Calendar overview 1783
Peace of Paris
ends the American War of Independence .
manage to climb
a manned hot air balloon .
|William Pitt the Younger becomes the youngest Prime Minister in Britain's history.|
|1783 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1231/32 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1775/76 (turn of the year September 11th / 12th)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1188/89 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2326/27 (southern Buddhism); 2325/26 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||74th (75th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1145/46 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4116/17 (October 2-3)|
|Iranian calendar||1161/62 (around March 21)|
|Islamic calendar||1197/98 (November 25-26)|
|Jewish calendar||5543/44 (September 26-27)|
|Coptic calendar||1499/1500 (September 11-12)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2093/94 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2094/95 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1839/40 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
United States / American War of Independence
- March 10th : Newburgh Conspiracy
- Spring: New Hampshire's constitution states that " all people are born equal and free. " In the years that followed, the principle served as the basis for a number of court rulings that also abolished slavery in New Hampshire .
- April: The Supreme Court of Massachusetts decides the case Quock Walker . It is considered the beginning of the actual implementation of the rule of law and the first test for the young Massachusetts constitution .
- April / May: George Clinton wins the New York gubernatorial election .
- September 3 : In the Peace of Paris after the American War of Independence , the independence of the United States of America from the Kingdom of Great Britain is recognized. In addition, on the same day at Versailles, Great Britain signs separate agreements with France and Spain that have already been negotiated to settle disputed points about their possessions. It cedes the two colonies of East and West Florida to Spain.
- November 25 : The last British troops leave the United States in New York City after the end of the American Revolutionary War .
- April 8 : The Russian Tsarina Catherine the Great announces the annexation of Crimea , the Taman Peninsula and the Kuban region by Russia .
- July 24th : Treaty of Georgievsk
Great Britain / Netherlands
- September 2 : In the Anglo-Dutch War that began in 1780 , a preliminary peace is concluded in Paris.
- December 19 : William Pitt the Younger becomes Prime Minister of Great Britain , at the age of 24 the youngest in British history .
- The first edition of the women's magazine Pomona for Teutschland's daughters, edited by Sophie von La Roche , appears in Speyer .
science and technology
- August 27 : When Caroline Herschel discovers a new celestial object in the constellation Andromeda , no one suspects that this elliptical galaxy was observed by Charles Messier ten years earlier . Today it is known as Messier 110 . Messier only published his knowledge on this in 1798.
- September 23 : Caroline Herschel discovered the Sculptor Galaxy in the constellation Sculptor .
- October 30th : Wilhelm Herschel sees the galaxy NGC 7507 in the constellation Sculptor.
- December 13 : Wilhelm Herschel discovers the galaxy NGC 157 in the constellation Whale .
- December 18 : Wilhelm Herschel observes the galaxy NGC 1055 in the constellation Whale for the first time.
- December 19 : Wilhelm Herschel finds the galaxies NGC 3166 and NGC 3169 in the constellation Sextant and the galaxy NGC 2775 in the constellation Cancer .
- June 4 : In Annonay leading Montgolfier brothers their first unmanned hot air balloon , the Montgolfière before the public.
- August 27 : the first with hydrogen gas -filled balloon of the builder Jacques Charles rises unmanned from Paris' Champs de Mars and is destroyed by farmers during the landing as "wicked device" with pitchforks.
- September 19 : The first “manned” Montgolfière starts in Paris . A mutton, a duck and a rooster travel as a crew.
- October 15 : The first person takes to the skies with royal approval on board a hot air balloon . The Montgolfière with Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier , secured by a rope, rises 26 meters in Paris.
- November 21 : Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier and his passenger François d'Arlandes complete the first successful ride of a manned hot air balloon from the park of La Muette Castle to the Butte aux Cailles on the other bank of the Seine .
- December 1 : Together with Marie-Noël Robert , Jacques Alexandre César Charles completes the second air journey in human history in a gas balloon he designed.
- January 4th : In a report on the execution of Anna Göldi , who was accused of witchcraft , the term judicial murder is coined for the first time .
- At the beginning of October the Russian Academy was founded in St. Petersburg.
- With his work Prolegomena, Immanuel Kant tries to present the essential aspects of his "critical" philosophy or transcendental philosophy in a clear manner for every future metaphysics that will be able to appear as science .
