|Charles V , Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, resigns from all offices.||
Georgius Agricola's main work
De re metallica libri XII on the chemistry of metals appears.
|Thomas Cranmer is burned for heresy.|
|1556 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1004/05 (turn of the year July)|
|Buddhist calendar||2099/2100 (southern Buddhism); 2098/99 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||70th (71st) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||918/919 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3889/90 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||963/964 (turn of the year 3rd / 4th November)|
|Jewish calendar||5316/17 (September 4th / 5th)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1866/67 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1867/68 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1612/13 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
- January 26th : With the death of his father Humayun , Akbar becomes ruler of the Mughal Empire in northern India . Whose general Bairam Khan is the only 13-year-old by the side as regent in office, which he takes up on February 14th . At that time, the rule of the Mughal Empire was limited to Kabul , Kandahar and parts of Delhi and Punjab . Akbar then undertook a large number of smaller campaigns of conquest with his guardian and general Bairam Khan. The main target is the Pashtun clan of the Surids under Adil Shah Suri , who have ruled northern India since 1540 .
- October 7th : Samrat Hem Chandra, called Hemu , general of the Surids, defeats Akbar's troops near Tughlaqabad and moves into Delhi the next day , where he takes the ruler's name Vikramaditya .
- November 5 : Mughal Mughal Akbar and his guardian Bairam Khan win the Second Battle of Panipat against Hemu, who is wounded in the battle and then beheaded by Bairam Khan.
Other events in Asia
- March 21 : The Anglican Archbishop of Canterbury , Thomas Cranmer , is removed from office during the recatholicization of England under Queen Mary I and burned at the stake for heresy . Years earlier, the clergyman opposed the papal will and declared the marriage of King Henry VIII to Catherine of Aragon as divorced and accepted his marriage to Anna Boleyn . One day after Cranmer's execution, Reginald Pole , who was only ordained a priest on March 20, is named as his successor.
- June 14th : Twelve days after the death of his predecessor Francesco Venier , Lorenzo Priuli is elected Doge of Venice , although he does not enjoy greater sympathy among old or new families or the Venetian people.
- September 12 : Charles V resigns from all his offices and hands over the Habsburg inheritance to his son Philip II and the Holy Roman Empire to his younger brother Ferdinand I while he retires to the monastery of Yuste in Extremadura , Spain .
- Ivan the Terrible besieges Astrakhan and completely burns the city down. The Astrakhan Khanate is annexed by Tsarist Russia .
- The Dresden mint established by Elector August becomes the only mint in the Electorate of Saxony after all of the state mints have been confiscated . Among other things, the Freiberg mint has to cease operations.
science and technology
- A year after his death, Georgius Agricola's main work De re metallica libri XII on the chemistry of metals appears in Latin in Basel . Through numerous trips in the mining area of the Saxon and Bohemian Ore Mountains, Agricola gained an overview of the entire technology of mining and metallurgy in his time.
- Elector August I founds the Saxon court library, which continues to exist in today's SLUB Dresden .
- The building of the Café Zum Arabischen Coffe Baum is mentioned for the first time in the Leipzig council books.
- Pieter Bruegel the Elder produced the drawing The big fish eat the small ones for the Dutch publisher Hieronymus Cock .
- The Venetian architect Andrea Palladio starts building the Villa Badoer in Rovigo on behalf of Francesco Badoer .
- When Philip II took office in Spain, the Siglo de Oro began in literary history .
- October 26th : Anton von Schaumburg succeeds his brother Adolf III , who died on September 20th . von Schaumburg elected Archbishop of Cologne .
A massive earthquake destroyed on 23 January , large parts of the province of Shaanxi in the Ming Dynasty ruled Imperial China . The epicenter of the quake is in Hua County, not far from Hua Shan . Around 830,000 people are killed, in some districts over 60% of the population dies because their artificial caves called Yaodong collapse during the quake.
Current estimates based on geological studies assume an earthquake strength of a good 8¼ on the moment magnitude scale . The earthquake is the most momentous earthquake in the history of China , if not the most momentous natural disaster . For the next six months, three to five stronger aftershocks occur every month . Only five years later did the aftershocks completely subside.
