: Ernst Krieger , German chess problem composer (died 1943)
Frank Lloyd Wright, 1926

July August

Käthe Kollwitz
Maximilian of Baden, 1914
Stanley Baldwin

September October

  • 0September 5: Amy Beach , American composer (d. 1944)
  • 0September 6: Franciszek Brzeziński , Polish composer (died 1944)
  • 0September 7: Albert Bassermann , German actor (died 1952)
  • 0September 8 Alexander Parvus , Russian revolutionary (Menshevik) and German social democrat (died 1924)
  • 0September 9: Ernst Oppler , German painter and etcher (died 1929)
  • 0September 9: Felix von Dobschütz , German clergyman, pastor and superintendent in Silesia (died 1936)
  • 0September 9: Max L. Strack , German ancient historian (died 1914)
  • September 12 Herbert L. Clarke , American cornetist and composer (d. 1945)
  • September 13: Ernst Platz , German mountain painter, illustrator and alpinist († 1940)
  • September 15: Petr Bezruč , Czech writer and poet (died 1958)
  • September 23 John Lomax , American folklore and musicologist (d. 1948)
  • September 25: Augusto de Vasconcelos , Portuguese doctor, diplomat, politician, foreign minister and prime minister (died 1951)
  • September 27 Giovanni Bonzano , Italian clergyman, Roman Catholic cardinal (died 1927)
Walter Rathenau
  • September 29: Walther Rathenau , German industrialist and politician (died 1922)

November December

Marie Curie, 1920
  • 0November 7: Marie Curie , Polish-French chemist and physicist (died 1934)
  • 0November 8: Ilmari Krohn , Finnish composer and musicologist (died 1960)
  • November 10: Gabriel Zelger , Swiss bishop (died 1934)
  • November 13: Josefine Dora , Austrian actress (died 1944)
  • November 14 Ottilie Pohl , German politician (died 1943)
  • November 14: Friedrich Vollmer , German classical philologist (died 1923)
  • November 15: Emil Krebs , German language genius (died 1930)
  • November 16: William F. Kirby , American politician (died 1934)
  • November 17 Anna Feldhusen , German painter and etcher (died 1951)
  • November 19: John Møller , Greenlandic photographer, printer, interpreter, ornithologist, expedition member and provincial councilor (d. 1935)
  • November 22 Wilhelm Groener , German military and politician (died 1939)
  • November 22: Ernst Sachs , German inventor and industrialist (died 1932)
  • November 26 Charles Albert Boynton , American lawyer (died 1954)
  • November 26 Emil von Dungern , German physician (died 1961)
  • November 27: Charles Koechlin , French composer (died 1950)
  • November 27 Margaret Ruthven Lang , American composer (d. 1972)
  • November 27: Hélène de Mandrot , Swiss artist, art collector and promoter of architectural and artistic modernism (d. 1948)
  • November 28: James Richard Atkin , British jurist (d. 1944)
  • November 28 – Felix Mader , German Roman Catholic priest, art historian and monument conservator (died 1941)
  • November 30: Franz Ahlgrimm , German politician (died after 1919)

Exact date of birth unknown



Ingres' tomb in Père Lachaise Cemetery in Paris


Grave of Ignaz Perner in the Old Southern Cemetery in Munich


Grave of Peter von Cornelius in the old cathedral cemetery of St. Hedwig's parish in Berlin
Egghard's grave in the Sankt Marxer Friedhof in Vienna
Friedlieb Ferdinand Runge





Sarcophagus of Otto I in the crypt of the Theatinerkirche in Munich


Michael Faraday, about 1841/42


  • 0September 1: Edward Hodges , American organist and composer (b. 1796)
Markevych's grave in Chernihiv




Johann Nikolaus von Dreyse
Kossic's grave in Felsőszölnök
  • December 26: József Kossics , Hungarian-Slovene writer, poet, historian, folklorist and Catholic priest (b. 1788)
  • 30 December: Franz von Lehrer , Tyrolean poet, jurist and politician and member of the Frankfurt National Assembly (b. 1775)

Exact date of death unknown

web links

Commons : 1867  - Collection of images, videos and audio files