Calendar overview 1642
|Abel Tasman is the first European to reach New Zealand .||Blaise Pascal designs a calculating machine , the Pascaline .|
Battle of Edgehill , the first battle of
the English Civil War , ends without a decision.
|1642 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1090/91 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1634/35 (turn of the year 10/11 September)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1047/48 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2185/86 (southern Buddhism); 2184/85 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||72nd (73rd) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1004/05 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3975/76 (October 2/3)|
|Iranian calendar||1020/21 (around March 21)|
|Islamic calendar||1051/52 (March 31 / April 1)|
|Jewish calendar||5402/03 (September 24/25)|
|Coptic calendar||1358/59 (September 10-11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1952/53 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1953/54 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1698/99 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
English Civil War
- January 4th : King Charles I of England enters the House of Commons with 400 armed men to arrest the Members of Parliament responsible for the Great Remonstrance . The attempted coup failed because John Pym , John Hampden and Oliver Cromwell had already fled, but it sparked the English civil war .
- August 22nd : After the attempted arrest of five members of the English parliament , ordered by King Charles I , the English civil war breaks out between the Crown and Parliament.
- October 11 : The siege of Kingston upon Hull by royalist troops under the leadership of William Cavendish, Earl of Newcastle , has to be abandoned without result. The siege began after Governor Hulls openly sided with the parliamentary side and denied King Charles I access to the city and the militarily important arsenal.
- October 23 : The Battle of Edgehill , the first field battle of the English Civil War, ends in a draw, but takes away the opportunity for the royalists to march on London and thereby achieve a quick victory over the parliamentarians.
Irish Confederate Wars
- The Irish Confederate Wars, sometimes referred to as the Eleven Years War, broke out after the upper class and clergy formed the Confederation of Ireland , a de facto government of Ireland , in the summer of 1642 .
- The Siege of Limerick is the first siege of the city in the 17th century and takes place during the Irish Confederation Wars. After four weeks, marked by hunger and disease, the English Protestants surrender - 400 survive and are evacuated to Dublin .
- April 15 : The Battle of Kilrush between an English army under James Butler and a troop of ill-equipped and untrained Irish rebels under Richard Butler ends with a victory for the English.
- July: At the Battle of Liscarroll , an Irish Confederate army under Garret Barry meets an English army of soldiers and Protestant settlers under Murrough O'Brien . Barry at this point besieged Liscarroll Castle on Munster Blackwater to isolate the English siege of Cork . But O'Brien comes to the rescue with his nearby troops, so that it finally comes to the battle, which the English decide for themselves.
Thirty Years' War
- January 17th : Battle of the Kempen Heide ( Tönisvorst between Krefeld and Kempen ). The French and Hesse defeat an imperial army under Count Lamboy .
- May 12th to June 17th : Unsuccessful siege of Lleida ( Catalonia ) with Spanish occupation by the French under Louis II. De Condé .
- May 26th : The Battle of Honnecourt brings Spain to victory over France. It takes place at Honnecourt-sur-Escaut near Cambrai .
- August: The Frankfurt Deputation Day , a Reich deputation is held by Emperor Ferdinand III. convened for August 1642. It begins late in January 1643.
- October 7th : Battle of Lleida . The Spaniards under Diego Filipe de Guzmán, marqués de Leganés defeat the French under Lamothe-Houdancourt .
- November 2 : Thirty Years' War : The Swedes under Lennart Torstensson defeat the imperial troops in the second battle near Breitenfeld .
- December 4th : After the death of Cardinal Armand-Jean du Plessis, duc de Richelieu , Cardinal Jules Mazarin takes over his office as First Minister of France .
Further events in the empire
- May 17 : A group of settlers led by Paul Chomedey de Maisonneuve and Jeanne Mance found a Christian settlement project on the Île de Montréal in the Saint Lawrence River. The emerging community of Ville-Marie forms the cornerstone of today's metropolis of Montreal .
- February 17th : The Treaty of Axim is concluded between the Netherlands and the "chiefs" of the town of Axim in the southwest of present-day Ghana . The contract, which was concluded after the Dutch West India Company had expelled the Portuguese , who previously owned Fort São António, one of their oldest bases on the Gold Coast , regulates the sovereignty of the Netherlands and the company over the city and its territory .
- The Portuguese conquer Wehale , the cultural and religious center of Timor . They now have control of most of the island . The Portuguese started a large-scale military operation under Fernandes to extend their control to the interior of the island. This procedure was justified with the protection of the Christianized rulers of the coastal region. The previous Christianization supports the Portuguese in their quick and brutal victory, as their influence on the Timorese has already weakened the resistance.
Australia / Oceania
- November 24th : The Dutch East India Company decides to explore Australia with a planned expedition. On this expedition, Abel Tasman was the first European to discover Van Diemen's Land (which was later renamed Tasmania ).
- December 13th - In search of the Great South Continent , Abel Tasman discovers the South Island of New Zealand as the first European .
science and technology
- In Turku as part of the created University founded the first printing house in Finland.
- The scraping technique , a gravure printing process , was developed in Holland by the German Ludwig von Siegen .
- The French mathematician and physicist Blaise Pascal starts building a calculating machine , the Pascaline .
- Guillaume de Baillou first used the terms rheumatism and rheumatism in his work Liber de Rheumatismo et Pleuritide dorsali . According to the theory of humors at the time ( humoral pathology ), he believes that cold phlegm flows from the brain down to the extremities and causes the corresponding complaints.
- Johann Georg Wirsung discovered the duct of the pancreas named after him in humans (Wirsung duct, Ductus pancreaticus Wirsungi ), which he mistook for a lymphatic vessel of the intestine.