Historical maps and views
Date of birth saved
- February 7th : Maria von Oranien-Nassau , Dutch noblewoman, Countess von Hohenlohe-Neuenstein († 1616 )
- February 21 : Sethus Calvisius , German composer, music theorist and cantor as well as astronomer and mathematician († 1615 )
- April 8 : David Höschel , German humanist († 1617 )
- April 9 : Andreas von Auersperg , Austrian-Slovenian military leader († 1593)
- May 16 : Matthäus Enzlin , German lawyer († 1613 )
- July 22nd : Otto Heinrich , Count Palatine and Duke of Palatinate-Sulzbach († 1604 )
- July: Al-Burini , Ottoman scholar and chronicler († 1615 )
- August 10 : Philipp Nicolai , Lutheran court preacher and pastor in Alt Wildungen, Unna, Hamburg, Herdecke and song writer († 1608 )
- October 9 : Kunigunde Jakobäa von der Pfalz , Countess of Nassau-Dillenburg († 1586 )
- October 26 : Ahmad Bābā , Islamic legal scholar († 1627 )
- November 28 : Francesco Contarini , 95th Doge of Venice († 1624 )
- December 27 : Johanna von Lestonnac , founder of the French order († 1640 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Petrus Calaminus , German Protestant theologian († 1598 )
- Na Dae-yong , Korean officer and ship designer († 1612 )
- Anne Hathaway , wife of William Shakespeare († 1623 )
- Jacob Paix , German organist, organ builder, conductor, composer and publisher († approx. 1623 )
- Felipa de Souza , victim of the Inquisition in Brazil convicted of "sodomy" († around 1600 )
First half of the year
- January 26th : Humayun , Mughal Mughal of India (* 1508 )
- February 26th : Friedrich II. , Count Palatine and Elector Palatinate (* 1482 )
- March 17 : Richard Morison , English humanist scholar and diplomat (* around 1513 )
- March 21 : Thomas Cranmer , English reformer and first Anglican Archbishop of Canterbury (* 1489 )
- April 7th : Jerónimo de Alderete , Spanish conquistador (* 1519 )
- April 18 : Luigi Alamanni , Italian poet and humanist (* 1495 )
- May 4th : Luca Ghini , Italian doctor and botanist (* 1490 )
- June 2 : Francesco Venier , 81st Doge of Venice (* 1489 )
- June 10 : Martin Agricola , German music theorist, music educator and composer of the Renaissance (* 1486 )
Second half of the year
- July 31 : Ignatius von Loyola , Basque-Spanish nobleman and clergyman, co-founder and designer of the "Society of Jesus", later also known as the Jesuit order (* 1491 )
- September 20 : Adolf III. von Schaumburg , Elector and Archbishop of Cologne, Count of Holstein-Pinneberg and the Stammgrafschaft Schaumburg (* 1511 )
- October 3 : Bernhard von Hagen , priest and vicar general in Cologne
- October 4 : Johannes Knipstro , German Lutheran theologian and reformer (* 1497 )
- October 21 : Pietro Aretino , Italian writer (* 1492 )
- October 27 : Frederick of Denmark , Bishop of Hildesheim and Schleswig (* 1532 )
- November 10th : Richard Chancellor , English navigator
- November 11 : Francesco Alunno , Italian calligrapher, lexicographer and grammarian (* 1484 ?)
- December 8 : Johann Forster , German Lutheran theologian (* 1496 )
- December 23 : Nicholas Udall , English playwright, educator and canon in Windsor (* 1505 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Tullia d'Aragona , Italian courtesan, poet and philosopher (* 1510 )
- Fuzūlī , Turkmen poet of classical Azerbaijani-Turkish literature in Iraq (* approx. 1495 )
- Domingo Martínez de Irala , Spanish officer and conquistador (* 1509 )
- Nicholas Shaxton , English theologian and Bishop of Salisbury (* around 1485 )
- Burkard Waldis , German writer (* around 1490 )