Architecture and fine arts
- The St.Gallen School of Design is founded as a drawing school.
- The house with the 99 sheep's heads is being built in Berlin .
Music and theater
- January 20 : The world premiere of the musical drama Tancredi by Ignaz Holzbauer takes place in Munich.
- March 23rd : Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart gives a large academy concert in Vienna's Burgtheater in the presence of Emperor Joseph II , at which several of his works are premiered, including the Haffner symphony and the 13th piano concerto
- April 14th : Gotthold Ephraim Lessing's play Nathan the Wise premiered two years after the poet's death at the Döbbelin Theater in Berlin. With the drama of ideas, Lessing created a literary monument to his friend Moses Mendelssohn . Lessing chose the blank verse as the meter for his drama , which originated in England and was only able to establish itself in Germany through him.
- Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart finishes work on the Great Mass in C minor ( KV 427).
- The first Berlin Wednesday Society is founded.
- February 2nd : A series of earthquakes begins that struck Messina and especially parts of Calabria . The heaviest earthquake takes place on February 5th . By March 28, 300 villages will be destroyed and around 30,000 people will lose their lives.
- February 4 : 18 people are killed when the felt pond breaks in Schneeberg, Saxony.
- June 8th : A series of volcanic eruptions in the Laki crater in Iceland begins and lasts for eight months. Ash and acid rain poison cattle and lead to famine in the winter of 1783/84 not only in Iceland, but throughout Europe and America.
- July 20 : In Iceland , lava masses again emerge from the Laki craters . The pastor Jón Steingrímsson gives his famous fire sermon on this day . This is said to have caused the lava to spare Kirkjubæjarklaustur .
- August 3 : A severe eruption of the Asama volcano in Japan kills 1,000 people. The ash rain rising into the atmosphere results in a harsh winter and causes crop failures in northern Japan.
- January 2 : Christoffer Wilhelm Eckersberg , Danish painter († 1853 )
- January 7th : Francesco Carlini , Italian astronomer and geodesist († 1862 )
- January 12 : Erik Gustaf Geijer , Swedish writer († 1847 )
- January 14 : Wilson Lumpkin , American politician († 1870 )
- January 15 : Ignaz Beidtel , Austrian lawyer († 1865 )
- January 15 : William Colgate , an American entrepreneur and patron († 1857 )
- January 20 : Friedrich Dotzauer , German cellist and composer († 1860 )
- January 23 : Stendhal , French writer († 1842 )
- January 26 : Helmina von Chézy , German poet and librettist († 1856 )
- January 29 : Margarethe Jonas , German embroiderer and painter († 1858 )
- February 2 : Karl Friedrich , Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach († 1853 )
- February 9 : Vasily Zhukovsky , Russian poet and translator († 1852 )
- February 15 : Johann Nepomuk von Poißl , German composer and artistic director († 1865 )
- February 19 : Ambroise Louis Garneray , French engraver and painter († 1857 )
- March 8 : Gottfried Wilhelm Fink , German composer, Protestant theologian and poet († 1846 )
- March 10 : Garret D. Wall , American politician († 1850 )
- March 17 : Friedrich August von Gise , Bavarian diplomat and politician († 1860 )
- March 18 : Johann Friedrich Danneil , German prehistorian and educator († 1868 )
- March 28 : Wilhelm Pfeil , German teacher and scientist († 1859 )
- March 28 : Christoph Leonhard Wolbach , first Lord Mayor of Ulm († 1872 )
- April 3 : Joseph Ambrosius Geritz , German bishop of Warmia († 1867 )
- April 3 : Washington Irving , American writer († 1859 )
- April 8 : John Claudius Loudon , Scottish botanist and landscape architect († 1843 )
- April 9 : Karl Georg von Raumer , German geologist, geographer and teacher († 1865 )
- April 10 : Hortense de Beauharnais , Queen of the Netherlands and mother of Emperor Napoleon III. († 1837 )
