1867

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Europe 1867
1867
Coronation of Franz Josef and Elisabeth as King and Queen of Hungary
Franz Joseph I and his wife Elisabeth become royal couple of Hungary after the Austro-Hungarian settlement .
Title page of the first edition Das Kapital
The first volume of
Das Kapital by Karl Marx appears.
On the beautiful blue Danube, title page
In the Dianabad the waltz On the beautiful blue Danube by Johann Strauss (son) is heard for the first time .
The check for the $ 7.2 million purchase price in Alaska
The Russian Empire sells Alaska to the USA
in the so-called Alaska Purchase .
1867 in other calendars
Armenian calendar 1315/16 (turn of the year July)
Ethiopian calendar 1859/60 (September 11-12)
Baha'i calendar 23/24 (March 20/21)
Bengali solar calendar 1272/73 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)
Buddhist calendar 2410/11 (southern Buddhism); 2409/10 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )
Chinese calendar 76th (77th) cycle

Year of the Fire Rabbit 丁卯 ( at the beginning of the year Fire Tiger 丙寅)

Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam) 1229/30 (turn of the year April)
Dangun era (Korea) 4200/01 (October 2/3)
Iranian calendar 1245/46 (around March 21)
Islamic calendar 1283/84 (May 4th / 5th)
Jewish calendar 5627/28 (September 29/30)
Coptic calendar 1583/84 (September 11-12)
Malayalam calendar 1042/43
Rumi Calendar (Ottoman Empire) 1282/83 (March 1)
Seleucid era Babylon: 2177/78 (turn of the year April)

Syria: 2178/79 (New Year October)

Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar) 1923/24 (April)

In 1867 , the North German Confederation, founded in the previous year, was converted from a military alliance into a federal state by means of a constitution passed by a newly elected constituent Reichstag . For Chancellor is Otto von Bismarck appointed.

The Habsburg Monarchy is also undergoing a constitutional restructuring: the Austro-Hungarian Compromise transforms the Austrian Empire into the Austro-Hungarian Dual Monarchy . End of the year occurs in the Austrian half ( Cisleithania the) December Constitution in force with the Basic Law on the general rights of citizens contains a bill of rights.

Revolutionary developments are also taking place in other parts of the world: In Japan , the last shogun of the Tokugawa shogunate formally abdicates under the pressure of reformers who are striving to restore imperial rule . With the accession of the 14-year-old Mutsuhito , the Edo period ends and the Meiji period begins. The short-lived Second Empire of Mexico ends with the execution of Emperor Maximilian I of Mexico by the republican troops of President Benito Juarez . A few days later, the Canadian Confederation becomes independent from Great Britain .

The Russian Empire signs a contract with the United States for the sale of around 1.6 million km², the area of ​​what is now the state of Alaska .

Events

Politics and world events

chronology
Ongoing events
Rotativismo in Portugal (since 1856)
Nian uprising (since 1853) against the Qing dynasty in China (since 1644)
Second French Empire in France (since 1852)
Founding period in Germany and Austria (since around 1840)
Tanzimat reforms in the Ottoman Empire (since 1839)
Victorian Age in Great Britain (since 1837)

North German Confederation

  • February 7th : The allied governments of the North German Confederation agree, following a proposal by Otto von Bismarck, on a draft constitution that is to be submitted to a Reichstag that has yet to be elected. On February 19, Bismarck presented a secret alternative draft to the governments if the Reichstag should reject the first draft or amend it too much. In this case, the constitution should be imposed as a state treaty.
Reichstag election February 1867 , with the results of the individual constituencies
Constituent session of the constituent Reichstag . It is not a parliament, but an assembly that is supposed to agree a constitution with the individual states.
“The disguises of our court master” - caricature alluding to Bismarck's accumulation of offices; Kladderadatsch , 1867
  • Between June 21 and June 27, the individual federal states put the federal constitution into effect through publication patents.
The way to the North German Confederation: After deliberations of the participating state governments, a constituent Reichstag was elected, which agreed a draft constitution with the governments.
The results of the ordinary Reichstag election according to constituencies
  • August 31 : The turnout in the Reichstag election in August 1867 is lower than in the February election. The required runoff elections will take place in the following weeks. The political balance of power after the election remains essentially unchanged. The North German Confederation now has its parliament.
  • November 1st : The law on freedom of movement is passed.
  • November 9 : The Navy of the North German Confederation is founded by federal law , which emerges from the Prussian Navy . The other member states in the North German Confederation do not have their own naval forces, but are obliged to pay contributions and provide personnel. Nevertheless, the North German Federal Navy is still subordinate to the Prussian Navy Ministry.

