Calendar overview 1715
Louis XV. becomes King of France after the death of
his great-grandfather Louis XIV .
of Hessen-Kassel marries
the Swedish princess
Ulrika Eleonore .
|Jacobite Rebellion takes place in Scotland under James Francis Edward Stuart .|
|1715 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1163/64 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1707/08 (New Year 11/12 September)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1120/21 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2258/59 (southern Buddhism); 2257/58 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||73rd (74th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1077/78 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4048/49 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||1126/ 1127 /28 (Year 6/7 January. // 26/27. December)|
|Jewish calendar||5475/76 (September 27-28)|
|Coptic calendar||1431/32 (September 11-12)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2025/26 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2026/27 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1771/72 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
Great Northern War
- January: King Charles XII. During the Great Northern War of Sweden occupied the south and east coast of Rügen to secure the Stralsund fortress .
- February 23 : Charles XII. takes Wolgast , which is occupied by a twenty-man Prussian post.
- March 24th : The widowed General Friedrich von Hessen-Kassel marries the Swedish princess Ulrika Eleonore , the sister of King Karl XII , in Stockholm . Five years later, the couple are the Swedish royal couple.
- April 9 : A Russian naval command under Captain Peder Bredal sails with three frigates and a brig from Reval against Swedish privateers, three of which he captured.
- April 22nd : Swedish troops land on the island of Usedom and take the small Prussian detachment stationed there by surprise. Thereupon Friedrich Wilhelm I had the Swedish envoy expelled and gave instructions for the start of the planned campaign.
- April 24 : In the sea battle near Fehmarn , a Danish squadron under the command of Captain Peter Tordenskjold defeats a Swedish squadron under Karl Hans Wachtmeister . Due to unfavorable winds, the Swedish fleet can only flee west into the Bay of Kiel . So that it does not fall into Danish hands, the Swedes sink their flagship, the Prinsessan Hedvig Sophia , which was shot in a way that was impossible to maneuver . The Danes violently prevent the sinking of further ships.
- May 1st : Allied units from Prussia , Denmark and Saxony begin the Pomeranian campaign to Swedish Pomerania with the aim of conquering Rügen , Stralsund and Western Pomerania .
- May 29th : A Swedish squadron of 12 ships shelled Reval Fortress and Russian ships in the port. The counterfire of the Russian ships and the coastal artillery forces the Swedes to retreat.
- June 16 : A Danish-Prussian-Hanoverian army division under the command of Franz Joachim von Dewitz begins the siege of Wismar during the Pomeranian campaign . The siege of the city of Wismar, held by Swedish units, lasted until April 1716.
- June 19 : A united Anglo-Dutch fleet under the command of the English Admiral John Norris with 100 ships of the merchant navy, reinforced by the navy against the Swedish privateers, arrives unharmed in Reval. Tsar Peter I receives Admiral Norris and offers him command of the Russian Navy. John Norris returns to England in October.
- July 12th : Units of the Pomeranian campaign under Leopold I of Anhalt-Dessau begin the siege of Stralsund . The Stralsund city fortifications count at that time the largest fortress and fortifications in Northern Europe.
- August 3 : A squadron of the Russian fleet under Captain Peder Bredal lands on Gotland Island . After the destruction of many settlements on the island, the squadron returns to Reval.
- August 8 : The naval battle at Jasmund between the Danish fleet under the command of Admiral Peter Raben and the Swedish fleet under Admiral Claes Sparre ends with a strategic victory for the Danes, who then begin preparations for the invasion of Rügen .
- August 22nd : Prussian-Saxon troops succeed in conquering the Peenemünder Schanze in Peenemünde on Usedom .
- October 30 : Prussia and Russia sign a new alliance agreement .
- November 15 : In the Battle of Stresow , the Allies achieve a victory and a decisive weakening of the Swedish units under Charles XII. on Rügen . The last remaining units of the Swedes on the island surrender on November 17th .
- December 23 : Shortly before the imminent major attack on Stralsund , the Swedish King Karl XII flees . with three companions from the besieged fortress to avoid capture.
- December 24th : The siege of Stralsund ends with the Prussian recapture of the city from the Swedes.
- November 26th : Under the leadership of Stanisław Ledóchowski , the General Confederation is founded in Tarnogród by Polish nobles . For financial reasons she turns against King August II and his reforms as well as the stationing of Saxon troops in the country. The aim is to restore the golden freedom of the Rzeczpospolita . The nobility and a large part of the Polish-Lithuanian army join the confederation.
