Peter by Cornelius
Peter Cornelius was the son of Johann Christian Alois Cornelius (1748–1800), painter, teacher and inspector at the Electoral Academy , and his wife Anna Helena Corsten. The house where he was born is at Kurz Strasse 15 in the old town of Düsseldorf. Like his older brother Lambert (1778-1823) , he received his first artistic training from his father.
From 1798 to around 1805 Cornelius studied at the Düsseldorf Academy. In the years 1803 to 1805 he participated in the Weimar award tasks of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe . In 1806/08 he created wall paintings in the Quirinus Minster in Neuss . After his mother died on June 2, 1809, Cornelius traveled in autumn 1809 via Koblenz to Frankfurt am Main , where he lived from 1809 to 1811 in the house of a sponsor, the publisher Friedrich Wilmans ; two pictures of Wilmans and his wife were taken. In 1811 he went to Rome with his friend Christian Xeller , worked in the Casa Bartholdy and made friends there with the painter Friedrich Overbeck . This took him into the Luke covenant, which is considered to be the nucleus of the Nazarenes .
In 1816 his series of illustrations for Goethe's Faust I appeared , with which he gave up his initially baroque classicism and turned to neo-Gothic forms. The painters Ernst Ludwig Riepenhausen and Franz Pforr can be regarded as predecessors .
From 1819 to 1824 Cornelius was director of the Düsseldorf Art Academy , which had re-established the Kingdom of Prussia in 1819. Cornelius and even more his successor Wilhelm von Schadow created the academic basis of the Düsseldorf School of Painting there .
In 1819 Crown Prince Ludwig of Bavaria called Cornelius to Munich for an assignment . Among other things, he was supposed to redesign the Glyptothek there . Although the relationship between artist and regent was very difficult, Cornelius was entrusted with the management of the local Academy of Fine Arts in 1825 and ennobled by the now Bavarian King Ludwig I. To support his varied tasks, Cornelius brought some of his Düsseldorf students such as Hermann Anschütz , Wilhelm Kaulbach and Adam Eberle , whom Moritz von Schwind later joined. In 1841 there was a falling out with the king and Cornelius moved to Berlin .
The Prussian King Friedrich Wilhelm IV commissioned him with the artistic design of the planned new cathedral building and the cemetery hall next to it, which the king also likes to call Campo Santo . Count Atanazy Raczyński gave him the south wing of his palace as a studio. In 1843 Cornelius joined the Lawless Society in Berlin . Since the construction of the new cathedral planned by King Friedrich Wilhelm IV. Did not get beyond the work on the foundations and the Campo Santo was not fully completed either, the designs on which Cornelius had worked for almost 20 years could never be realized. In 1860 he became a member of the Munich Association for Christian Art . When Peter von Cornelius became an honorary citizen of the city of Düsseldorf in 1862, the artists' association Malkasten organized a festival in his honor in the Geisler restaurant and in the Jacobi garden.
His first wife, Carolina Grossi, a born Roman, whom he married in 1814, he and his daughter died in 1832. With his second wife Gertrude Ferretini, again a Roman woman, he married by procuration before she came to him in Munich. After her death in 1861 he married a young Urbinate .
In his monumental works he attempted to revitalize German fresco painting , whereby his real talent is less evident in the coloring than in the figure drawing. In his late work he leaned heavily on the classical form of Raphael .
- 1820–30: Frescoes The Gods of Greece in the Glyptothek , Munich (lost; cardboard boxes in the National Gallery in Berlin ).
- 1836–40: Altar fresco The Last Judgment and painting of the Ludwigskirche , Munich .
- 1841–67: Die Apokalyptischen Reiter , cardboard, formerly Nationalgalerie Berlin (lost since 1945)
- 1850: Picture medallions of the prophets of the Old Testament in the Church of St. Nikolai , Potsdam .
- Frescoes in the Palazzo Zuccari .
- Aventiure from the Nibelungs. Prêtre, Berlin 1817 ( digitized version from the University and State Library of Düsseldorf ).
- Pictures of Goethe's Faust. Wenner, Franckfurt am Main 1816 ( digitized version of the University and State Library Düsseldorf).
- Le Paradis du Dante. Avec texte explicatif, dessiné au trait par Pierre de Cornelius. Boerner, Leipzig 1830 ( digitized version of the University and State Library Düsseldorf)
- Drafts for the art-historical frescoes in the loggias of the Royal Pinakothek in Munich . Dürr, Leipzig 1875 ( digitized version from the University and State Library of Düsseldorf).
- In 1838 Cornelius was admitted to the Académie des Beaux-Arts as a foreign member .