Austria-Hungary

Richard Count Belcredi
  • February 1 : Richard Belcredi , representative of a federalist settlement with all nationalities of the multi-ethnic Austrian state, submits his resignation after the meeting of the Council of Ministers.
Friedrich Ferdinand Freiherr von Beust, lithograph by Josef Kriehuber , 1867

Other events in Europe

Signatures of the London Treaty
Clerkenwell Prison Wall, destroyed by the explosion

Mexico

  • February 5 : The last French troops leave Mexico City for Veracruz. Emperor Maximilian I left his European units behind as a garrison and marched with his Mexican troops under the generals Miguel Miramón and Tomás Mejía to Querétaro , accompanied by his adjutant, the Prussian Prince Felix zu Salm-Salm .
  • Maximilian's wife Charlotte of Belgium went to Europe with the French units to ask the Pope for support in Paris, Vienna and finally in Rome, but remained unsuccessful.
  • While the French troops are boarding in Veracruz, the Republican troops of President Benito Juárez advance quickly and lay siege to Querétaro in March. General Porfirio Díaz takes the city of Puebla.
  • April 27th : An attempt by the imperial troops to break out of Querétaro fails. On May 15th, the city was taken by Republican troops under Mariano Escobedo . A court martial appointed by Escobedo sentenced Maximilian and two of his generals to death. Many European heads of state, but also celebrities such as Victor Hugo and Giuseppe Garibaldi , then write requests for clemency to President Juárez, but the latter refuses.
Photo of the execution of Maximilian (right), as well as the generals Mejía (left) and Miramón (center)
Maximilian's body before being transported to Europe

Other events in Central and South America

  • February 2 : Under the leadership of Serapio Cruz and Justo Rufino Barrios Auyón , a liberal uprising begins against the conservative government of Vicente Cerna Sandoval in Guatemala , but it is quickly suppressed. The leaders of the uprising flee abroad.
  • February: Argentine President Bartolomé Miter has to relinquish command of the Army of the Triple Alliance against Paraguay due to domestic political difficulties and returns to his homeland. The new commander-in-chief is the Brazilian Luís Alves de Lima e Silva .
  • August: The Paraguayan dictator Francisco Solano López is considering resigning and going into exile because of the hopeless situation. He increasingly distrusts his officers and senior officials and suspects conspiracies everywhere. He has numerous officers executed. A large part of the civil ruling class is also sentenced to death, including López's two brothers and sisters and his mother. The death sentence against one of the brothers is carried out, the rest of the family remains in custody until the end of the war. In addition to numerous high officials, cabinet members, judges, bishops and priests as well as more than 200 foreigners, including several diplomats, are executed on the orders of López or after the judgments of his special courts.

United States of America

  • Beginning of the year: The Ku Klux Klan , founded two years ago, is holding a federal congress in Nashville , Tennessee, in order to bring together the now numerous local groups as a common organization and to put them under a unified leadership. The clan adopts a constitution and elects ex-Southern General Nathan Bedford Forrest as its first Great Warlock . At that time, the Klan had about half a million active members and countless sympathizers across the south. It prevents blacks from exercising and exercising their newly acquired civil rights through intimidation, arson, physical violence, kidnapping and murder. In addition, many of the clan's abuses involve sexual violence against women. The clan's victims are the so-called scalawags (collaborators with the Yankees, civil rights activists and members of the Republican Party) as well as carpetbaggers (war profiteers) and members of the US Army.
  • March 1 : The southeastern part of the former Nebraska Territory appears under the name Nebraska as the 37th state of the United States at. The remaining parts are assigned to other territories .
  • March 2 / March 23 / July 19 : The United States Congress passes several Reconstruction Acts against President Andrew Johnson's veto : the former Confederation states are militarily occupied on their basis, the existing southern states are ousted and implemented Replaced military governors. No one who supported the former Confederate or state government is allowed to vote or hold political office. Only after the 14th Amendment to the Constitution has been adopted , which guarantees African-Americans the same rights, will the southern states be re-admitted to the Union. Johnson's previous very southern state-friendly and anti-African American policy of Reconstruction is thus ended.
  • March 3 : Against the president's veto , Congress passes the Tenure of Office Act , which regulates the dismissal of ministers from the cabinet.
William H. Seward and Eduard von Stoeckl in the negotiations for the Alaska Purchase; Painting by Emanuel Leutze
United States after the admission of Nebraska and the purchase of Alaska
  • Social Housing in New York City : The Tenement House Act of 1867 stipulates that apartment houses must provide one toilet for every 20 residents that is connected to the sewer. Bedrooms that do not have a window must have at least three square feet of ventilation opening above the door.