- December: August's Saxon field marshal Jacob Heinrich von Flemming leads an offensive against the confederation, without major fighting.
Venetian-Austrian Turkish War
- June 27 : In the war with Venice, around 40,000 soldiers of the Ottoman Empire land in the Peloponnese , another fleet of 80 ships lands on the island of Cerigo . The Venetians , who only have around 10,000 men and 19 ships to muster, are essentially only defending their permanent positions on the peninsula , so that the Ottomans can take the entire Peloponnese by December.
- August 14 : About 700 Croatians successfully hold the city of Sinj against 6,000 Ottoman soldiers. Sinjska alka is created in memory of this .
- September 1 : With the death of the French King Louis XIV , the longest reign of a European monarch comes to an end. He was in power for 72 years. His five-year-old great-grandson Louis XV. becomes King of France under the reign of his great-uncle and guardian Philippe II. de Bourbon, duc d'Orléans . In comparison to his uncle, Philip of Orléans maintains a more open, but also weaker style of government: he promotes the parliaments , is against censorship and orders the new editions of books that were banned under his uncle's rule. He also promotes the visual arts. Since Philip did not move the center of his life from the Parisian Palais Royal to the Palace of Versailles , the aristocratic families who were close to Louis XIV but did not want to go to the court of Philip of Orleans, many of them retired to their country residences.
- September 2nd : Philippe II. De Bourbon, duc d'Orléans , has the will of the late King Louis XIV annulled by the Paris Parliament . This has curtailed its powers by setting up a Regency Council. In return, Philippe lifts the restrictions on Parliament's right of remonstration .
- December: Philip of Orléans replaces ministers and state secretaries with council bodies made up of several people. In contrast to the rule of Louis XIV, court and high nobility and members of the clergy are again appointed to higher government positions. Cardinal Guillaume Dubois becomes State Councilor. Louis XV moves to Paris in the Palais des Tuileries .
Jacobite uprising in Scotland and England
- January 22nd to March 9th : In the elections to the British Parliament, the Jacobite-sympathetic Tories suffer a crushing defeat. The Whigs , favored by King George I, entered parliament with an overwhelming majority. Speaker of the House of Commons will be Spencer Compton .
- September 6th : John Erskine, 23rd Earl of Mar , proclaims James Francis Edward Stuart as James VIII as King of Scotland in Braemar . The first Jacobite uprising takes place . The rebels quickly succeed in bringing the Scottish north under their control and they conquer Inverness , Aberdeen and Dundee , among others . On the way south, however, John Erskine hesitates and fails to take the initiative.
- When he after his appointment as commander in chief on October 22 finally on the way to Stirling Castle opens, it comes on November 13 near the battle of Sheriffmuir , which is a draw. This dampens the enthusiasm of the highlanders for a long time, as they called up about twice the number of fighters in the battle. On the same day, Inverness surrenders to Hanoverian troops.
- There was also an uprising in England, but it was put down on November 14 at the Battle of Preston .
- December 22nd : James Francis Edward Stuart, the Old Pretender , lands at Peterhead in Scotland. At this point, however, the Jacobite army had already melted to a total of 5,000 men. The hoped-for support from France is also missing.
Holy Roman Empire
- May 18 : The Wildbad Treaty between Duke Leopold Eberhard von Württemberg-Mömpelgard and Duke Ludwig Eberhard von Württemberg-Stuttgart regulates the succession in Mömpelgard after the death of Leopold Eberhard.
- June 17 : Margrave Karl Wilhelm von Baden-Durlach founds the city of Karlsruhe as a planned city with the laying of the foundation stone for Karlsruhe Palace . On September 24th, he issues a letter of privilege for those who settle in the city .
- November 15 : Austria and the Republic of the Seven United Provinces conclude the third barrier treaty in Antwerp on occupation rights of the Dutch in the Austrian Netherlands .
- December: A poison attack is carried out on Yostos , the negus of Ethiopia . He then remains paralyzed.
- France conquers the island of Mauritius from the pirates who have settled there since the Dutch withdrew in 1710 , and renames the island the Ile de France .
- February 11 : The Tuscarora War , which has been going on since 1711, ends.
- February 21 : Benedict Calvert, 4th Baron Baltimore , inherits his late father Charles Calvert, 3rd Baron Baltimore , as Lord Proprietor of the Colony of Maryland . However, he only survived his father for barely two months. On April 16, he was succeeded by his son Charles Calvert, 5th Baron Baltimore , in office.