- April 24 : John Floyd , American politician († 1837 )
- April 26 : Ferdinand Heinrich Friedrich , Landgrave of Hessen-Homburg († 1866 )
- May 4 : Joseph Wanton Morrison , British general († 1826 )
- May 12 : Caspar von Geismar , German General Adjutant, saved the city of Weimar from destruction and looting († 1848 )
- May 12 : Perry Smith , American politician († 1852 )
- May 18 : Jabbo Oltmanns , German astronomer and professor of applied mathematics († 1833 )
- May 22 : William Sturgeon , English physicist and inventor († 1850 )
- May 28 : Rosa Maria Antonetta Paulina Assing , German poet, narrator, translator, silhouette artist and educator († 1840 )
- May 25 : Philip Pendleton Barbour , American politician († 1841 )
- May 29 : Benedetto Pistrucci , Italian engraver († 1855 )
- May 30 : Eugen von Maucler , German politician († 1859 )
- June 1 : Emil Ernst Gottfried von Herder , Bavarian Fort and Government Councilor († 1855 )
- June 2 : Reuel Williams , American politician († 1862 )
- June 11 : Ryūtei Tanehiko , Japanese writer († 1842 )
- June 13 : Virgil Fleischmann , Austrian Catholic clergyman, church musician and composer († 1863 )
- June 14 : Josef Liebermann , early German industrialist († 1860 )
- June 19 : Friedrich Sertürner , German pharmacist and discoverer of morphine († 1841 )
- June 24th : Johann Heinrich von Thünen , German agricultural and economist († 1850 )
- July 3 : Wilhelm von Prussia , Prussian general and governor general of the Rhine provinces († 1851 )
- July 13 : Friedrich August von Oldenburg , Oldenburg Grand Duke († 1853 )
- July 13 : James Tannock , Scottish portrait painter († 1863 )
- July 20 : Job von Witzleben , Prussian Lieutenant General and Minister of War († 1837 )
- July 23 : Karl Chotek von Chotkow , Czech nobleman, administrator and politician († 1868 )
- July 24 : Simón Bolívar , Venezuelan leader of the Latin American independence movement († 1830 )
- July 25 : Caesar Max Heigel , German actor and writer († after 1847)
- July 28 : Friedrich Wilhelm von Bismarck , German lieutenant general and military writer († 1860 )
- July 31 : John Wales , American politician († 1863 )
- August 1 : Wilhelm Malte I , German prince and important client on Rügen († 1854 )
- August 2 : Sulpiz Boisserée , German architect († 1854 )
- August 2 : Sylvester Churchill , American journalist and general († 1862 )
- August 5 : Karl Gottlob Boguslav von Zychlinsky , Prussian landowner and politician († 1857 )
- August 7th : Amalia Sophia Eleanor , member of the British Royal Family († 1810 )
- August 7 : Georg Friedrich Falcke , German lawyer († 1850 )
- August 10 : Johann Christian Hundeshagen , German forestry practitioner, forest scientist († 1834 )
- September 6 : Armand Beauvais , American politician († 1843 )
- September 8 : Nikolai Frederik Severin Grundtvig , Danish philologist, theologian and patriot († 1872 )
- September 14 : Siegmund Anczyc , Polish theater actor and director († 1855 )
- September 14 : Henry Johnson , American politician († 1864 )
- September 19 : Johann Gustav Gottlieb Büsching , German archaeologist, Germanist and folklorist († 1829 )
- September 23 : Peter von Cornelius , German painter († 1867 )
- September 27 : Agustín de Iturbide , Mexican Emperor († 1824 )
- October 3 : Nikolaus Heinrich Julius , German doctor, reformer and writer († 1862 )
- October 4 : Bernardus Franciscus Suerman , Dutch medic († 1862 )
- October 6 : François Magendie , French physiologist († 1855 )
- October 7th : Pierre Louis Louvel , French assassin of Charles-Ferdinand, duc de Berry († 1820 )
- October 23 : George Watterston , American librarian († 1854 )
- November 1 : Johann Christoph Hilf , German musician († 1885 )
- November 5 : Caroline Tischbein , German draftsman († 1843 )
- November 17 : Anton Günther , Austrian philosopher and theologian († 1863 )