Canada

May 22 : Proclamation of the Canadian Confederation

Japan

Tokugawa Yoshinobu

Other events in Asia

US Marines and Sailors attack the pirates of Formosa Island, East India (from Harper's Weekly, September 7th)
  • June 19 : American marines land on the coast of Formosa to conduct a punitive expedition against the native population there. The reason for this is the killing of American shipwrecked people by the natives a few months earlier. The Americans march inland, but face significant difficulties. They are ambushed by the natives and the unfamiliar tropical climate is a heavy burden for the men. There is hardly any progress through the thick jungle. Ultimately, the leading officer is also killed and the Marines have to retreat to their ships after a certain amount of time in some disorder. After this first, less successful company, there is a second campaign in September. This second force consists mainly of Chinese provided by the Chinese government. This force moves inland to the settlement area of ​​the Paiwan , where the commander, without any major fighting, enters into negotiations with the chief of the Paiwan and concludes an agreement in which the Paiwan undertake no more attacks on shipwrecked people and seafarers to do.
  • October 7th : After a reign of around one year, Mohammed Afzal Khan from the Baraksai dynasty dies . His younger brother, Shir Ali , who was ousted by him the previous year, again ascends the throne as Emir of Afghanistan the following year .
  • After the outbreak of fierce fighting between the ruling family Al Thani in Qatar and the ruling family Al Khalifa of Bahrain , which since 1861 under British protection is, the United Kingdom will be forced to intervene in the conflict.

economy

Paris World Exhibition

Exhibition palace of the World's Fair on the Champ de Mars
Édouard Manet , Vue de l'exposition de 1867

In Paris, on April 1st, on the Champ de Mars, the Emperor Napoleon III. based world exhibition on 66.8 hectares of exhibition space. 52,200 exhibitors from 41 nations take part. The new English landscape park Parc des Buttes-Chaumont with grottos, designed by city planner Jean-Charles Alphand and built by Jardinier principal von Paris Édouard François André with the support of landscape gardener and Jardinier en chef de la ville Jean-Pierre Barillet-Deschamps , is also used for the exhibition , Cascades and greenhouses opened. Jean Darcel is responsible for the rock structures, Eugène Belgrand for the hydraulic engineering and the inspector general of Paris architects Gabriel Davioud for the structures. Gustave Eiffel designed the machine shop , the first Bateaux Mouches sailed the Seine. Gioachino Rossini composes a hymn to Napoleon III and his brave people as the official exhibition hymn . The exhibition, which features a hydraulic elevator and reinforced concrete , among other things , will be visited by around ten million people until November 3rd , including Hans Christian Andersen , Jules Verne and King Ludwig II of Bavaria. During the world exhibition, the Parisian family business Léon & Lévy was granted the concession to produce stereoscopic images of the world exhibition, and Pierre Petit was appointed official photographer.

Postal and banking services

Patents

Business start-ups

Exterior view of a Pullman car

traffic

science and technology

archeology

Machu Picchu with the summit of Huayna Picchu
The Roman wine from Speyer is considered the oldest preserved grape wine in the world

astronomy

Medicine and science

Construction and technical inventions

The Roebling Bridge around 1870
The Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad 1860, Kansas City Red circle thick.svgbottom left

Economics

Teaching and Research

Culture

Architecture and fine arts

The gazebo 1867: Galleria Vittorio Emanuele

literature

One of the first prints of the No. 1

Music and theater

Donauwalzer, title page of the first edition
Poster 1867
Her Majesty's Theater during the fire in 1867

society

Joseph Albert : Official engagement photo
Today's Kursalon Huebner

religion

Disasters

Sports

Born

January

Carl Laemmle
Birthplace of Ludwig Thoma in Oberammergau

February

March

Gutzon Borglum, 1919
Paul Davidson

April

Wilbur Wright

May

June

Frank Lloyd Wright, 1926

July

Käthe Kollwitz
Maximilian von Baden, 1914

August

Stanley Baldwin

September

Walther Rathenau

October

November

Marie Curie, 1920

December

Exact date of birth unknown

Died

January

The tomb of Ingres in the Père Lachaise cemetery in Paris

February

Grave of Ignaz Perner in the old southern cemetery in Munich

March

Grave site of Peter von Cornelius in the old cathedral cemetery of the St. Hedwig parish in Berlin
Egghard's grave in the Sankt Marxer Friedhof in Vienna
Friedlieb Ferdinand Runge

April

May

June

July

Sarcophagus of Otto I in the crypt of the Theatine Church in Munich

August

Michael Faraday, around 1841/42

September

Markevych's grave in Chernihiv

October

November

December

Johann Nikolaus von Dreyse
Kossic's grave in Felsőszölnök

Exact date of death unknown

Web links

Commons : 1867  - Collection of Images, Videos, and Audio Files