Calendar overview 1561
Maria Stuart returns to Scotland back
to after 13 years of
residence in France
to take over the throne.
|St. Basil's Cathedral in Moscow is completed.|
|Madrid becomes the capital of Spain .|
|1561 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1009/10 (turn of the year July)|
|Buddhist calendar||2104/05 (southern Buddhism); 2103/04 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||70th (71st) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||923/924 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3894/95 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||968/969 (turn of the year 10/11 September)|
|Jewish calendar||5321/22 (September 10-11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1871/72 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1872/73 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1617/18 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
- August 19 : The 18-year-old widow Maria Stuart returns to Scotland to take the throne after 13 years in France.
Holy Roman Empire
- Emperor Ferdinand I presented the treatise to the Upper Lusatian estates . It regulates the relationship between the imperial sovereign and his officials and the politically justified classes of the country.
Eastern and Northern Europe
- Early June: The Danish King Frederick II loses Estonia , which is under the protection of the Crown of Sweden .
- November 28 : As part of the Union of Vilnius , the Polish King and Lithuanian Grand Duke Sigismund II August and the last landmaster of the Livonian mastership , Gotthard Kettler , conclude the privilege Sigismundi Augusti , a contractually negotiated and granted prerogative that governs the relationship between the Livonian estates to the Polish crown and sealed the end of the Teutonic Order and the Livonian Confederation . The duchies of Livonia and Courland come under the protection of the Crown of Poland . For the Duchy of Courland and Zemgale , the Pacta Subiectionis are also signed, which, in addition to the privileges, regulates the relationship of the nobility to the duke, the Polish king and the Reichstag.
Spain and its colonies
- February 12 : King Philip II of Spain moves the royal court from Valladolid to Madrid .
- July 20 : The insurgent conquistador Lope de Aguirre erected on the front of Venezuela situated Isla Margarita , a forty-day reign of terror, besieged Valencia and then moves on towards Peru .
- October 27 : The Lope de Aguirre uprising is finally put down.
- September: The Battle of Hachimanbara , the most important of the five battles between Takeda Shingen and Uesugi Kenshin, ends with a victory for the former, which due to its own high losses cannot pursue the fleeing defeats. Shortly before the end of the battle, Shingen's General Yamamoto Kansuke commits Seppuku under the false belief that his strategy has failed.
science and technology
- The Archbishop of Gran, Miklós Oláh , founds the Budapest University Library .
- The Tianyige Library in Ningbo is built.
Religion and culture
- June 7th : The organ of the Hofkirche Innsbruck , built by Jörg Ebert over eight years, is successfully approved.
- The Greek Orthodox Church of San Giorgio dei Greci in Venice is inaugurated with the Pope's permission.
- The construction of St. Basil's Cathedral in Moscow is completed.
- Guido von Bray wrote the Dutch Creed , also known as the Confessio Belgica . Together with the Heidelberg catechism and the doctrinal rules of Dordrecht, it forms the three formulas of the unity of the Reformed churches .
- Sacrament stamps for church discipline are introduced in numerous French Reformed congregations in Geneva and southern France .
- The Otterberg Abbey and Eußerthal Monastery are dissolved in the course of the Reformation.
- The Spanish chess master Ruy López de Segura publishes a chess book.
nature and environment
- April 14th : Citizens of Nuremberg see a sky phenomenon that appears like an aerial warfare between large tripartite and cylindrical objects and ends with a big bang of smoke. A leaflet by Hans Glaser describes the event five years later, which is presumably a halo .