- The Yamasee War begins. Various Native American tribes including the Yamasee , Creek , Cherokee , Chickasaw , Catawba , Apalachee , Apalachicola , Yuchi , Savannah River Shawnee , Congaree , Waxhaw , Pee Dee , Cape Fear Indians , Cheraw and many others undertake numerous raids on European settlements the Province of Carolina , which bring the colony on the edge of their existence.
- Mir Wais Hotak , founder of the Hotaki dynasty of the Pashtun Ghilzai tribe , dies. He is succeeded by his brother Abdul Aziz Hotak .
science and technology
- May 3rd : A total solar eclipse is observed in England and Northern Europe, precisely predicted by Edmund Halley and therefore known as Halley's eclipse .
- Autumn: The Naval Academy is founded in St. Petersburg.
- In the Danish administered part of Western Pomerania a land survey, the Danish Lustration, begins .
- Treasure of Velp
- Hofbaumeister Joseph Effner starts building the Fürstenried Palace in the deer hunting park south of Munich on behalf of the Bavarian Elector Max Emanuel .
Music and theater
- February 16 : World premiere of the opera Il Tigrane ossia L'egual impegno d'amore e di fede by Alessandro Scarlatti at the Teatro San Bartolomeo in Naples
- May 25th : Georg Friedrich Handel's opera Amadigi di Gaula is premiered at the King's Theater on Haymarket in London . The author of the libretto cannot be verified, but it is assumed that it is a work by Giacomo Rossi , but possibly also by Nicola Francesco Haym . The material is based on the knightly legend by Amadis de Gaula , which in turn belongs to the Arthurian legends . Handel wrote the title role for the castrato Nicolo Grimaldi , who is now performing in London for the first time in three years.
- August 21 : The foundation stone for the Poppelsdorf Palace is laid in Bonn - Poppelsdorf . The baroque building was commissioned by the Archbishop of Cologne and Elector Joseph Clemens of Bavaria .
- October 1st : The world premiere of the opera Orfeo ed Euridice by Johann Joseph Fux takes place in Vienna.
- December 3 : With the arrest of two young beggars, the first of the child witch trials begins in Freising , which will last until 1717.
- December 24th : In the Jena Christmas night tragedy , four people die as a result of smoke inhalation after a failed necromancy.
- April 12 : In Malschwitz near Bautzen, a fire destroys the church and school, the manor and 14 farms.
- July 31 : A Spanish silver fleet consisting of twelve ships is driven by a hurricane on the east coast of Florida on its way from Havana to Spain ; With the exception of one ship , the entire fleet with enormous values on board is lost , and well over 1,000 people die. About 1500 survivors were able to escape to the coast, which is covered by swamps and jungle, where they are far from the nearest European settlement, so that many still die of injuries, exhaustion, hunger and thirst.
First half of the year
- January 5 : Abraham Kaau-Boerhaave , Dutch physician († 1758 )
- January 17 : Benjamin Wilhelm Daniel Schulze , German educator and philologist († 1790 )
- January 25 : Reinhard Christoph Ungewitter , German Reformed theologian († 1784 )
- January 29 : Georg Christoph Wagenseil , Austrian composer († 1777 )
- February 7th : Johann Anwander , German Rococo painter and fresco artist († 1770 )
- February 8 : Pasquale Cafaro , Italian composer († 1787 )
- February 11 : Margaret Cavendish Bentinck , British botanist († 1785 )
- February 15 : Johann Gottlieb Frenzel , German lawyer, historian and philosopher († 1780 )
- February 22nd : Charles-Nicolas Cochin the Younger , French engraver and etcher († 1790 )
- February 26 : Claude Adrien Helvétius , French philosopher († 1771 )
- March 7th : Ewald Christian von Kleist , Prussian poet and officer († 1759 )
- March 21 : Jakob Samuel Beck , German painter († 1778 )
- April 11 : Jacob Rodrigues Pereira , Portuguese-Jewish educator, teacher of the deaf, first teacher of deaf students in France († 1780 )
- April 19 : James Nares , English composer and organist († 1783 )
- April 23 : Johann Friedrich Doles , German composer and Thomaskantor († 1797 )