- November 24 : Allen Trimble , American politician († 1870 )
- November 25 : Claude Louis Mathieu , French mathematician and astronomer († 1875 )
- November 29 : Tomás Manuel de Anchorena , Argentine lawyer and statesman († 1847 )
- December 11th : Max von Schenkendorf , German writer († 1817 )
- December 14 : David Barton , American politician († 1837 )
- December 15 : Charles Nicolas Fabvier , French general († 1855 )
- December 16 : Mordecai Bartley , American politician († 1870 )
- December 16 : Georg Karl Wisner von Morgenstern , Croatian composer, conductor and music teacher († 1855 )
- December 21 : Charles Murray Cathcart , British general († 1859 )
- December 24th : Luigi Catenazzi , Swiss educator and politician († 1858 )
First half of the year
- February 9 : Heinrich Joseph Johann Prince of Auersperg , Prince of Auersperg and Duke of Münsterberg (* 1697 )
- February 10 : James Nares , English composer and organist (* 1715 )
- February 11th : Johann Andreas Silbermann , Alsatian organ builder (* 1712 )
- February 19 : Johann Ludwig Seekatz , German painter (* 1711 )
- March 13 : Leopold Ernst von Firmian , German Bishop of Passau and Cardinal (* 1708 )
- March 22nd : Franz Leopold von Nádasdy , Austrian general (* 1708 )
- March 26 : Anna Rosina de Gasc , German portrait painter (* 1713 )
- April 7th : Ignaz Holzbauer , Austrian composer (* 1711 )
- April 8 : Karoline Luise , Hessian princess (* 1723 )
- April 11 : Nikita Ivanovich Panin , Russian Foreign Minister (* 1718 )
- April 16 : Christian Mayer , Bohemian experimental physicist, astronomer, geodesist and Jesuit (* 1719 )
- April 24th : Grigory Grigoryevich Orlov , Russian officer and lover of Catherine II (* 1734 )
- May 4th : Franz Andreas Holly , Bohemian composer (* 1747 )
- May 15 : Joseph Fratrel , French painter, etcher and engraver (* 1727 )
- May 18 : Lucrezia Agujari , Italian opera singer (* 1743 )
- May 21 : Claude d'Apchon , French bishop (* 1721 )
- May 23 : James Otis , American lawyer (* 1725 )
- June 6 : Franz Seraph von Kohlbrenner , German publicist (* 1728 )
- June 8 : Niklaus von Wattenwyl , Swiss banker and Pietist (* 1695 )
Second half of the year
- July 8 : Johann Jakob Zeiller , Austrian painter (* 1708 )
- July 19 : Johann Jakob Bodmer , Swiss author (* 1698 )
- July 21 : Giovanni Battista Rezzonico , Italian, Catholic cardinal (* 1740 )
- July 27 : Johann Philipp Kirnberger , German music theorist and composer (* 1721 )
- July 28 : Martín de Mayorga , Spanish officer, colonial administrator and viceroy of New Spain (* 1721 )
- July 29 : Johann Friedrich Hirt , German Protestant theologian and orientalist (* 1719 )
- August 16 : Ephraim Schröger , German architect (* 1727 )
- August 19 : Franz Xaver Messerschmidt , German sculptor (* 1736 )
- Ahmed İbrahim Resmî , Ottoman chronicler and high state official (* 1694/1695) August:
- September 1 : Heinrich Schlumpf , Swiss Mayor and Envoy to the Diet (* 1702 )
- September 18 : Leonhard Euler , Swiss mathematician (* 1707 )
- September 24 : Mathäus Funk , Swiss cabinet maker (baptized 1697)
- October 6 : Caspar Wolf , Swiss painter (* 1735 )
- October 22 : Gerhard Friedrich Müller , German historian and Siberia researcher (* 1705 )
- October 29 : Jean Baptiste le Rond d'Alembert , French mathematician, physicist and philosopher (* 1717 )
- October 29th : Johann Ludwig Ferdinand Arnoldi , German educator and Protestant theologian (* 1737 )
- November 11th : Bartholomäus Altomonte , Italian painter (* 1694 )
- November 16 : Johann Joseph Antonius Eleazar Kittel , Bohemian doctor (* 1704 )
- November 20 : Karl Friedrich Abt , German director (* 1743 )
- December 15 : Ahmad ibn Said , Imam Oman and founder of the Said dynasty (* 1693 )
- December 16 : Johann Adolph Hasse , German composer (* 1699 )
- December 27 : Karl Friedrich Paelike , German lawyer and university professor (* 1736 )
- December 31 : Gualtherus van Doeveren , Dutch medic (* 1730 )