- In 1839 Peter von Cornelius received the Knight's Cross of the French Legion of Honor
- In 1842 Cornelius was awarded the order Pour le mérite for sciences and arts and
- 1844 from the University of Münster with the title Dr. phil. hc honored.
- In 1845 he was elected an honorary member (NA Honorary) of the National Academy in New York .
- 1859 it appointed the Free German Bishopric to master .
- In 1862 he became an honorary citizen of Düsseldorf.
- His bust was displayed in the Hall of Fame in Munich.
- In 1867, Corneliusgasse in Vienna- Mariahilf (6th district) was named after him and his nephew Peter Cornelius .
- In 1879 the Peter von Cornelius memorial created by Adolf von Donndorf was unveiled in Düsseldorf .
- Since the end of the 1890s, his name has been emblazoned on the right above the main portal of the art academy building .
Peter von Cornelius is also the namesake of the Cornelius Prize of the city of Düsseldorf.
- Peter by Cornelius . In: Illustrirte Zeitung . No. 38 . J. J. Weber, Leipzig March 16, 1844, p. 185-187 ( books.google.de ). .
- Herman Riegel : Cornelius, the master of German painting . Rümpler, Hanover 1866 ( digitized version ).
- Friedrich Pecht : Cornelius, Peter von . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 4, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1876, pp. 484-497.
- Werner Schmidt : Peter von Cornelius . Exhibition catalog. Berlin / National Gallery, 1956.
- Herbert von Eine : In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 3, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1957, ISBN 3-428-00184-2 , pp. 363-3365 ( version ).
- Friedrich Wilhelm Bautz : Cornelius, Peter von. In: Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL). Volume 1, Bautz, Hamm 1975. 2nd, unchanged edition Hamm 1990, ISBN 3-88309-013-1 , Sp. 1131-1132.
- Frank Büttner: Peter Cornelius in Düsseldorf . In: Wend von Kalnein (Ed.): The Düsseldorf School of Painting . Mainz, 1979, pp. 48-55.
- Stefanie Bielmeier : Painted art history. About the designs by Peter von Cornelius for the loggias of the Alte Pinakothek . City Archives, Munich; Commission publishing house UNI-Druck, Munich 1983, ISBN 3-87821-185-6
- Frank Büttner: Peter Cornelius. Frescoes and fresco projects . 2 vols. Wiesbaden 1980 and 1999.
- Léon Krempel, Anthea Niklaus (eds.): Cornelius - Prometheus - Der Vordenker . Munich 2005.
- Literature by and about Peter von Cornelius in the catalog of the German National Library
- Works by and about Peter von Cornelius in the German Digital Library
- Search for Peter von Cornelius in the SPK digital portal of the Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation
- Works by Peter von Cornelius at Zeno.org .
- Peter Cornelius: Illustrations to Goethe's Faust
- The estate is in the Bavarian State Library
- Note: Ref. See advertisement baptism of the brother Lambert Cornelius.
- Kurz Straße 15, birthplace of the painter Peter von Cornelius (director of the Art Academy 1819–1824) , on duesseldorf.de , Stadtgeschichte.
- See also the letter of recommendation from Overbeck's childhood friend Karl Ludwig Roeck at s: Karl Ludwig Roeck to Friedrich Overbeck, 1810
- see e.g. B. Johannes Vesper: Preciousness and treasure trove . Retrieved October 2, 2011.
- Announcement of the Association for Christian Art in Munich . Munich 1910, p. 25.
- Chronicle of the Düsseldorfer Malerschule , in Bettina Baumgärten (Ed.): The Düsseldorfer Malerschule and its international impact 1819–1918 in the Museum Kunstpalast Düsseldorf, Michael Imhof Verlag Petersberg 2011, pp. 353–376.
- See for example H. von Blomberg: Peter von Cornelius . In: Journal for Prussian History and Regional Studies , Volume 4, Berlin 1867, pp. 399–411 .
- After Frank Büttner: Fresken ... , Volume 2 (lit.), p. 335.
- Government Gazette for the Kingdom of Bavaria , No. 4, Munich, January 30, 1839.
- Past Academicians "C" ( Memento of the original from March 20, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , at nationalacademy.org , accessed March 21, 2015.
|SURNAME||Cornelius, Peter von|
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Cornelius, Peter Joseph von; Cornelius, Peter Joseph; Cornelius, Peter|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||German painter|
|DATE OF BIRTH||September 23, 1783|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Dusseldorf|
|DATE OF DEATH||March 6, 1867|
|Place of death||Berlin|