- May 2 : Philipp Jacob Borel , German physician and university professor († 1760 )
- May 11 : Johann Gottfried Bernhard Bach , German organist († 1739 )
- May 20 : Franz Huberti , German clergyman, educator and astronomer († 1789 )
- May 25 : Antonio Casali , Cardinal of the Catholic Church († 1787 )
- June 13 : Anna Wilhelmine , Princess of Anhalt-Dessau († 1780 )
- June 15 : Ignaz Parhamer , Austrian educator and Jesuit († 1786 )
- June 20 : Frederik Bernard Albinus , Dutch medic († 1778 )
- June 29th : Pedro de Cevallos , Spanish politician, military and first viceroy of the Río de la Plata († 1778 )
Second half of the year
- July 4th : Christian Fürchtegott Gellert , German writer († 1769 )
- July 16 : Charles de Rohan, Prince de Soubise , French general and statesman, peer and marshal of France († 1787 )
- July 25 : Jakob Immanuel Pyra , German poet († 1744 )
- August 5 : Charlotte Sophie Bentinck , German nobleman († 1800 )
- August 6 : Ernst Martin Chladni , German lawyer († 1782 )
- August 6 : Luc de Clapiers, Marquis de Vauvenargues , French philosopher, moralist and writer († 1747 )
- September 15 : Jean-Baptiste Vaquette, vicomte de Gribeauval , French engineer and artillery general († 1789 )
- September 26 : Niccolò Oddi , papal legate and metropolitan of the Archdiocese of Ravenna († 1767 )
- October 10 : August Wilhelm , Duke of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel-Bevern and Prussian infantry general († 1781 )
- November 5 : Johann Georg Wille , German engraver in France († 1808 )
- November 8th : Elisabeth Christine von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel-Bevern , Queen of Prussia († 1797 )
- 9 / 10 November : Johann August Landvoigt , German jurist and flutist († 1766 )
- November 13 : Dorothea Christiane Erxleben , first German doctor with a doctorate († 1762 )
- November 13 : Isidorus Keppler , German Roman Catholic theology professor († 1792 )
- November 16 : Girolamo Abos , Maltese composer († 1760 )
- November 17 : Oswald von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen , Canon in Cologne († 1765 )
- November 21 : Christian Gottlob Frege , German banker and merchant († 1781 )
- November 27th : Johann Gottlob Leidenfrost , German medic and theologian († 1794 )
- November 30th : Johann Philipp Bethmann , German businessman and banker († 1793 )
- December 6th : Johann Friedrich Frisch , German Protestant theologian († 1778 )
- December 9 : Johann Casimir von Isenburg-Birstein , German Army Commander († 1759 )
- December 11 : Johann Valentin Tischbein , painter in Laubach, Maastricht, The Hague, Hildburghausen († 1768 )
- December 12 : Gennaro Manna , Italian composer of the Neapolitan School († 1779 )
- December 21 : Gottlob Curt Heinrich von Tottleben , Saxon adventurer and Russian general († 1773 )
- December 27 : Philippe de Noailles, duc de Mouchy , Marshal of France († 1794 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- William Johnson, 1st Baronet , Irish-British politician and general in the North American colonies († 1774 )
- Wilhelm Ernst von Buddenbrock , Prussian major and commander of the 1st Standing Grenadier Battalion († 1760 )
- György Maróthi , Hungarian musicologist, music teacher and composer († around 1744)
- Tokugawa Munetake , Japanese samurai and waka poet († 1771 )
First half of the year
- January 7th : François de Salignac de La Mothe-Fénelon , French clergyman and writer (* 1651 )
- January 7th : Mary Somerset , English nobleman and botanist (* 1630 )
- January 22nd : Marc'Antonio Ziani , Venetian-Austrian singer, composer and court conductor (* 1653 )
- January 26th : Veit Hans Schnorr von Carolsfeld , hammer and blue color lord in Saxony, founder of Carlsfeld in the Ore Mountains (* 1644 )
- February 19 : Domenico Egidio Rossi , Italian architect and builder (* 1659 )
- February 21 : Charles Calvert, 3rd Baron Baltimore , Lord Proprietor of the Province of Maryland (* 1637 )
- February 25 : Pu Songling , Chinese poet of Mongolian descent (* 1640 )
- March 8th : Lips Tullian , leader of the Black Guard , a band of robbers in Saxony