Historical maps and views
January to July
- January 22nd : Francis Bacon , English politician, writer, scientist and philosopher († 1626 )
- February 13 : Basilius Besler , German doctor, botanist and publisher († 1629 )
- March 3 : Camillo Procaccini , Italian painter († 1629 )
- May 26 : Wolf Jacob Stromer , City Council Builder of Nuremberg († 1614 )
- June 7th : Johann VII. , Count of Nassau-Siegen († 1623 )
- June 12 : Anna von Württemberg , Duchess of Liegnitz, Wohlau and Ohlau († 1616 )
- June 13 : Anna Maria von Anhalt , Duchess of Brieg, Liegnitz, Wohlau and Ohlau († 1605 )
- June 16 : Oswald III. von dem Bergh , officer in the general state and Spanish service during the Eighty Years War († 1586 )
- June 24 : Rombout Hogerbeets , Dutch statesman († 1625 )
- June 26 : Erdmuthe von Brandenburg , Duchess of Pomerania († 1623 )
- baptized July 20 : William Stanley, 6th Earl of Derby , English nobleman and candidate for the identity of Shakespeare († 1642 )
- July 24th : Anna Maria von der Pfalz , Swedish Crown Princess († 1589 )
August to December
- August 15 : Sebastián Aguilera de Heredia , Spanish organist and composer († 1627 )
- August 20 : Jacopo Peri , Italian composer († 1633 )
- August 24 : Bartholomäus Pitiscus , Silesian mathematician and theologian († 1613 )
- August 24th : Thomas Howard, 1st Earl of Suffolk , English politician († 1626 )
- September 10 : Hernando Arias de Saavedra , Spanish politician and officer († 1634 )
- October 23 : Johann Konrad von Gemmingen , Prince-Bishop of Eichstätt († 1612 )
- October 24 : Anthony Babington , main suspect of the Babington conspiracy († 1586 )
- October 27 : Mary Sidney Herbert, Countess of Pembroke , English writer († 1621 )
- December 1 : Sophie Hedwig von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel , Duchess of Pommern-Wolgast († 1631 )
- December 9 : Edwin Sandys , English politician († 1629 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Johann Theodor de Bry , Frankfurt draftsman and publisher († 1623 )
- Fujiwara Seika , Japanese philosopher and early exponent of Japanese Neo-Confucianism († 1619 )
Born around 1561
- Henry Briggs , English mathematician († 1630 )
- Henneke von Essen , Westphalian civil servant, mayor in Arnsberg and victim of the Inquisition († 1631 )
Date of death secured
- January 31 : Menno Simons , Dutch theologian; Founder of the Mennonites (* 1496 )
- February 26 : Jorge de Montemayor , Portuguese singer, translator and poet (* around 1520 )
- March 22nd : Georg IV. Fuchs von Rügheim , Prince-Bishop of Bamberg (* 1519 )
- March 28 : Bartholomäus V. Welser , Augsburg patrician and merchant (* 1484 )
- April 29 : Barbara von Wertheim , Countess von Wertheim (* 1500 )
- May 16 : Jan Amor Tarnowski , Grand Hetman of the Polish Crown and Count of the Holy Roman Empire (* 1488 )
- June 6th : Katharina von Mecklenburg , Duchess of Saxony (* 1487 )
- June 6 : Ridolfo Ghirlandaio , Italian painter (* 1483 )
- July 9 : Sebald Heyden , German cantor, headmaster and spiritual poet (* 1499 )
- July 10th : Rüstem Pascha , Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire (* around 1500 )
- August 28 : Jacqueline de Longwy , Countess of Montpensier (* before 1520)
- September 8 : Claude Baduel , Swiss Protestant clergyman and university professor (* 1491 )
- September 10 : Takeda Nobushige , Japanese general (* 1525 )
- October 18 : Jacob Beurlin , German Protestant theologian and reformer
- October 27th : Lope de Aguirre , Spanish conquistador
- November 14th : Philip III. von Hanau-Münzenberg , Count of Hanau-Münzenberg (* 1526 )
- December 10 : Kaspar von Schwenkfeld , Silesian reformer and religious writer (* 1490 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Barthélémy Aneau , French writer and humanist (* 1510 )
- Matteo Bandello , Italian poet (* approx. 1485 )
- Hans Bocksberger the Elder , Salzburg painter of the High Renaissance period (* around 1510 )
- Claude Garamond , French type founder, typographer and publisher (* 1499 )
- Luis de Milán , Spanish composer (* around 1510 )
- Bernhard von Prittwitz , Polish district administrator and general from Silesia (* around 1500 )
- Caspar Vopelius , German mathematician, astronomer and cartographer (* 1511 )