- The engraver and publisher Matthäus Merian publishes the first volume of his Topographia Germaniae , the Topographia Helvetiae , together with Martin Zeiller . By 1654 it became 16 volumes, which in the following years saw several editions.
- The actress Madeleine Béjart meets the lawyer and theater fanatic Jean-Baptiste Poquelin and encourages him in his passion for the theater. A few years later he celebrated success as a dramatist under the name Molière .
- Rembrandt van Rijn paints the painting The Company of Frans Banning Cocq , better known as The Night Watch .
- The Elizabethan theater in England ( William Shakespeare ) is prohibited.
- Start of construction on Ulriksdal Castle for the Swedish Reich Marshal Jakob De la Gardie
- Christoph Bach became a council musician in Erfurt until 1652 .
- March 6th : With the bull In eminenti , Pope Urban VIII turns against the spread of Jansenism and censors the work Augustine by the Dutch theologian Cornelius Jansen , published in 1640 . He accuses the followers of the doctrine of heresy .
- July 29th : The church convention was founded in the Thirty Years War by decree of Duke Eberhard III in the official cities of the Duchy of Württemberg, introduced in 1644 also in the other communities. The initiative came from Johann Valentin Andreae from which the idea of his stay in the Calvinist influenced Geneva had brought in 1610th His aim was to improve the morals that had decayed during the Thirty Years War.
- Floods in China cost around 300,000 lives.
Historical maps and views
First half of the year
- January 2 : Mehmed IV , Sultan of the Ottoman Empire († 1693 )
- January 3 : Diego Morcillo Rubio de Auñón , Spanish cleric, Archbishop of Lima and Viceroy of Peru († 1730 )
- January 5 : Philipp Jeningen , Jesuit , people's missionary, mystic († 1704 )
- January 11 : Johann Friedrich Alberti , German organist and composer († 1710 )
- April 3 : Johann Balthasar Burckhardt , Mayor of Basel († 1722 )
- April 15 : Suleyman II , Sultan of the Ottoman Empire († 1691 )
- April 30 : Christian Weise , German writer, playwright and educator († 1708 )
Second half of the year
- July 21 : Justus Philipp Meyenberg , German Protestant theologian († 1709 )
- July 25 : Louis I , Prince of Monaco († 1701 )
- September 5 : Marie von Oranien-Nassau , Countess Palatine von Simmern († 1688 )
- September 23 : Giovanni Maria Bononcini , Italian violinist and composer († 1678 )
- November 24th : Anne Hilarion de Costentin de Tourville , French admiral and naval hero, Marshal of France († 1701 )
- November 30th : Andrea Pozzo , Italian painter, best known for his dome frescoes († 1709 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Armande Béjart , French actress and wife of the playwright Molière († 1700 )
- Johann Peter von Burmann , auxiliary bishop in Cologne († 1696 )
- Marie-Anne de La Trémoille , almighty first chambermaid of the Spanish Queen Maria Luisa Gabriella of Savoy († 1722)
Born around 1642
First half of the year
- January 8 : Galileo Galilei , Italian philosopher, mathematician, physicist and astronomer (* 1564 )
- January 10 : Heinrich Höpfner , German Evangelical Lutheran theologian and university professor (* 1582 )
- January 12th : Johann Ernst von Hanau-Münzenberg-Schwarzenfels , Count of Hanau-Münzenberg (* 1613 )
- January 13 : Jean Louis de Nogaret de La Valette , Duke of Épernon, French general (* 1554 )
- January 29 : Bartholomäus Anhorn , Swiss pastor and historian (* 1566 )
- February 6 : Veit Holzlechner , Seidensticker and Mayor of Wittenberg (* 1574 )
- February 10 : Juan Carlos Amat , Spanish doctor and musician (* 1572 )
- April 19 : Johannes Assuerus Ampzing , Dutch medic (* 1558 )
- April 29th : Aegidius Hunnius the Younger , German Lutheran theologian (* 1594 )
- April 30 : Dmitri Michailowitsch Poscharski , Russian prince, leader of an uprising against the Polish-Lithuanian occupation during the time of turmoil (* 1578 )
- June 10 : Franz Albert von Sachsen-Lauenburg , important general in the Thirty Years War (* 1598 )
- June 14 : Saskia van Uylenburgh , wife of Rembrandt van Rijn (* 1612 )
Second half of the year
- July 3 : Maria de Medici , wife of the French King Henry IV (* 1575 )
- July 18 : Wilhelm von Nassau-Siegen , Count of Nassau in Hilchenbach, Dutch general (* 1592 )
- August 18 : Guido Reni , Italian painter and etcher (* 1575 )
- August 29 : Georg Huber , Mayor of St. Gallen (* 1557 )
- September 3 : Elisabeth of Orange-Nassau , Duchess of Bouillon and regent of the independent principality of Sedan (* 1577 )
- September 12 : Henri Coiffier de Ruzé , Marquis de Cinq-Mars, French courtier (* 1620 )
- September 29th : William Stanley, 6th Earl of Derby , English nobleman (* 1561 )
- October 9 : Benjamin de Rohan , general of the Huguenots (* 1583 )
- October 27 : Jean Nicolet , French explorer (* around 1598 )
- November 25th : Christian Günther I. , Count of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen (* 1578 )
- November 28 : Simon de la Vallée , French-Swedish architect (* around 1600 )
- December 4th : Armand-Jean du Plessis, duc de Richelieu , French aristocrat and cardinal, First Minister of France and key adviser to the French King Louis XIII. (* 1585 )
- December 20 : Christian Carpzov , German lawyer and legal scholar (* 1605 )
Exact date of death unknown
- before April 7th: Valentin Preuenhueber , Austrian historian