- March 11th : Jan Erasmus Quellinus , Flemish sculptor (* 1634 )
- March 21 : Johann Baptist von Arco , German nobleman, diplomat and field marshal (* around 1650 )
- March 22nd : Raymundus Regondi , abbot of Altenburg Abbey (* 1652 )
- March 27 : August , Duke of Saxony-Merseburg-Zörbig (* 1655 )
- April 1st : Ondraszek , "Robin Hood" of the Moravian-Silesian Beskids, robber and folk hero (* 1680 )
- April 16 : Benedict Calvert, 4th Baron Baltimore , Lord Proprietor of the Province of Maryland (* 1679 )
- April 27 : Valerian Brenner , master builder of the Vorarlberg Baroque (* 1652 )
- May 11th : Maria Mancini , French noblewoman, Mazarinette and mistress of Louis XIV (* 1639 )
- May 12 : Johann Christian Adami the Elder , German theologian and hymn poet (* 1662 )
- June 11 : Johann Samuel Stryk , German legal scholar (* 1668 )
- June 15 : Euphrosyne Auen , German poet (* 1677 )
Second half of the year
- July 2 : Hortensia Gugelberg von Moos , Graubünden doctor, publicist, researcher and writer (* 1659 )
- July 5 : Charles Ancillon , Franco-German lawyer and diplomat (* 1659 )
- July 15 : Maria Clara von Berg-s'Heerenberg , Dutch heiress and princess and regent of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (* 1635 )
- July 25th : Franz II. Joseph of Lorraine , prince abbot of the monasteries of Stablo and Malmedy (* 1689 )
- August 1st : Johann Ernst IV. , Duke of Saxe-Weimar and composer (* 1696 )
- August 3 : Conrad von Rosen , Livonian general, Marshal of France and Ireland (* 1628 )
- August 16 : Johann Gregor Fuchs , Saxon architect and builder (* 1650 )
- August 16 : Marie Elisabeth of Hessen-Darmstadt , Duchess of Saxony-Römhild (* 1656 )
- August 21 : Johanna Magdalena von Hanau , Countess of Leiningen-Dagsburg (* 1660 )
- September 1 : Louis XIV , King of France (* 1638 )
- September 1 : François Girardon , French sculptor (* 1628 )
- September 6 : Basilius Petritz , Kreuzkantor in Dresden (* 1647 )
- September 14 : Dom Pérignon , French monk and cellar (* 1638 )
- September 27th : Thomas Burnet , English theologian (* around 1635 )
- October 8 : Moyse Garrigue the Elder , jeweler and parish council of the French Reformed Church in Magdeburg (* 1663 )
- October 13 : Nicolas Malebranche , French philosopher and monk without religious vows (* 1638 )
- October 17 : Ernst , Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, and first Duke and founder of the Saxe-Hildburghausen line (* 1655 )
- October 20 : Meinrad II , Prince of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (* 1673 )
- October 30 : Juliane Louise , Princess of East Friesland (* 1657 )
- November 2 : Charlotte Christine von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel , Tsarevna of Russia (* 1694 )
- November 6th : Emetullah , Ottoman princess and favorite consort of Mehmed IV (* 1642 or 1647 )
- November 11th : Thomas Lennard, 1st Earl of Sussex , English nobleman and politician (* 1654 )
- November 24th : Hedwig Eleonora of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorf , Queen of Sweden (* 1636 )
- December 4th : Charles III. Joseph von Lothringen , Bishop of Olmütz and Osnabrück, Archbishop and Elector of Trier (* 1680 )
- December 7th : Dorothea Katharina von Pfalz-Birkenfeld-Bischweiler , Countess of Nassau-Ottweiler (* 1634 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Filippo Abbiati , Italian painter (* 1640 )
- Mir Wais Hotak , Pashtun tribal leader of the Ghilzai from Kandahar, founder of the Hotaki dynasty (* 1673 )
- Ragnheiður Jónsdóttir , Icelandic designer of embroidery motifs (* 1646 )
- Jan Erasmus Quellinus , Flemish painter (* 1634 )
- Joseph Raphson , English mathematician (* 1648 )
- Michael Ludwig Anton Rohrer , Bohemian fountain master and builder (* around 1650 )
- Jakob Schöpf , German cabinet maker and sculptor (* 1665 )
- Antonio Sebastian de Toledo , Spanish officer and colonial administrator, Viceroy of New Spain (* 1625 / 1620 / 1608 )
- Richard Waller , English naturalist, translator and illustrator (* around 1650 )
- Wang Yuanqi , Chinese painter (* 1642 )